5—
Rivers and Streams

Human activity has profoundly affected rivers and streams in all parts of the world, to such an extent that it is now extremely difficult to find any stream which has not been in some way altered, and probably quite impossible to find any such river. The effects range from pollution to changes in the pattern of flow, and they have become increasingly marked during the past two or three centuries.

H. B. N. Hynes, 1970

There is a phenomenal resiliency in the mechanisms of the earth. A river or lake is almost never dead. If you give it the slightest chance by stopping pollutants from going into it, then nature usually comes back.

Rene Dubos, 1981

OVERVIEW

Rivers and streams have many of the same economic, recreational, and environmental values and uses as lakes. However, the stresses associated with human use may have begun earlier on rivers because of their importance as transportation routes when roads were few and as sources of power when the Industrial Revolution was in its infancy in the United States. Unfortunately, rivers also served as convenient and inexpensive means of waste disposal because the flow



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy 5— Rivers and Streams Human activity has profoundly affected rivers and streams in all parts of the world, to such an extent that it is now extremely difficult to find any stream which has not been in some way altered, and probably quite impossible to find any such river. The effects range from pollution to changes in the pattern of flow, and they have become increasingly marked during the past two or three centuries. H. B. N. Hynes, 1970 There is a phenomenal resiliency in the mechanisms of the earth. A river or lake is almost never dead. If you give it the slightest chance by stopping pollutants from going into it, then nature usually comes back. Rene Dubos, 1981 OVERVIEW Rivers and streams have many of the same economic, recreational, and environmental values and uses as lakes. However, the stresses associated with human use may have begun earlier on rivers because of their importance as transportation routes when roads were few and as sources of power when the Industrial Revolution was in its infancy in the United States. Unfortunately, rivers also served as convenient and inexpensive means of waste disposal because the flow

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy carried away industrial and human waste. During early settlement days in the United States, human communities and factories were widely spaced, and waste discharges relatively minor and nonpersistent, especially when compared to those of today's industrial society. As a consequence of the spacing, volume, and degradability of early wastes, rivers were able to cleanse themselves through natural processes before the water reached the next downstream user. As settlements expanded in size and became more closely spaced, the wastes began to contain a larger percentage of persistent toxicants, the ecological damage became more severe, and the possibility of self-cleansing was more limited. At the same time, agricultural, mining, and timber harvesting activities accelerated, resulting in widespread alteration of watersheds, floodplains, and riparian zones that in turn altered water and sediment regimes in rivers and streams, adversely affecting plant and animal communities. Flow regimes and dilution capacity were reduced or altered by dams, irrigation, and interbasin transfer of water. The cumulative impact of all these changes was frequently missed because of the incremental nature of the changes. Even when their effects became impossible to ignore, the automobile made it easier for a more mobile population to escape to pristine aquatic sites with aesthetic and recreational appeal than to set about repairing those sites damaged by anthropogenic activities. The changes that have stressed flowing water systems have impaired their value for both human use and environmental services. Stresses arise from (1) water quantity or flow mistiming, (2) morphological modifications of the channel and riparian zone, (3) excessive erosion and sedimentation, (4) deterioration of substrate quality, (5) deterioration of water quality, (6) decline of native species, and (7) introduction of alien species. The locus of the problem can be in the watershed, along the riparian or floodplain zone, or in the channels and pools. The most extreme form of stress, common in the arid West, is the complete appropriation of water flowing on the surface, either by direct withdrawal or by pumping from the riparian zone (see Box 5.1). Only slightly less extreme is the conversion of reaches of free-flowing rivers to a series of lakelike impoundments (e.g., the Willamette River; see Box 5.2 and Appendix A). In these cases, the free-flowing river no longer exists, and restoration of some semblance of the natural system would require drastic measures such as reduction of water withdrawals or removal of dams. In some cases (the Willamette and Columbia rivers), a few species of migratory sport fish (salmon) are maintained on dammed rivers by using hatcheries and fish ladders, but this is aquaculture, not restoration.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Box 5.1 The Santa Cruz River, Southern Arizona The Santa Cruz River is a typical example of many rivers and streams in the valleys of the western United States that have experienced pronounced ecological changes during the past century. It is not an example of a restoration activity, but rather an illustration of how human activities and rapid urbanization of the floodplain can bring about irreversible changes to a stream system. The Santa Cruz River is a dry, and usually insignificant, stream throughout most of its length. It rises in oak woodlands and grasslands southeast of Tucson. The headwaters of the Santa Cruz are gathered into a shallow, perennial channel that courses southward into Mexico and briefly follows a 56-km westerly course before reentering the United States some 10 km east of the border town of Nogales, Arizona. In Sonora, Mexico, the river's perennial flow is captured by wells and infiltration galleries for agricultural and municipal consumption. Since the late 1960s, effuent discharges from the Nogales wastewater treatment plant have accounted for the permanence of flow for several kilometers north of the border, where all of it infiltrates into the sandy streambed, resulting in a normally dry stream further north. The river is entrenched most dramatically within the San Xavier Indian Reservation, with vertical banks up to 10 m high and 100 m apart, where the river meanders around the base of Martinez Hill. To the north of Martinez Hill, sections of the riverbanks have been soil cemented as a precaution against flood damage in the heavily urbanized floodplain. Annual flow along the river is extremely variable. During the 68-year period of available records at the Congress Street gauging station, 72 percent of all annual flood peaks occured during the months of July and August, 19 percent during September and October, and 9 percent November through February. No annual peak flows have been recorded during the months of March, April, May, or June (Betancourt and Turner, 1988). In this century, the greatest geomorphological changes in the Santa Cruz River were caused by floods occurring in 1905, 1915, 1977, and 1983 (the greatest recorded event, which had a peak discharge of approximately 1,500 m(3)/s at the Congress Street gauge), and all are associated with El Nio conditions (warmer than average episodes in the tropical Pacific). Prior to extensive pumpage for agriculture and consumptive use in the Tucson Basin, the amount of water leaving the basin (i.e., stream flow, evaporation, and transpiration) equaled the amount entering, and ground water storage was nearly constant (Betancourt and Turner, 1988).

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy According to Betancourt and Turner (1991), the radical lowering of the ground water table and channel entrenchment after 1940 helped eliminate native phreatophytes to the advantage of salt cedars (salt cedars commonly survive in habitats where ground water is unavailable). The cottonwood and mesquite bosques south of Martinez Hill, a popular picnic spot for Tucsonans in the 1930s and 1940s, vanished, leaving the floodplain treeless. Ground water pumpage also eliminated the influence of a near-surface water table by partially controlling downcutting. As a result, channel degradation propagated upstream for kilometers. Downstream of Martinez Hill and within the limits of the city of Tucson, the rate of downcutting is most likely influenced by urbanization of the floodplain. Channel bed degradation has been monitored at the site of a bridge (Aldridge and Eychaner, 1984). The elevation of zero flow at this site (Congress Street) dropped 3 to 4.5 m between 1946 and 1980. Improvement of the Santa Cruz drainage through the city has encouraged urbanization of the floodplain. The proximity of the Santa Cruz River to the inner city has increased the value of the real estate for urban development. Much of this development, however, has occurred piecemeal. Planning seems to have occurred during low-flow years and before local authorities could have responded to federal legislation concerning floodplain hazards. This problem is not specific to the Santa Cruz floodplain, but to many other communities in the arid and semiarid Southwest as well. Prior to the beginning of the twentieth century, the 80-km reach of the Santa Cruz River throughout the Tucson Basin was characterized by lengthy segments of unincised alluvium interrupted by short and discontinuous gullies. Marshes and wet meadows are reported to have occupied these short reaches of perennial flow. A near-surface water table prevented longitudinal expansion and coalescence of arroyos. Today, a continuous channel defines the river's course through the Tucson Basin, and the water table is more than 100 m below the land surface. The disappearance of marshes and wet meadows is the ecological consequence of the lower water table. Sloped soil-cemented banks of the Santa Cruz designed to improve flow conveyance through the Tucson Basin will likely result in greater stream power in the downstream reaches and may also result in migration of the headcut in the upstream reaches. The rate at which this occurs will depend on the frequency and intensity of flood-producing storms in the coming years. Migration of the headcut upstream will increase the amount of sediment transport further downstream.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Another way in which the character of rivers is drastically altered is by cutting off interactions with the riparian zone and floodplains. This may be done directly, by channelization and leveeing (Kissimmee, Illinois, and Mississippi rivers), and indirectly, by regulating the flood regime (navigation dams on the Mississippi). According to the American Rivers Conservation Council (Echeverria et al., 1989), of approximately 3.2 million miles of rivers in the United States, 2.9 million miles remain undammed, while 600,000 miles of river are dammed. The committee could not find a recent national assessment of the number of stream and river miles affected by channelization or leveeing, but the total is probably much greater than the number of miles of river dammed. In the Illinois River, for example, half the floodplain has been leveed (Bellrose et al., 1983), and most of the Lower Mississippi River is leveed (Fremling et al., 1989). Although water resource agencies track their own development projects, the only nationwide inventory of rivers and streams was conducted in the 1970s (U.S. DOI, 1982) in response to passage of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-542). The purpose of the inventory was to identify those rivers worthy of the designation wild and scenic, and so narrow were the criteria that less than 2 percent of total river mileage qualified for inclusion on the list. Therefore, there remains a need for a comprehensive up-to-date nationwide assessment of rivers, comparable to the National Wetland Inventory (Tiner, 1984). It would be useful to know how many miles of free-flowing, unchannelized rivers remain in the United States, where these reaches are located, and what the current trends (net gains or losses) are. Progress has been made in controlling conventional pollution (sewage and other organic wastes) from point sources. In many parts of the United States, water quality has been maintained or restored since the institution of the clean water acts, starting around 1965, although problems remain in some reaches (CEQ, 1989; ORSANCO, 1990). In some cases (e.g., the Willamette and Illinois rivers), water quality in certain critical reaches is maintained only by dilution, and fish and other aquatic organisms are affected by a legacy of toxic substances in sediment deposits. Also, national water quality assessments are based on lake or channel sampling that does not include floodplain pools and backwaters; so the status of these important nursery areas for fish and wildlife is poorly documented. Since the passage of the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), mining companies have been required to restore both land and water affected by mining and acid mine drainage, in most cases to their premining uses. A federal tax on coal provides funds to restore lands abandoned before the act

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Box 5.2 The Willamette River The term river restoration is often misunderstood and misapplied. For example, the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon is a badly perturbed ecosystem—one greatly altered from its original ecological condition—yet it has been described by some as a river restoration success story. The Willamette River restoration has been directed primarily toward water quality restoration, protection of beneficial uses of the river water, and management of certain species of game fish. The restoration also includes reservoir management and research intended to reduce ecological disturbances in the river occasioned by changes in water temperature caused by the release of water from reservoirs. Although attention has been given to land use planning in the basin and, in some cases, to stream-bank reclamation, the Willamette River today is in an unnatural condition that requires constant management, and no holistic effort has been made to recreate the river's natural antecedent biological or ecological conditions. Dams on the Willamette and its tributaries have altered the normal temperature and flow regimes of the Willamette and its tributaries, and have led to damaged native wild salmonid populations. Dams serve not only as barriers to migration of organisms within the river, but also as sediment barriers and as obstructions to the flooding of riparian areas and thus to the return of nutrients and sediment to the land. Much of the Willamette's water quality improvement has been accomplished by augmenting summer water flows with impounded water to dilute pollutants. Point source industrial discharges are also regulated in amount and concentration through a discharge permit system. As water treatment standards become more rigorous in the future to compensate for increased human population in the Willamette River basin, more treatment of wastewater may be employed, further reducing flow in certain Willamette tributaries. This may tend to lower water quality. Little effort appears to have been made to restore native aquatic life other than anadromous game fish species, and much of the anadromous fish restoration has involved replacement of wild fish by hatchery stock. The river restoration effort has not yet been successful in maintaining natural fish migration routes or in recreating the predisturbance native fish community

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy structure, species by species, to its previous percentage composition. Without augmentation of river flow when necessary, water quality would be unacceptable. Without hatchery production and release of salmonids, the sport fishery would be severely limited, and without regulation of municipal and industrial waste discharges, the water's high quality could not be guaranteed. The 13 dams on the river, the past riprapping and channelization, and the dredging (in the lower river) are all indications of the inescapable major impacts that human activities have had on the river. Thus the Willamette River restoration effort does not meet the criteria for restoration used in this report. Rather it is an example of river reclamation in which a severely polluted river was cleaned up so that its beneficial uses could again be enjoyed by the public. Just as clear-cutting a diverse, complex forest ecosystem and replacing it with a stand of Douglas fir produces a tree farm rather than a restored forest, so, too, does taking a highly disrupted and polluted river system and merely abating the pollution fail to suffice to ''restore" the river. Water quality improvement alone, in the absence of a systematic attempt to recreate a fluvial system's diverse and abundant wildlife and plant communities, is not necessarily equivalent to, or sufficient for, restoration. went into effect and to identify and set aside lands unsuitable for mining in the future. The decision to forgo mining on certain lands will be based on its high value for other uses, including habitat for rare or endangered species. Although much remains to be done in restoring streams affected by mine drainage and point sources, a variety of federal, state, and local programs are in place to deal with these problems. There is no comparable nexus of programs to deal with restoration of streams, rivers, riparian zones, and floodplains affected by intensification of land use, yet agriculture and urban development are prominent factors in the deterioration of stream habitats, according to a national fisheries habitat survey conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Judy et al., 1984; Guldin, 1989). In 1985, agriculture was reported by states as the primary nonpoint source of pollution in 64 percent of affected river miles (CEQ, 1989). Existing soil conservation programs are designed to reduce soil erosion on cropland, but they

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy do not necessarily improve or even maintain water quality or habitat in adjacent streams. Greenways along waterways in cities usually serve as parks rather than as a means of restoring the natural functions of rivers, and most urban flood detention basins bear little resemblance in form or function to natural backwaters and floodplain pools. Increased sediment delivery resulting from deforestation has also increased sedimentation and turbidity in downstream channels, lakes, and reservoirs, with attendant loss of capacity for water storage and conveyance, recreational and aesthetic values, and quantity and quality of habitat for fish and wildlife. Successful restorations have occurred on smaller rivers and streams where headwaters are either already protected (by being in a national forest, for example) or the riparian zone can be restored so that upstream disturbances do not undo downstream recovery. In the Mattole River (see case study, Appendix A), many sites along the 62-mile length of the stream, from the headwaters to the mouth on the Pacific Ocean, have been the subject of well-focused restoration efforts. An umbrella organization (the Mattole Restoration Council, MRC) coordinates the largely volunteer efforts of 13 member organizations. The MRC has been successful in obtaining grants, expertise, and training for its volunteers, and in monitoring assistance from government agencies. Although the MRC has not delineated specific ecological criteria for success, it is clear that restoration of self-perpetuating native salmonid populations continues to be a major goal. As with most cases of restoration examined for this report, the Mattole story is not yet complete (see case study, Appendix A). Quantitative data are lacking on the extent of watershed and bank treatment and returns of native fish. Salmon must still be maintained by artificial propagation, and after a hopeful start, 5 years of drought brought a resumption of the downward trend in the river's king salmon population. There may have been many well-meaning but unsuccessful attempts to restore streams, but it is difficult to obtain quantitative data because individuals and agencies are understandably reluctant to publicize failures. In many cases, the original degradation of the stream and the failed restoration were both caused by inadequate analysis of the natural characteristics of the stream: the patterns of water and sediment transport that create and maintain the natural morphometry of the channel and its associated floodplain. Failures in a project reach can trigger degradation that progresses upstream or downstream. The principles and analytical tools of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology need to be applied to a much greater extent

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy than in the past to the planning and execution of projects. Two approaches (see techniques in "Fluvial Restoration," below)—David Rosgen's restoration of the Blanco River in Colorado (Appendix A), and George Palmiter's restoration of severalsmall rivers in Ohio (Box 5.3)—that do make use of these principles should receive wider application elsewhere and should be tested on larger systems. Restoration in larger river systems is more problematic because of the size and complexity of the systems and the problems. Degradation of a local reach may be caused by intensification of land use over the entire upstream drainage basin, and local citizens and agencies may feel they cannot do much to control problems that are so large scale. Interstate compacts (e.g., ORSANCO on the Ohio River; the joint efforts of Massachusetts and New Hampshire on the Merrimack River, see case study, Appendix A) have worked well in restoring water quality and, in some cases, fisheries. Despite the size of the Merrimack (134 miles of river draining 5,010 square miles), a small group of citizens formed the Merrimack River Watershed Council, which, like the Mattole River Council, mobilized public support and attracted attention and help from a variety of government agencies. Restoration of the Merrimack River has resulted in water quality improvement to the point that benthic organisms have recolonized formerly barren areas, natural resource agencies are working on the reestablishment of anadromous fish, and cities are using the river as a source of drinking water. These restoration projects (although having much success) are hampered by the lack of baseline and reference data. Baseline data should be collected on a system before restoration, for comparison with data collected during and after restoration. In the case of stream morphology and vegetation, the baseline condition can sometimes be reconstructed from old aerial photographs and maps, or from soil types, which reflect the presettlement vegetation. Reference data come from another reach of the same river or from a similar river. The reference reach may represent the desired goal, a relatively unimpaired, self-maintaining system, or it may represent the unrestored condition. In the first case, judgment of success or failure is based on how closely the restoration approximates the goal; in the second, on how far the system moves from the degraded condition. Thus, baseline data provide comparisons of the same site through time, whereas reference data provide comparisons among sites at the same time. The strongest documentation for success or failure would come from the use of both baseline and reference data in a well-designed, long-term monitoring program. Too often, funding is provided for the restoration, but not for preproject documentation and follow-up, so that the

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Box 5.3 The Palmiter Method George Palmiter, a railroad switchman and canoeist, devised ways of stabilizing the banks and unclogging the channels of debris-and silt-laden streams in northwestern Ohio (Herbkersman, 1984; Willeke and Baldwin, 1984). The Palmiter method has received nationwide publicity and has been applied to streams in North Carolina, Mississippi Michigan, and Illinois. Palmiter received the Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life in 1977 and a Rockefeller Public Service Award in 1979. Palmiter's method provides a way of restoring the hydraulic capacity of streams and reducing low-intensity flooding without resorting to channelization or removal of riparian vegetation. In fact, riparian trees are left in place or planted to shade the stream, to reduce the excessive growth of shrubs and aquatic plants that retard flow, and to increase the frequency of low floods. Shading has the further beneficial effect of lowering the summer water temperature, to the benefit of fish communities (Karr et al., 1986). The living trees anchor the banks and provide a source of food, in the form of leaf litter, for invertebrates and fish to feed on. Downed logs and root wads provide habitat structure for fish and solid substrate for the invertebrates. The Palmiter method has been applied primarily in low-gradient alluvial streams and small rivers where logjams cause sediment deposition and increased flooding upstream and bank erosion where the stream cuts a new channel around the jam. George Palmiter's guiding principle is "make the river do the work." He makes the midchannel bars upstream of the obstruction vulnerable to erosion by removing any protective layer of woody debris and vegetation, directing flow toward the bar, and creating "starter" channels to initiate scour. The centers of the logjams are cut into smaller pieces and allowed to float downstream, while the buried ends remain as flow deflectors to keep the main current directed away from the bank. These natural deflectors are sometimes supplemented with root wads or fallen trees that are cabled to the bank. degree of success or failure is poorly quantified, the exact causes of the eventual outcome are difficult to identify, and the science of restoration ecology is not advanced as quickly as it could be. The deficiencies in documentation are symptomatic of inherent

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy problems in river restoration. The water regime in rivers typically varies seasonally and annually, so that a longer time series of data is required to document pre-and postrestoration conditions in rivers than is required for standing waters. Without an adequate time series, the effects of restoration are confounded with the effects of fluctuations in the water regime. The restoration programs themselves must be adaptable and persistent, because high and low flows affect restorative efforts and are not completely predictable or controllable. Vegetative cover is vulnerable to flood scour until roots are well established, so bank restoration may have to be attempted more than once. However, restoration that uses the power of flood flows to reshape channels may not be affected during a drought period. River restoration and river monitoring must take the structural and functional organization of river systems into account. Rivers and their floodplains (or streams and their riparian zones) are so intimately linked that they should be understood, managed, and restored as integral parts of a single ecosystem. In addition to this lateral linkage, there is an upstream-downstream continuum from headwaters to the sea or basin sink. The entire river-riparian ecosystem is contained within a drainage basin, so restoration must have a watershed perspective. Changes in any segment are communicated dynamically throughout the system. Downstream restoration can be undone by changes in the watershed, riparian zones, or upstream reaches, and the causes of the failure will not be identified if these linkages are not identified and monitored. Restoration of rivers and streams would benefit from greater application of the principles, knowledge, and techniques of the disciplines that treat rivers as integrated systems: hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and systems ecology. There is a need for comprehensive, integrated programs that support stream and river restoration at all levels inherent in the drainage hierarchy, from local reaches and tributaries to interstate waterways. Immediate attention should be given to the remnants of large river-floodplain systems that still exist, because there are so few (e.g., there is only one twelfth-order river in the conterminous United States, the Mississippi River). The programs should be designed from a systems perspective, should include habitat restoration as well as water quality, and should focus on the relatively neglected linkage between land use and stream quality. It is especially important in the dynamic river environment that restoration programs be sustained and flexible, that monitoring begin well before restoration is initiated and continue long enough to separate the effects of restoration from the effects of environmental fluctuations, and that results be analyzed and synthesized for the improvement of restoration science.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Quality, Executive Office of the President, Washington, D.C., and Intragency Advisory Committee on Environmental Trends. 152 pp. Cowardin, L.M., Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 103 pp. Craig, N.J., R.E. Turner, and J. W. Day, Jr. 1980. Wetland losses and their consequences in coastal Louisiana. Z. Geomorph. N.F. Suppl. Bd. 34:225–241. Crandall, D. A., R. C. Mutz, and L. Lautrup. 1984. The Effects of Hydrologic Modifications on Aquatic Biota, Stream Hydrology and Water Quality: A Literature Review. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Division of Water Pollution Control, Springfield, Ill. Croome, R.L., P.A. Tyler, K.F. Walker, and W.D. Williams. 1976. A limnological survey of the River Murray in the Albury-Wodonga area. Search 7(1):14–17. Cummins, K. W. 1973. Trophic relations of aquatic insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 18:183–206. Demissie, M. 1989. Peoria Lake sedimentation and proposed artificial islands. Pp. 46–57 in Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held October 3–4. Peoria. Ill. 199 pp. Donels, B. 1989. Environmental management program proposals —-The Illinois basin. Pp. 77-80 in Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond . Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held October 3–4. Peoria, Ill. 199 pp. Donovan, W. J. 1983. The less traveled road: An overview of nonstructural measures in flood plain management planning. In Seminar Proceedings: Implementation of Nonstructural Measures. Policy Study 83-G520. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Institute for Water Resources. Duff, D. A., and N. Banks. 1988. Indexed Bibliography on Stream Habitat Improvement. USDA-Forest Service Intermountain Region, Wildlife Management Staff, Ogden, Utah. Echeverria, J. D., and J. Fosburgh. 1988. The American Rivers Outstanding Rivers List. American Rivers, Inc., Washington, D.C. Echeverria, J. D., P. Barrow, and R. Roos-Collins. 1989. Rivers at Risk. The Concerned Citizen's Guide to Hydropower. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 217 pp. Edwards, E. A., and K. A. Twomey. 1982. Habitat suitability index models: common carp. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/OBS-82/ 10.12. 27 pp. Edwards, E. A., G. Gebhart, and O.E. Maughn. 1983. Habitat suitability information: smallmouth bass. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/ OBS-82/10.36.47 pp. Egan, T. 1990. Dams may be razed so the salmon can pass. The New York Times, July 15. Pp. 1 and 14. Ellis, M. M. 1936. Erosion silt as a factor in aquatic environments. Ecology 17:29–42. Elwood, J. W., J. D. Newbold, R. V. O'Neill, and W. Van Winkle. 1983. Resource spiraling: An operational paradigm for analyzing lotic ecosystems. Pp. 3–27 in Thomas D. Fontaine III and Steven M. Bartell, eds., Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich. 494 pp. Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. P.L. 92-500. Flather, C.H., and T.W. Hoekstra. 1989. An analysis of the wildlife and fish situation in the United States: 1989–2040. General Technical Report RM-178. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colo. 147 pp.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Flick, W. A. n.d. A Stream Improvement Project, Stream Management of Salmonids. Trout Unlimited, Denver, Colo. Forbes, S. A. 1878. The food of Illinois fishes. Ill. Lab. of Nat. Hist. Bull. 1(2):71–89. Forbes, S. A., and R. E. Richardson. 1908. The Fishes of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Ill. cxxxvi plus 357 pp. Forbes, S. A., and R. E. Richardson. 1913. Studies on the biology of the upper Illinois River. Ill. Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 9(10):481–574. Forbes, S. A., and R. E. Richardson. 1919. Some recent changes in Illinois River biology. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 13(6):139–156. Fremling, C. R., J. L. Rasmussen, R. E. Sparks, S. P. Cobb, C. F. Bryan, and T. O. Claflin. 1989. Mississippi River fisheries: A case history. Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (LARS). Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 106:309–351. Froelich, P. N. 1988. Kinetic control of dissolved phosphate in natural rivers and estuaries: A primer on the phosphate buffer mechanism. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33(4, part 2):649–668. Gauch, H. G., Jr. 1982. Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology. Cambridge University Press, New York. 298 pp. George, C., Jr. 1972. The role of the Aswan High Dam in changing the fisheries of the southeastern Mediterranean. Pp. 159–178 in M. Taghi Farvar and John P. Milton, eds., The Careless Technology: Ecology International Development. The Natural History Press, Doubleday, New York. Glover, R. D. 1986. Trout stream rehabilitation in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Pp. 7–15 in The 5th Trout Stream Habitat Improvement Workshop. Pennsylvania Fisheries Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. Gore, J. A. 1985. Mechanisms of colonization and habitat enhancement for benthic macroinvertebrates in restored river channels. Pp. 81-101 in J. A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass. 280 pp. Gould, G. A. 1977. Preserving instream flows under the appropriation doctrine-Problems and possibilities. Pp. 3–21 in B. L. Lamb, ed., Protecting instream flows under western water law-Selected papers: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Instream Flow Information Paper, No. 2, FWS/OBS-77/47. Guldin, R. W. 1989. An Analysis of the Water Situation in the United States: 1989-2040. General Technical Report. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colo. Gunderson, D. R. 1968. Floodplain use related to stream morphometry and fish populations. J. Wildl. Manage. 32(3):507-514. Hale, J. C. 1969. An evaluation of trout stream habitat improvement in a north shore tributary of Lake Superior. Minn. Fish. Invest. (5):37-50. Hall, J. D., and C. O. Baker. 1982. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in western North America. Rehabilitating and Enhancing Stream Habitat: Review and Evaluation. USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report PNW-133. Hart, C. A. 1895. On the entomology of the Illinois River and adjacent waters. Ill. Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 4(6):149-273. Hasfurther, V. R. 1985. The use of meander parameters in restoring hydrologic balance to reclaimed stream beds. Pp. 21–40 in J. A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass. 279 pp. Havera, S. P., and F. C. Bellrose. 1985. The Illinois River: A lesson to be learned. Wetlands 4:29–41. Havera, S. P., F. C. Bellrose, H. K. Archer, F. Paveglio, Jr., D. W. Steffeck, K. S. Lubinski,

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy R. E. Sparks, W. U. Brigham, L. Coutant, S. Waite, and D. McCormick. 1980. Projected Effects of Increased Diversion of Lake Michigan Water on the Environment of the Illinois River Valley. Report prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District, Chicago, Ill. Heede, B. H., and I. N. Rinne. 1990. Hydrodynamic and fluvial morphologic processes: Implications for fisheries management and research. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 10(3):249–268. Herbkersman, C.N. 1984. A guide to the George Palmiter river restoration techniques. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. 52 pp. Herke, W. H., E. E. Knudsen, P. A. Knudsen, and B. D. Rogers. 1987. Effects of semi-impoundment on fish and crustacean nursery use: Evaluation of a "solution". Coastal Zone '87 (May):2562–2576. Herman, R. J. 1987. National resources inventory and potential stream sediment reductions. Pp. 173–183 in Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held April 1–3, 1987, Peoria, Ill. 260 pp. Herricks, E. E., and L. L. Osborne. 1985. Water quality restoration and protection in streams and rivers. Pp. 1–20 in J. A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass. 280 pp. Hesse, L. W., G. L. Hergenrader, H. S. Lewis, S. D. Reetz, and A. B. Schlesinger. 1982. The Middle Missouri River. A Collection of Papers on the Biology with Special Reference to Power Station Effects. The Missouri River Study Group, Norfolk, Nebr. 301 pp. Hocutt, C. H., and E. O. Wiley. 1986. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 866 pp. Hughes, R. M. 1985. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams. Environ. Manage. 9:253–262. Hughes, R. M., T. R. Whittier, C. M. Rohm, and D. P. Larsen. 1990. A regional framework for establishing recovery criteria. Environ. Manage. 14(5):673–683. Hunt, R. L. n.d. In-stream improvement of trout habitat. Stream Management of Salmonids. Trout Unlimited, Denver, Colo. Hunt, R. L. 1975. A long-term evaluation of trout habitat development and its relation to improving management-oriented research . Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 105(3):361–364. Hunt, R. L. 1978. Instream enhancement of trout habitat. Pp. 19–27 in K. Hashagen, ed., Proc. Nat. Symposium on Wild Trout Management. Cal. Trout Inc., San Francisco, Calif. Hunt, R. L. 1979. Removal of woody streambank vegetation to improve trout habitat. Technical Bulletin No. 115. Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisc. 36 pp. Hunt, R. L. 1985. A follow-up assessment of removing woody streambank vegetation along two Wisconsin trout streams. Wis. Dept. Water Resour. Res. Rep. No. 137. Hunt, R. L. 1986. An evaluation of brush bundles and half-logs to enhance carrying capacity of two brown trout streams. Pp. 31–62 in The 5th Trout Stream Habitat Improvement Workshop. Pennsylvania Fisheries Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. Hunt, R. L. 1988a. Management of riparian zones and stream channels to benefit fisheries. In T. W. Hoekstra and J. Capp. eds., Integrating Forest Management for Wildlife and Fish. General Technical Report NC-122. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. St. Paul, Minn. 63 pp. Hunt, R. L. 1988b. A Compendium of 45 Trout Stream Habitat Development Evaluations in Wisconsin During 1953–1985. Technical Bulletin No. 162 . Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wis. 80 pp.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1979. Water Quality Management Plan. Volume III. Nonpoint Sources of Pollution: Soil Erosion and Sedimentation, Livestock Wastes, Fertilizers, Pesticides, Forestry, and Fruit Production. Illinois EPA, Springfield, Ill. 384 pp. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1990. Illinois Water Quality Report 1988-1989. IEPA/WPC/90-160. Illinois EPA, Division of Water Pollution Control, Springfield, Ill. 352 pp. Injerd, D. 1987. Illinois Lake Michigan water diversion. Pp. 56–64 in Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Proceedings of the Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held April 1–3. Peoria, Ill. 260 pp. International Commission on Large Dams. 1973. World Register of Dams. Jackson, H. O., and W. C. Starrett. 1959. Turbidity and sedimentation at Lake Chautauqua, Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 23:157–168. JEL. 1989. The Willamette River Greenway: A Reawakening is Needed. (Unsigned Oregon government agency chronology.) Jensen, S. E., and W. S. Platts. 1989. Restoration of degraded riverine/riparian habitat in the Great Basin and Snake River regions. Pp. 377–416 in J. A. Kusler and M. E. Kentula, eds., Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Vol. I: Regional Reviews. Document No. EPA 600/3-89/038A. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Ore. 473 pp. Johnson, F. H. 1961. Walleye egg survival during incubation on several types of bottoms in Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, and connecting waters. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 90:312–322. Johnston, L. R., Associates. 1989. Interagency task force on floodplain management. A status report on the nation's floodplain management activity (an interim report). Contract No. TV-72105A. Knoxville, Tenn. 465 pp. Judy, R. D., Jr., P. N. Seeley, T. M. Murray, S. C. Svirsky, M. R. Whitworth, and L. S. Ischinger. 1984. 1982 National fisheries survey. Vol. 1. Technical Report: Initial Findings. FWS/OBS 84/06. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. 141 pp. Junk, W., P. B. Bayley, and R. E. Sparks. 1989. The flood pulse concept in river-flood-plain systems. Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (LARS). Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 106:110–127. Karaki, S., and J. vanHoften. 1974. Resuspension of bed material and wave effects on the Illinois and Upper Mississippi rivers caused by boat traffic. Contract Report No. LMSSD 75-881. Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers District, St. Louis, Mo., by Engineering Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. Karr, J. R., and D. R. Dudley. 1981. Ecological perspective on water quality goals. Environ. Manage. 5:55–68. Karr, J. R., K. D. Fausch, P. L. Angermeier, P. R. Yant, and I. J. Schlosser. 1986. Assessing biological integrity in running waters: A method and its rationale. Special Publication 5. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Ill. 28 pp. Kelly, M. H., and R. L. Hite. 1984. An evaluation of empirical correlations between the macroinvertebrate biotic index (MBI) and the STORET water quality index (WQI). Unpublished manuscript. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, Ill. Keown, M. P., E. A. Dardeau, Jr., and E. M. Causey. 1981. Characterization of the Suspended-Sediment Regime and Bed-Material Gradation of the Mississippi River Basin. Potamology Program (P-I). Report 1, Volume II. U.S. Army Corps of Engineer District, New Orleans, La. 375 pp. Kleinmann, R. L. P., and R. Hedin. 1990. Biological treatment of mine water: An update. In M. E. Chalkney, B. R. Conrad, V. I. Lakshmanan, and K. G. Wheeland, eds.,

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Tailings and Effluent Management. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tailings and Effluent Management, August 20–24, 1989, Halifax. 28th Annual Conference of Metallurgists of CIM. Pergamon Press, N.Y. Kofoid, C. A. 1903. Plankton studies. IV. The plankton of the Illinois River, 1894–1899, with introductory notes upon the hydrography of the Illinois River and its basin. Part I. Quantitative investigations and general results. Ill. Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 6(2):95–635. Kusler, J. A., and M. E. Kentula, eds. 1989. Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Vol. I: Regional Reviews, 473 pp.; Vol. II: Perspectives, 172 pp. EPA 600/3-89/038A. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Lacey, G. 1930. Stable channels in alluvium. Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 229:259–384. Lamb, B. L., and H. R. Doerksen. 1990. Instream water use in the United States—Water laws and methods for determining flow requirements. Pp. 109–116 in National Water Summary 1987—Hydrologic Events and Water Supply and Use. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper 2350.553 pp. Lanyon, R., and C. Lue-Hing. 1987. MSDGC activities in the Upper Illinois basin. Pp. 103–130 in Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held April 1–3. Peoria, Ill. 260 pp. Larsen, D. P., J. M. Omernik, R. M. Hughes, D. R. Dudley, C. M. Rohm, T. R. Whittiers, A. L. Kinney, and A. L. Gallant. 1986. The correspondence between spatial patterns in fish assemblages in Ohio streams and aquatic ecoregions. Environ. Manage. 10:815–828. Lee, M. T. 1989. Soil erosion, sediment yield, and deposition in the Illinois River basin. Pp. 718–722 in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sediment Transport Modeling, American Society of Civil Engineers, August 14–18. New Orleans, La. Leedy, J. B. 1979. Observations on the Sources of Sediment in Illinois Streams . Report of Investigations, No. 18., Illinois Water Information System Group, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. Leopold, L. B., M. G. Wolman, and J. P. Miller. 1964. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, Calif. 522 pp. Little, Arthur D., Inc. 1973. Statement by John M. Wilkinson, Arthur D. Little, Inc. hearings on Stream Channelization. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Government Operations, Conservation and Natural Resources Subcommittee, 92nd Congress, March 20 and 21. Little, C. E. 1990. Greenways for America. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md. Lopinot, A. C. 1972. Channelized streams and ditches of Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation, Division of Fisheries. Special Fisheries Report #35.59 pp. Lubinski, K. S., M. J. Wallendorf, and M. C. Reese. 1981. Analysis of Upper Mississippi River system correlations between physical, biological and navigation variables. Technical Report in partial fulfillment of Contract No. 895-305. Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, St. Paul, Minn. Lupi, F., Jr., R. L. Farnsworth, and J. B. Braden. 1988. Improvement of lake water quality by paying farmers to abate nonpoint source pollution. Project No. G-1420-06. Final Completion Report. U.S. Department of the Interior , U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 96 pp. MacArthur, R. H. 1972. Geographical Ecology. Harper and Row, New York. 269 pp. Master, L. 1991. Aquatic animals: Endangerment alert. Nature Conservancy 41(2):26–27. Mathis, B. M., and T. F. Cummings. 1973. Selected metals in sediments, water and biota in the Illinois River. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 45(7):1573–1583. Mathis, B. M., and G. E. Stout. 1987. Summary and Recommendations. Pp. 1–4 in

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held April 1–3. Peoria, Ill. 260 pp. McElroy, A. D., S. Y. Chiu, J. W. Nebgen, A. Aleti, and A. E. Vandergrift. 1975. Water pollution from nonpoint sources. Water Res. 9:675–681. Mermel, T. W. 1976. International activity in dam construction. Water, Power and Dam Construction 28(4):66–69. Milhous, R. T. 1990. The calculation of flushing flows for gravel and cobble bedrivers. Pp. 598–603 in H.H. Chang and J.C. Hill, eds., Hydraulic Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineering, New York. Mills, H. B., W. C. Starrett, and F. C. Bellrose. 1966. Man's effect on the fish and wildlife of the Illinois River. Biological Notes, No. 57. Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Ill. 24 pp. Narver, D. W. n.d. Stream management for West Coast anadromous Salmonids. Stream Management of Salmonids. Trout Unlimited, Denver, Colo. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). 1990. Current Status of Surface Water Acid-Base Chemistry. State of Science and Technology Rept. 9. NAPAP Interagency Program, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1987. River and Dam Management: A Review of the Bureau of Reclamation's Glen Canyon Environmental Studies. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1992. Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Nelson, R. C. 1991. Draft Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act report for the Swan Lake Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project in Pool 26, Calhoun County, Illinois. Appendix DPR-H in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District. February 1991. Upper Mississippi River System Environmental Management Program Definite Project Report (SL-5) with Integrated Environmental Assessment . Nelson, J. E., and P. Pajak. 1990. Fish habitat restoration following dam removal on a warmwater river. Pp. 53–63 in Rivers and Streams Technical Committee, The Restoration of Midwestern Stream Habitat. Proceedings of a symposium held at the 52nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conf., December 4–5. Minneapolis, Minn. 117 pp. Odum, H. T., C. Diamond, and M. T. Brown. 1987. Energy Systems Overview of the Mississippi River Basin. CFW Publication #87-1. Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 107 pp. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1987. Biological Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life. Vol. II. Ohio EPA, Columbus, Ohio. 328 pp. Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). 1990. Assessment of Ohio River Water Quality Conditions, Water Years 1988 and 1989. ORSANCO, Cincinnati, Ohio. 145 pp. plus appendices. Omernik, J. M. 1987. Ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 77:118–125. Osborne, L. L. 1989. Stream Habitat Assessment in States of the North Central Division, American Fisheries Society. A report to American Fisheries Society, North Central Division, Rivers and Streams Committee. 59 pp. Paine, R. T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. Am. Nat. 100(910):65–75. Palmer, A. W. 1903. The pollution and self-purification of the waters of the Illinois River. Water Surv. Bull. 2:62–240. Parkenson, E. A., and P. A. Slaney. 1975. A review of enhancement techniques applicable to anadromous gamefishes. Fishery Management Report 66. British Columbia Fish and Wildlife Branch. Payne, B. S., A. C. Miller, and D. W. Aldridge. 1987. Environmental effects of navigation traffic: Laboratory studies of the effects on mussels of intermittent exposure to

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy turbulence and suspended solids. Environmental Impact Research Program Technical Report EL-87-14. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C., and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers District, Louisville, Ky. 27 pp. Penland, S., and R. Boyd, eds. 1985. Transgressive Depositional Environments of the Mississippi River Delta Plain: A Guide to the Barrier Islands, Beaches, and Shoals in Louisiana. Guidebook Series No. 3. Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, La. 233 pp. Philipp, D. P., and G. S. Whitt. 1991. Survival and growth of northern Florida, and reciprocal (F1) hybrid largemouth bass in central Illinois. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., Bethesda, Md. Platts, W. S., and J. N. Rinne. 1985. Riparian and stream enhancement management and research in the Rocky Mountains. N. Am. J. Fish Manage. 5(2A):115–125. President's Commission on Americans Outdoors. 1986. Report and Recommendations to the President of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Raleigh, R. F., and D. A. Duff. 1980. Trout stream habitat improvement: Ecology and hydrology. Pp. 67–77 in Proceedings of Wild Trout II. September 24–25, 1979. Trout Unlimited, Vienna, Va. Rasmussen, J. L. 1983. A Summary of Known Navigation Effects and a Priority List of Data Gaps for the Biological Effects of Navigation on the Upper Mississippi River. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rock Island District, Rock Island, III. 96 pp. Richardson, R. E. 1928. The bottom fauna of the middle Illinois River, 1913–1925. Its distribution, abundance, valuation, and index value in the study of stream pollution. III. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 17(12):387–475. Rinne, J. N., and A. L. Medina. 1989. Factors influencing salmonid populations in six headwater streams, central Arizona, U.S.A. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 35(3-4):515–532. Rivers and Streams Technical Committee, North-Central Division, American Fisheries Society. 1990. The Restoration of Midwestern Stream Habitat. Proceedings of a symposium held at the 52nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, December 4–5. Minneapolis, Minn. 117 pp. Roelle, J. E., D. B. Hamilton, and R. L. Johnson. 1988. Refuge Management Analyses: Restoration of Thompson Lake as an Alternative to Further Development at Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Research and Development, Washington, D.C. 65 pp. Rohm, C. M., J. W. Giese, and C. C. Bennett. 1987. Test of an aquatic ecoregion classification of streams in Arkansas. J. Freshwater Ecol. 4:127–140. Roseboom, D. P. 1987. Case studies of stream and river restoration. Pp. 184–194 in Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held April 1–3. Peoria, Ill. 260 pp. Roseboom, D. P., and D. L. Richey. 1977. Acute toxicity of residual chlorine and ammonia to some native Illinois fishes. Report of Investigations No. 85, Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, Ill. Roseboom, D. P., and B. White. 1990. The Court Creek Restoration Project. Pp. 27–39 in Erosion Control: Technology in Transition. Proceedings of Conference XXI, International Erosion Control Association, Feb. 14–17. Washington, D.C. Roseboom, D. P., R. L. Evans, J. E. Erickson, and L. G. Brooks. 1983. An Inventory of Court Creek Watershed Characteristics That May Relate to Water Quality in the Watershed. Document No. 83/23-A. Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Illinois State Water Survey, Peoria, Ill. 95 pp. Roseboom, D., R. Twait, and D. Sallee. 1989. Habitat restoration for fish and wildlife in backwater lakes of the Illinois River. Pp 65–68 in Proceedings of the Second

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Conference on Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held October 3–4. Peoria, Ill. 199 pp. Rosgen, D. L. 1988. Conversion of a braided river pattern to meandering—a landmark restoration project. Presented at the California Riparian Systems Conference, September 22–24, Davis, Calif. Rosgen, D., and B. L. Fittante. 1986. Fish habitat structures—A selection guide using stream classification. Proceedings of Fifth Trout Stream Habitat Improvement Workshop, Lock Haven, Pa. Ross, P. E., R. E. Sparks, and F. S. Dillon. 1989. Identification of Toxic Substances in the Upper Illinois River. Annual Report. Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Contract No. WR36. 20 pp. Ruelle, R., and J. Grettenberger. 1991. A Preliminary Contaminant and Toxicological Survey of Illinois River Sediments. Special Project Report 90-1 . U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rock Island, Ill. 17 pp. Scarpino, P. V. 1985. Great River. An Environmental History of the Upper Mississippi, 1890–1950. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Mo. 219 pp. Sedell, J. R., and J. L. Froggatt. 1984. Importance of streamside forests to large rivers: The isolation of the Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., from its floodplain by snagging and streamside forest removal. Ver. Int. Limnol. 22:1828–1834. Seebohm, M. E. 1952. The Evolution of the English Farm. Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London, 246 pp. Semonin, R. G. 1989. Comments for Illinois River Conference. Pp. 41–45 in Proceedings on the Second Conference of the Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held October 3–4. Peoria, Ill. 199 pp. Sharpley, A. N., and J. K. Syers. 1979. Phosphorus inputs into a stream draining an agricultural watershed. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 11:417–428. Simons, D. B., and M. L. Albertson. 1960. Uniform water conveyance channels in alluvial material. Proc. of the Am. Soc. of Civil Eng. 86(H75):33. Simons, D. B., R. M. Li, Y. H. Chen, S. S. Ellis, and T. P. Chang. 1981. Investigation of effects of navigation traffic activities on hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphic characteristics. Working Paper 2 for Task D submitted to Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, St. Paul, Minn. Simpson, P., J. R. Newman, M. A. Keirn, R. M. Matter, and P. A. Guthrie. 1982. Manual of Stream Channelization Impacts on Fish and Wildlife. FWS/OBS-82/24. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contract No. 14-16-0009-80-066. 155 pp. Smith, P. W. 1971. Illinois streams: A classification based on their fishes and an analysis of factors responsible for disappearance of native species. Biological Notes, No. 76. Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Ill. Smith, R. A., R. B. Alexander, and M. G. Wolman. 1987. Water-quality trends in the nation's rivers. Science 235:1607–1614. Sparks, R.E. 1975. Environmental inventory and assessment of navigation pools 24, 25, and 26, Upper Mississippi and Lower Illinois rivers. An electrofishing survey of the Illinois River. Contract Report No. Y-74-4 to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers District, St. Louis, Mo. Sparks, R.E. 1977. Environmental inventory and assessment of navigation pools 24, 25, and 26, Upper Mississippi and Lower Illinois rivers. An electrofishing survey of the Illinois River. Special Report No. 5. UILU-WRC-77-0005. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Water Resources Center . 122 pp. Sparks, R.E. 1984. The role of contaminants in the decline of the Illinois River: Implications for the Upper Mississippi. Pp. 25–66 in James G. Wiener, Richard V. Anderson,

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy and David R. McConville, eds., Contaminants in the Upper Mississippi River. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Mississippi River Research Consortium. Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass. 368 pp. Sparks, R. E., Thomas, and D. J. Schaeffer. 1980. The effects of barge traffic on suspended sediment and turbidity in the Illinois River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rock Island Field Office, Rock Island, Ill. Sparks, R. E., P. B. Bayley, S. L. Kohler, and L. L. Osborne. 1990. Disturbance and recovery of large floodplain rivers. Environ. Manage. 14(5):699–709. Spotts, D. E. 1986. Standing stock of fishes before and after a channel relocation in Blockhouse Creek, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. Pp. 85–91 in The 5th Trout Stream Habitat Improvement Workshop. Pennsylvania Fisheries Commission. Harrisburg, Pa. Stall, J. B., and S. W. Melsted. 1951. The silting of Lake Chautauqua, Havana, Illinois. Report of Investigations, No. 8. Illinois State Water Survey, in cooperation with Illinois Agriculture Experiment Station. Urbana-Champaign, Ill. Stanford, J. A., and J. V. Ward. 1988. The hyporheic habitat of river ecosystems. Nature 335:64–66. Starrett, W. C. 1971. A survey of the mussels (Unionacea) of the Illinois River. A polluted stream. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 30:267–403. Starrett, W. C. 1972. Man and the Illinois River. Pp. 131–169 in R. T. Oglesby, C. A. Carlson, and J. A. McCann, eds., River Ecology and the Impact of Man. Academic Press, New York. Stern, E. M., and W. B. Stickle. 1978. Effects of Turbidity and Suspended Material in Aquatic Environments. Literature review. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. 117 pp. Stuber, R. J. 1985. Trout habitat, abundance, and fishing opportunities in fenced vs. unfenced riparian habitat along Sheep Creek, Colorado. Pp. 310–314 in Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. U.S. Forestry Service General Technical Report RM120, Ft. Collins, Colo. Sullivan, D. J., P. D. Hayes, T. E. Richards, and J. C. Maurer. 1990. Water Resources Data. Illinois Water Year 1989. Vol. 2. Illinois River Basin. U.S. Geological Survey Water Data Report IL-89-2. 467 pp. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. P.L. 95-87. Swanson, F. J., and R. E. Sparks. 1990. Long-term ecological research and the invisible place. BioScience 40(7):502–508. Thomas, L. M. 1989. Strategies for research in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Environ. Toxicol. and Chem. 8:273–275. Thompson, J. 1989. Case studies in drainage and levee district formation and development on the floodplain of the lower Illinois River, 1890s–1930s. Special Report 016. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Water Resources Center. 152 pp. Thurston, R. V., G. R. Phillips, R. C. Russo, and S. M. Hinkins. 1981. Increased toxicity of ammonia to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) resulting from reduced concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38:983–988. Tiner, R. W., Jr. 1984. Wetlands of the United States: Current Status and Recent Trends. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 59 pp. Trihey, E. W., and C. B. Stalnaker. 1985. Evolution and application of instream flow methodologies to small hydropower developments—An overview of the issue . Pp. 176–183 in F. W. Olson, F. W., R. G. White, and R. H. Hamare, eds., Symposium on Small Hydropower and Fisheries Proceedings. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Md. Turner, R. E., and N. N. Rabalais. 1991. Changes in Mississippi River water quality this century. Implications for coastal food webs. Bioscience 41(3):140–147.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1990. Upper Mississippi River System Environmental Management Program. Fifth Annual Addendum. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Central Division. Chicago, Ill. 221 pp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1988. T. W. Hoekstra and J. Capp, comps. Integrating Forest Management for Wildlife and Fish: 1987 Society of American Foresters national convention Oct. 18–21, 1987. Minneapolis, Minn. General Technical Report NC-122. USDA Forest Service North Central Forest Experiment Station. 63 pp. U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. 1985 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. Washington, D.C. 167 pp. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 1982. The Nationwide Rivers Inventory. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1985. Technical Support Document for Water Quality-Based Toxics Control. Appendix D. Duration and Frequency. Office of Water Enforcement and Permits, and Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1990. The Quality of Our Nation's Water. EPA 440/4-90-005. Washington, D.C. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). 1982. Nonconsumptive use of wildlife in the United States. Pp. 10–13 in Resource Publication 154. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Canadian Wildlife Service. 1986. North American Wildlife Management Plan. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 19 pp. U.S. General Accounting Office (U.S. GAO). 1988. Rangeland Management: More Emphasis Needed on Declining and Overstocked Grazing Allotments. GAO/RCED-88-80, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. van Heerden, I. L., and H. H. Roberts. 1980. The Atchafalaya delta—Louisiana's new prograding coast. Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. 30:497–506. Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell, and C. E. C. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:130–137. Van Velson, R. 1979. Effects of livestock grazing upon rainbow trout in Otter Creek. Pp. 53–55 in O. B. Cope, ed., Forum—Grazing and Riparian/Stream Ecosystems. Trout Unlimited, Vienna, Va. Vinyard, G. L., and W. J. O'Brien. 1976. Effects of light and turbidity on the reactive distance of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 33:2845–2849. Vonnahme, D. R. 1989. Progress in the Illinois River watershed since the First Illinois River Conference. Pp. 8–14 in Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held October 3–4. Peoria, III. 199 pp. Wallen, E. I. 1951. The direct effect of turbidity on fishes. Bulletin No. 48, Series 2. Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, Okla. Ward, J. V. 1989. The four-dimensional nature of lotic ecosystems. J. Am. Benthol. Soc. 8(1):2–8. Ward, B. R., and P. A. Slaney. 1980. Evaluation of in-stream enchancement structures for the production of juvenile steelhead trout and coho salmon in the Keagh River. Pp. 8–15 in Proceedings of the Trout Stream Habitat Improvement Workshop, November 3–7, 1980, Asheville, N.C. Ward, J. V., and J. A. Stanford. 1983. The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecosystems. Pp. 29–42 in T. D. Fontaine III and S. M. Bartell, eds., Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Stoneham, Mass. 494 pp.

OCR for page 165
Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Weber, M. 1986. Federal marine fisheries management. Pp. 267–344 in R. L. DiSilvestro, ed., Audubon Wildlife Report 1986. The National Audubon Society, New York. Webster, J. R. 1975. Analysis of Potassium and Calcium Dynamics in Stream Vegetation. Ph.D thesis. University of Georgia, Athens. Welcomme, R. L. 1979. Fisheries Ecology of Floodplain Rivers. Longman, Inc., New York. 317 pp. Wesche, T. A. 1985. Stream channel modifications and reclamation structures to enhance fish habitat. Pp. 103–163 in J. A. Gore, ed., The Restoration of Rivers and Streams. Theories and Experience. Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass. 280 pp. Wetmore, F. 1987. Flood damage protection programs, Pp. 89–102 in Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management . A Governor's Conference held April 1–3, 1987, Peoria, III. 260 pp. White, R. J. 1972. Response of trout populations to habitat change in Big Roche-a-Cri Creek, Wisconsin. Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin, Madison. 278 pp. White, R. J. 1978. Principles of trout stream habitat management. Mimeo Report presented at Workshop on Trout Stream Habitat Management, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, Wisconsin. August 1, 1978. 22 pp. White, R. J., and O. M. Brynildson. 1987. Guidelines for management of trout stream habitat in Wisconsin. Wis. Dept. Nat. Resour. Tech. Bull. 30. Whitley, J. R., and R. S. Campbell. 1974. Some aspects of water quality and biology of the Missouri River. Trans. Mo. Acad. Sci. 8:60–72. Whitlock, R. 1965. A Short History of Farming in Britain. John Baker Ltd., London. 246 pp. Whittier, T. R., D. P. Larsen, R. M. Hughes, D. M. Rohm, A. L. Gallant, and J. M. Omernik. 1987. The Ohio Stream Regionalization Project: A Compendium of Results. EPA/600/3-87/025. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Ore. 66 pp. Widdows, J., P. Fieth, and C. M. Worral. 1979. Relationship between seston, available food and feeding activity in the common mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar. Biol. 50:195–207. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. P.L. 90-542, October 2, 1968. Wiley, M. J., L. L. Osborne, R. W. Larimore, and T. J. Kwak. 1987. Augmenting Concepts and Techniques for Examining Critical Flow Requirements of Illinois Stream Fisheries. Aquatic Biology Section Technical Report 87/5. Final Report F-43-R. Illinois Natural History Survey. 138 pp. Wiley, M. J., L. L. Osborne, and R. W. Larimore. 1990. Longitudinal structure of an agricultural prairie river system and its relationship to current stream ecosystem theory. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47(2):373–384. Wilkin, D. C., and S. J. Hebel. 1982. Erosion, redeposition, and delivery of sediment to midwestern streams. Water Resour. Res. 18(4):1278–1282. Willeke, G. E., and A. D. Baldwin. 1984. An evaluation of river restoration techniques in Northwestern Ohio. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Water Resources Support Center, Institute for Water Resources, Ft. Belvoir, Va. Contract Number DACW 72-79-C-0043. 80 pp. Williams, J. E., J. E. Johnson, D. A. Hendrickson, S. Contreras-Dalderas, J. D. Williams, M. Navarro-Mendoza, D. E. McAllister, and J. E. Deacon. 1989. Fishes of North American endangered, threatened, or of special concern: 1989. Fisheries 14(6):2–20. Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources (WDNR). 1975. Follow-up inventory of trout in a developed portion of Big Roche-a-Cri Creek. Mimeo report in Cold Water Group Waters Inventory File. Wydoski, R. S., and D. A. Duff. 1980. Stream Management Improvement as a Potential Management Tool in the Intermountain West. Proceedings of the Bonneville Chapter, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Md. Yount, J. D., and G. J. Niemi, eds. 1990. Recovery of lotic communities and ecosystems from disturbance: Theory and application. Environ. Manage. 14(5):515–762.