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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy 5— Rivers and Streams Human activity has profoundly affected rivers and streams in all parts of the world, to such an extent that it is now extremely difficult to find any stream which has not been in some way altered, and probably quite impossible to find any such river. The effects range from pollution to changes in the pattern of flow, and they have become increasingly marked during the past two or three centuries. H. B. N. Hynes, 1970 There is a phenomenal resiliency in the mechanisms of the earth. A river or lake is almost never dead. If you give it the slightest chance by stopping pollutants from going into it, then nature usually comes back. Rene Dubos, 1981 OVERVIEW Rivers and streams have many of the same economic, recreational, and environmental values and uses as lakes. However, the stresses associated with human use may have begun earlier on rivers because of their importance as transportation routes when roads were few and as sources of power when the Industrial Revolution was in its infancy in the United States. Unfortunately, rivers also served as convenient and inexpensive means of waste disposal because the flow
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy carried away industrial and human waste. During early settlement days in the United States, human communities and factories were widely spaced, and waste discharges relatively minor and nonpersistent, especially when compared to those of today's industrial society. As a consequence of the spacing, volume, and degradability of early wastes, rivers were able to cleanse themselves through natural processes before the water reached the next downstream user. As settlements expanded in size and became more closely spaced, the wastes began to contain a larger percentage of persistent toxicants, the ecological damage became more severe, and the possibility of self-cleansing was more limited. At the same time, agricultural, mining, and timber harvesting activities accelerated, resulting in widespread alteration of watersheds, floodplains, and riparian zones that in turn altered water and sediment regimes in rivers and streams, adversely affecting plant and animal communities. Flow regimes and dilution capacity were reduced or altered by dams, irrigation, and interbasin transfer of water. The cumulative impact of all these changes was frequently missed because of the incremental nature of the changes. Even when their effects became impossible to ignore, the automobile made it easier for a more mobile population to escape to pristine aquatic sites with aesthetic and recreational appeal than to set about repairing those sites damaged by anthropogenic activities. The changes that have stressed flowing water systems have impaired their value for both human use and environmental services. Stresses arise from (1) water quantity or flow mistiming, (2) morphological modifications of the channel and riparian zone, (3) excessive erosion and sedimentation, (4) deterioration of substrate quality, (5) deterioration of water quality, (6) decline of native species, and (7) introduction of alien species. The locus of the problem can be in the watershed, along the riparian or floodplain zone, or in the channels and pools. The most extreme form of stress, common in the arid West, is the complete appropriation of water flowing on the surface, either by direct withdrawal or by pumping from the riparian zone (see Box 5.1). Only slightly less extreme is the conversion of reaches of free-flowing rivers to a series of lakelike impoundments (e.g., the Willamette River; see Box 5.2 and Appendix A). In these cases, the free-flowing river no longer exists, and restoration of some semblance of the natural system would require drastic measures such as reduction of water withdrawals or removal of dams. In some cases (the Willamette and Columbia rivers), a few species of migratory sport fish (salmon) are maintained on dammed rivers by using hatcheries and fish ladders, but this is aquaculture, not restoration.
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Box 5.1 The Santa Cruz River, Southern Arizona The Santa Cruz River is a typical example of many rivers and streams in the valleys of the western United States that have experienced pronounced ecological changes during the past century. It is not an example of a restoration activity, but rather an illustration of how human activities and rapid urbanization of the floodplain can bring about irreversible changes to a stream system. The Santa Cruz River is a dry, and usually insignificant, stream throughout most of its length. It rises in oak woodlands and grasslands southeast of Tucson. The headwaters of the Santa Cruz are gathered into a shallow, perennial channel that courses southward into Mexico and briefly follows a 56-km westerly course before reentering the United States some 10 km east of the border town of Nogales, Arizona. In Sonora, Mexico, the river's perennial flow is captured by wells and infiltration galleries for agricultural and municipal consumption. Since the late 1960s, effuent discharges from the Nogales wastewater treatment plant have accounted for the permanence of flow for several kilometers north of the border, where all of it infiltrates into the sandy streambed, resulting in a normally dry stream further north. The river is entrenched most dramatically within the San Xavier Indian Reservation, with vertical banks up to 10 m high and 100 m apart, where the river meanders around the base of Martinez Hill. To the north of Martinez Hill, sections of the riverbanks have been soil cemented as a precaution against flood damage in the heavily urbanized floodplain. Annual flow along the river is extremely variable. During the 68-year period of available records at the Congress Street gauging station, 72 percent of all annual flood peaks occured during the months of July and August, 19 percent during September and October, and 9 percent November through February. No annual peak flows have been recorded during the months of March, April, May, or June (Betancourt and Turner, 1988). In this century, the greatest geomorphological changes in the Santa Cruz River were caused by floods occurring in 1905, 1915, 1977, and 1983 (the greatest recorded event, which had a peak discharge of approximately 1,500 m(3)/s at the Congress Street gauge), and all are associated with El Nio conditions (warmer than average episodes in the tropical Pacific). Prior to extensive pumpage for agriculture and consumptive use in the Tucson Basin, the amount of water leaving the basin (i.e., stream flow, evaporation, and transpiration) equaled the amount entering, and ground water storage was nearly constant (Betancourt and Turner, 1988).
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy According to Betancourt and Turner (1991), the radical lowering of the ground water table and channel entrenchment after 1940 helped eliminate native phreatophytes to the advantage of salt cedars (salt cedars commonly survive in habitats where ground water is unavailable). The cottonwood and mesquite bosques south of Martinez Hill, a popular picnic spot for Tucsonans in the 1930s and 1940s, vanished, leaving the floodplain treeless. Ground water pumpage also eliminated the influence of a near-surface water table by partially controlling downcutting. As a result, channel degradation propagated upstream for kilometers. Downstream of Martinez Hill and within the limits of the city of Tucson, the rate of downcutting is most likely influenced by urbanization of the floodplain. Channel bed degradation has been monitored at the site of a bridge (Aldridge and Eychaner, 1984). The elevation of zero flow at this site (Congress Street) dropped 3 to 4.5 m between 1946 and 1980. Improvement of the Santa Cruz drainage through the city has encouraged urbanization of the floodplain. The proximity of the Santa Cruz River to the inner city has increased the value of the real estate for urban development. Much of this development, however, has occurred piecemeal. Planning seems to have occurred during low-flow years and before local authorities could have responded to federal legislation concerning floodplain hazards. This problem is not specific to the Santa Cruz floodplain, but to many other communities in the arid and semiarid Southwest as well. Prior to the beginning of the twentieth century, the 80-km reach of the Santa Cruz River throughout the Tucson Basin was characterized by lengthy segments of unincised alluvium interrupted by short and discontinuous gullies. Marshes and wet meadows are reported to have occupied these short reaches of perennial flow. A near-surface water table prevented longitudinal expansion and coalescence of arroyos. Today, a continuous channel defines the river's course through the Tucson Basin, and the water table is more than 100 m below the land surface. The disappearance of marshes and wet meadows is the ecological consequence of the lower water table. Sloped soil-cemented banks of the Santa Cruz designed to improve flow conveyance through the Tucson Basin will likely result in greater stream power in the downstream reaches and may also result in migration of the headcut in the upstream reaches. The rate at which this occurs will depend on the frequency and intensity of flood-producing storms in the coming years. Migration of the headcut upstream will increase the amount of sediment transport further downstream.
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Another way in which the character of rivers is drastically altered is by cutting off interactions with the riparian zone and floodplains. This may be done directly, by channelization and leveeing (Kissimmee, Illinois, and Mississippi rivers), and indirectly, by regulating the flood regime (navigation dams on the Mississippi). According to the American Rivers Conservation Council (Echeverria et al., 1989), of approximately 3.2 million miles of rivers in the United States, 2.9 million miles remain undammed, while 600,000 miles of river are dammed. The committee could not find a recent national assessment of the number of stream and river miles affected by channelization or leveeing, but the total is probably much greater than the number of miles of river dammed. In the Illinois River, for example, half the floodplain has been leveed (Bellrose et al., 1983), and most of the Lower Mississippi River is leveed (Fremling et al., 1989). Although water resource agencies track their own development projects, the only nationwide inventory of rivers and streams was conducted in the 1970s (U.S. DOI, 1982) in response to passage of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-542). The purpose of the inventory was to identify those rivers worthy of the designation wild and scenic, and so narrow were the criteria that less than 2 percent of total river mileage qualified for inclusion on the list. Therefore, there remains a need for a comprehensive up-to-date nationwide assessment of rivers, comparable to the National Wetland Inventory (Tiner, 1984). It would be useful to know how many miles of free-flowing, unchannelized rivers remain in the United States, where these reaches are located, and what the current trends (net gains or losses) are. Progress has been made in controlling conventional pollution (sewage and other organic wastes) from point sources. In many parts of the United States, water quality has been maintained or restored since the institution of the clean water acts, starting around 1965, although problems remain in some reaches (CEQ, 1989; ORSANCO, 1990). In some cases (e.g., the Willamette and Illinois rivers), water quality in certain critical reaches is maintained only by dilution, and fish and other aquatic organisms are affected by a legacy of toxic substances in sediment deposits. Also, national water quality assessments are based on lake or channel sampling that does not include floodplain pools and backwaters; so the status of these important nursery areas for fish and wildlife is poorly documented. Since the passage of the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-87), mining companies have been required to restore both land and water affected by mining and acid mine drainage, in most cases to their premining uses. A federal tax on coal provides funds to restore lands abandoned before the act
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Box 5.2 The Willamette River The term river restoration is often misunderstood and misapplied. For example, the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon is a badly perturbed ecosystem—one greatly altered from its original ecological condition—yet it has been described by some as a river restoration success story. The Willamette River restoration has been directed primarily toward water quality restoration, protection of beneficial uses of the river water, and management of certain species of game fish. The restoration also includes reservoir management and research intended to reduce ecological disturbances in the river occasioned by changes in water temperature caused by the release of water from reservoirs. Although attention has been given to land use planning in the basin and, in some cases, to stream-bank reclamation, the Willamette River today is in an unnatural condition that requires constant management, and no holistic effort has been made to recreate the river's natural antecedent biological or ecological conditions. Dams on the Willamette and its tributaries have altered the normal temperature and flow regimes of the Willamette and its tributaries, and have led to damaged native wild salmonid populations. Dams serve not only as barriers to migration of organisms within the river, but also as sediment barriers and as obstructions to the flooding of riparian areas and thus to the return of nutrients and sediment to the land. Much of the Willamette's water quality improvement has been accomplished by augmenting summer water flows with impounded water to dilute pollutants. Point source industrial discharges are also regulated in amount and concentration through a discharge permit system. As water treatment standards become more rigorous in the future to compensate for increased human population in the Willamette River basin, more treatment of wastewater may be employed, further reducing flow in certain Willamette tributaries. This may tend to lower water quality. Little effort appears to have been made to restore native aquatic life other than anadromous game fish species, and much of the anadromous fish restoration has involved replacement of wild fish by hatchery stock. The river restoration effort has not yet been successful in maintaining natural fish migration routes or in recreating the predisturbance native fish community
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy structure, species by species, to its previous percentage composition. Without augmentation of river flow when necessary, water quality would be unacceptable. Without hatchery production and release of salmonids, the sport fishery would be severely limited, and without regulation of municipal and industrial waste discharges, the water's high quality could not be guaranteed. The 13 dams on the river, the past riprapping and channelization, and the dredging (in the lower river) are all indications of the inescapable major impacts that human activities have had on the river. Thus the Willamette River restoration effort does not meet the criteria for restoration used in this report. Rather it is an example of river reclamation in which a severely polluted river was cleaned up so that its beneficial uses could again be enjoyed by the public. Just as clear-cutting a diverse, complex forest ecosystem and replacing it with a stand of Douglas fir produces a tree farm rather than a restored forest, so, too, does taking a highly disrupted and polluted river system and merely abating the pollution fail to suffice to ''restore" the river. Water quality improvement alone, in the absence of a systematic attempt to recreate a fluvial system's diverse and abundant wildlife and plant communities, is not necessarily equivalent to, or sufficient for, restoration. went into effect and to identify and set aside lands unsuitable for mining in the future. The decision to forgo mining on certain lands will be based on its high value for other uses, including habitat for rare or endangered species. Although much remains to be done in restoring streams affected by mine drainage and point sources, a variety of federal, state, and local programs are in place to deal with these problems. There is no comparable nexus of programs to deal with restoration of streams, rivers, riparian zones, and floodplains affected by intensification of land use, yet agriculture and urban development are prominent factors in the deterioration of stream habitats, according to a national fisheries habitat survey conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Judy et al., 1984; Guldin, 1989). In 1985, agriculture was reported by states as the primary nonpoint source of pollution in 64 percent of affected river miles (CEQ, 1989). Existing soil conservation programs are designed to reduce soil erosion on cropland, but they
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy do not necessarily improve or even maintain water quality or habitat in adjacent streams. Greenways along waterways in cities usually serve as parks rather than as a means of restoring the natural functions of rivers, and most urban flood detention basins bear little resemblance in form or function to natural backwaters and floodplain pools. Increased sediment delivery resulting from deforestation has also increased sedimentation and turbidity in downstream channels, lakes, and reservoirs, with attendant loss of capacity for water storage and conveyance, recreational and aesthetic values, and quantity and quality of habitat for fish and wildlife. Successful restorations have occurred on smaller rivers and streams where headwaters are either already protected (by being in a national forest, for example) or the riparian zone can be restored so that upstream disturbances do not undo downstream recovery. In the Mattole River (see case study, Appendix A), many sites along the 62-mile length of the stream, from the headwaters to the mouth on the Pacific Ocean, have been the subject of well-focused restoration efforts. An umbrella organization (the Mattole Restoration Council, MRC) coordinates the largely volunteer efforts of 13 member organizations. The MRC has been successful in obtaining grants, expertise, and training for its volunteers, and in monitoring assistance from government agencies. Although the MRC has not delineated specific ecological criteria for success, it is clear that restoration of self-perpetuating native salmonid populations continues to be a major goal. As with most cases of restoration examined for this report, the Mattole story is not yet complete (see case study, Appendix A). Quantitative data are lacking on the extent of watershed and bank treatment and returns of native fish. Salmon must still be maintained by artificial propagation, and after a hopeful start, 5 years of drought brought a resumption of the downward trend in the river's king salmon population. There may have been many well-meaning but unsuccessful attempts to restore streams, but it is difficult to obtain quantitative data because individuals and agencies are understandably reluctant to publicize failures. In many cases, the original degradation of the stream and the failed restoration were both caused by inadequate analysis of the natural characteristics of the stream: the patterns of water and sediment transport that create and maintain the natural morphometry of the channel and its associated floodplain. Failures in a project reach can trigger degradation that progresses upstream or downstream. The principles and analytical tools of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology need to be applied to a much greater extent
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy than in the past to the planning and execution of projects. Two approaches (see techniques in "Fluvial Restoration," below)—David Rosgen's restoration of the Blanco River in Colorado (Appendix A), and George Palmiter's restoration of severalsmall rivers in Ohio (Box 5.3)—that do make use of these principles should receive wider application elsewhere and should be tested on larger systems. Restoration in larger river systems is more problematic because of the size and complexity of the systems and the problems. Degradation of a local reach may be caused by intensification of land use over the entire upstream drainage basin, and local citizens and agencies may feel they cannot do much to control problems that are so large scale. Interstate compacts (e.g., ORSANCO on the Ohio River; the joint efforts of Massachusetts and New Hampshire on the Merrimack River, see case study, Appendix A) have worked well in restoring water quality and, in some cases, fisheries. Despite the size of the Merrimack (134 miles of river draining 5,010 square miles), a small group of citizens formed the Merrimack River Watershed Council, which, like the Mattole River Council, mobilized public support and attracted attention and help from a variety of government agencies. Restoration of the Merrimack River has resulted in water quality improvement to the point that benthic organisms have recolonized formerly barren areas, natural resource agencies are working on the reestablishment of anadromous fish, and cities are using the river as a source of drinking water. These restoration projects (although having much success) are hampered by the lack of baseline and reference data. Baseline data should be collected on a system before restoration, for comparison with data collected during and after restoration. In the case of stream morphology and vegetation, the baseline condition can sometimes be reconstructed from old aerial photographs and maps, or from soil types, which reflect the presettlement vegetation. Reference data come from another reach of the same river or from a similar river. The reference reach may represent the desired goal, a relatively unimpaired, self-maintaining system, or it may represent the unrestored condition. In the first case, judgment of success or failure is based on how closely the restoration approximates the goal; in the second, on how far the system moves from the degraded condition. Thus, baseline data provide comparisons of the same site through time, whereas reference data provide comparisons among sites at the same time. The strongest documentation for success or failure would come from the use of both baseline and reference data in a well-designed, long-term monitoring program. Too often, funding is provided for the restoration, but not for preproject documentation and follow-up, so that the
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Box 5.3 The Palmiter Method George Palmiter, a railroad switchman and canoeist, devised ways of stabilizing the banks and unclogging the channels of debris-and silt-laden streams in northwestern Ohio (Herbkersman, 1984; Willeke and Baldwin, 1984). The Palmiter method has received nationwide publicity and has been applied to streams in North Carolina, Mississippi Michigan, and Illinois. Palmiter received the Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life in 1977 and a Rockefeller Public Service Award in 1979. Palmiter's method provides a way of restoring the hydraulic capacity of streams and reducing low-intensity flooding without resorting to channelization or removal of riparian vegetation. In fact, riparian trees are left in place or planted to shade the stream, to reduce the excessive growth of shrubs and aquatic plants that retard flow, and to increase the frequency of low floods. Shading has the further beneficial effect of lowering the summer water temperature, to the benefit of fish communities (Karr et al., 1986). The living trees anchor the banks and provide a source of food, in the form of leaf litter, for invertebrates and fish to feed on. Downed logs and root wads provide habitat structure for fish and solid substrate for the invertebrates. The Palmiter method has been applied primarily in low-gradient alluvial streams and small rivers where logjams cause sediment deposition and increased flooding upstream and bank erosion where the stream cuts a new channel around the jam. George Palmiter's guiding principle is "make the river do the work." He makes the midchannel bars upstream of the obstruction vulnerable to erosion by removing any protective layer of woody debris and vegetation, directing flow toward the bar, and creating "starter" channels to initiate scour. The centers of the logjams are cut into smaller pieces and allowed to float downstream, while the buried ends remain as flow deflectors to keep the main current directed away from the bank. These natural deflectors are sometimes supplemented with root wads or fallen trees that are cabled to the bank. degree of success or failure is poorly quantified, the exact causes of the eventual outcome are difficult to identify, and the science of restoration ecology is not advanced as quickly as it could be. The deficiencies in documentation are symptomatic of inherent
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy problems in river restoration. The water regime in rivers typically varies seasonally and annually, so that a longer time series of data is required to document pre-and postrestoration conditions in rivers than is required for standing waters. Without an adequate time series, the effects of restoration are confounded with the effects of fluctuations in the water regime. The restoration programs themselves must be adaptable and persistent, because high and low flows affect restorative efforts and are not completely predictable or controllable. Vegetative cover is vulnerable to flood scour until roots are well established, so bank restoration may have to be attempted more than once. However, restoration that uses the power of flood flows to reshape channels may not be affected during a drought period. River restoration and river monitoring must take the structural and functional organization of river systems into account. Rivers and their floodplains (or streams and their riparian zones) are so intimately linked that they should be understood, managed, and restored as integral parts of a single ecosystem. In addition to this lateral linkage, there is an upstream-downstream continuum from headwaters to the sea or basin sink. The entire river-riparian ecosystem is contained within a drainage basin, so restoration must have a watershed perspective. Changes in any segment are communicated dynamically throughout the system. Downstream restoration can be undone by changes in the watershed, riparian zones, or upstream reaches, and the causes of the failure will not be identified if these linkages are not identified and monitored. Restoration of rivers and streams would benefit from greater application of the principles, knowledge, and techniques of the disciplines that treat rivers as integrated systems: hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and systems ecology. There is a need for comprehensive, integrated programs that support stream and river restoration at all levels inherent in the drainage hierarchy, from local reaches and tributaries to interstate waterways. Immediate attention should be given to the remnants of large river-floodplain systems that still exist, because there are so few (e.g., there is only one twelfth-order river in the conterminous United States, the Mississippi River). The programs should be designed from a systems perspective, should include habitat restoration as well as water quality, and should focus on the relatively neglected linkage between land use and stream quality. It is especially important in the dynamic river environment that restoration programs be sustained and flexible, that monitoring begin well before restoration is initiated and continue long enough to separate the effects of restoration from the effects of environmental fluctuations, and that results be analyzed and synthesized for the improvement of restoration science.
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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Quality, Executive Office of the President, Washington, D.C., and Intragency Advisory Committee on Environmental Trends. 152 pp. Cowardin, L.M., Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 103 pp. Craig, N.J., R.E. Turner, and J. W. Day, Jr. 1980. Wetland losses and their consequences in coastal Louisiana. Z. Geomorph. N.F. Suppl. Bd. 34:225–241. Crandall, D. A., R. C. Mutz, and L. Lautrup. 1984. The Effects of Hydrologic Modifications on Aquatic Biota, Stream Hydrology and Water Quality: A Literature Review. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Division of Water Pollution Control, Springfield, Ill. Croome, R.L., P.A. Tyler, K.F. Walker, and W.D. Williams. 1976. A limnological survey of the River Murray in the Albury-Wodonga area. Search 7(1):14–17. Cummins, K. W. 1973. Trophic relations of aquatic insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 18:183–206. Demissie, M. 1989. Peoria Lake sedimentation and proposed artificial islands. Pp. 46–57 in Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond. Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held October 3–4. Peoria. Ill. 199 pp. Donels, B. 1989. Environmental management program proposals —-The Illinois basin. Pp. 77-80 in Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Management of the Illinois River System: The 1990's and Beyond . Illinois River Resource Management. A Governor's Conference held October 3–4. Peoria, Ill. 199 pp. Donovan, W. J. 1983. The less traveled road: An overview of nonstructural measures in flood plain management planning. In Seminar Proceedings: Implementation of Nonstructural Measures. Policy Study 83-G520. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Institute for Water Resources. Duff, D. A., and N. Banks. 1988. Indexed Bibliography on Stream Habitat Improvement. USDA-Forest Service Intermountain Region, Wildlife Management Staff, Ogden, Utah. Echeverria, J. D., and J. Fosburgh. 1988. The American Rivers Outstanding Rivers List. American Rivers, Inc., Washington, D.C. Echeverria, J. D., P. Barrow, and R. Roos-Collins. 1989. Rivers at Risk. The Concerned Citizen's Guide to Hydropower. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 217 pp. Edwards, E. A., and K. A. Twomey. 1982. Habitat suitability index models: common carp. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/OBS-82/ 10.12. 27 pp. Edwards, E. A., G. Gebhart, and O.E. Maughn. 1983. Habitat suitability information: smallmouth bass. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/ OBS-82/10.36.47 pp. Egan, T. 1990. Dams may be razed so the salmon can pass. The New York Times, July 15. Pp. 1 and 14. Ellis, M. M. 1936. Erosion silt as a factor in aquatic environments. Ecology 17:29–42. Elwood, J. W., J. D. Newbold, R. V. O'Neill, and W. Van Winkle. 1983. Resource spiraling: An operational paradigm for analyzing lotic ecosystems. Pp. 3–27 in Thomas D. Fontaine III and Steven M. Bartell, eds., Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich. 494 pp. Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. P.L. 92-500. Flather, C.H., and T.W. Hoekstra. 1989. An analysis of the wildlife and fish situation in the United States: 1989–2040. General Technical Report RM-178. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colo. 147 pp.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: