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HibgaUng Losscs Tom L=d Subsidence Tic ^#cd S1~1cs Panel on Land Subsidence Commlucc on Ground farm Hazards ~lUgadon kcsca~h Dlvlslon of Neat Hazard ~lllgadon Commlsslon on [ngluccd~ Id filch Synods Nado~ Rcsca~ Council N~N^L ACADEMY MESS Elton, DUCT lull

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other Can the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a pnv ate, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dis- tinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineenng was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parapet organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences He responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineenng also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes Be superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineenng. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of He public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of He Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology win He Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal govemment. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice- chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Limited number of copies available without charge from: Committee on Ground Failure Hazards Mitigation Research Division of Natural Hazard Mitigation, HA 286 National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON GROUND FAILURE HAZARDS MITIGATION RESEARCH DAVID B. PRIOR (Chairman), Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge GENEVIEVE ATWOOD, Atwood & Mabey Incorporated, Salt Lake City, Utah DAVID S. BROOKSHIRE, University of Wyoming, Laramie RHEA L. GRAHAM, Consultant, Placitas, New Mexico A. G. KEENE, Department of Public Works, Los Angeles, California F. BEACH LEIGHTON, Leighton & Associates, Inc., Irvine, CaTiforni GEORGE G. MADER, William Spangle & Associates, Portola Valley, California H. CRANE MILLER, Attorney, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM I. PETAK, University of Southern California, Los Angeles DWIGHT A. SANGREY, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton ROBERT L. SCHUSTER, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado JAMES E. SLOSSON, Slosson & Associates, Van Nuys, California DONALD R. SNETHEN, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater DOUGLAS N. SWANSTON, Forest Service, U.S. Deparunent of Agriculture, Juneau, Alaska BARRY VOIGHT, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Liaison Representatives N. B. BENNETT III, Division of Geology, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado LEON L. BERATAN (retired), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. C. Y. CHEN, (formerly) Office of Surface Mining, Washington, D.C. ROBERT A. CUMMINGS, Society of Mining Engineers, Engineers Intemational, Inc., Tucson, Arizona DONALD G. FOHS, Construction Maintenance and Environmental Design Division, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia ROBERT P. HARTLEY, Solid and Hazardous Waste Research Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio DARRELL G. HERD, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia THOMAS L. HOLZER, Geological Society of America, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California BENJAMIN I. KELLY, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. LOUIS KIRKALDIE, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. PAUL KRUMPE, Office of Foreign Disaster Assi.~tance A~enov for Intematinna1 Development, Washington, D.C. O ., ADRIAN PELZNER, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. J. E. SABADELL, Division of Biological and Critical Systems, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. CHI-SHING WANG, Division of Health and Safety Technology, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C. DAVIS E. WHITE, Manufactured Housing and Construction Standards Division, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL YACHNIS (retired), Facilities Engineering Command, U.S. Department of the Navy, Alexandria, Virginia ARTHUR I. ZEIZEL, Office of Natural and Technological Hazards, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. ., . l l

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Stem RILEY M. CHUNG, Director ABE BERNSTEIN, former Senior Staff Officer PATRICIA T. GREEN, Research Aide EDWARD LIPP, Editor SUSAN R. McCUTCHEN, Administrative Assistant SHIRLEY I. WHITLEY, Project Assistant . 1V

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PANEL ON LAND SUBSIDENCE THOMAS L. HOLZER (Chairman), U.S. Geological Survey, MenIo Park, California CHRISTOPHER B. AMANDES, Hanson and Elkins, Houston, Texas DAVID S. BROOKSHIRE, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque BARBARA I. EVANS, Transcontinental Gas and Pipeline, Houston, Texas ARTHUR H. FAWCE11, Consultant in Urban and Regional Planning, Washington, D.C. RICHARD E. GRAY, GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, Pennsylvania PHILIP E. LaMOREAUX, P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, Alabama DAVID MANEVAL, University of Alaska, Fairbanks H. CRANE MILLER, Attomey, Washington, D.C. THOMAS F. MOSLOW, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada JOHN C. STEPHENS, Consultant in Organic Soils, Fort Lauderdale, Florida v

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE SUBSIDENCE PROBLEM Introduction, 3 Causes and Effects, 5 Economic and Legal Aspects, 17 2 A SURVEY OF CURRENT MITIGATION MEASURES Introduction, 24 Public Information Programs, 24 Mapping Programs, 27 Regulation of Resource DevelopmentPrevention and Control, 31 Land-Use Management anti Building Co(les, 34 Market-Based Methods, 41 Insurance, 43 3 FINDINGS Introduction, 45 Data Base, 45 Technical Research Needs, 46 Mitigation Measures Research and Implementation Needs, 48 APPENDIX REFERENCES . . V11 3 24 45 53 55

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