Index

A

Acidification

ecoregion approach, 202-204

fish, 84-85

lakes, 32, 73, 76, 83-85, 92-95, 144, 146

mine drainage, 33-34, 76, 169, 171, 203

rivers, 33-34, 202-204

Adaptive Environmental Assessment, 345-346

Advocacy, environmental, 35, 51, 52, 437-438, 507

lakes, 169, 208, 234-235, 247-248

rivers, 272, 402, 406

Africa, 143

Agricultural Credit Act, 499

Agricultural Wetland Reserve Program, 12, 52, 285-286, 288-289, 366 , 371

Agriculture

Conservation Reserve Program, 9, 51, 285-286, 288, 302, 500, 507

export policy, 49-50

extent of land under, 21, 22

federal policy, general, 49-50

floodplains, uses, 176, 198

lakes, nonpoint runoff, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 393-397

pollution, general, 47

rivers, general, 176, 198, 201, 417

rivers, nonpoint runoff 9, 171-172, 191-192, 416-417, 481-482

wetlands, lost to, 34, 50, 194, 277, 280, 283, 284, 285, 295, 299, 300-301, 302, 492, 497, 505-506

wetlands, restoration of farmlands to, 4, 9, 12, 35, 51, 52, 270, 284-286, 288-289, 300, 301, 302, 307, 309, 320-321, 354, 366, 371, 500, 507-509

Air quality and pollution 47

Clean Air Acts, 47, 144, 373

lakes, non-acid pollutants, 77, 86-87

standards, 144

see also Acidification

Alabama, 136

Alaska, 262

Alewives, 82, 388

Algal blooms, 78, 84, 105, 112, 115-134, 147, 148, 153, 199, 394

Aluminum, 83, 112, 124, 126-129

American Fisheries Society, 193

American Rivers Conservation Council, 169, 208

Anadromous fish, see Salmonids

Anadromous Fish Restoration Program, 468

Arizona, 167

Arkansas, 346



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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Index A Acidification ecoregion approach, 202-204 fish, 84-85 lakes, 32, 73, 76, 83-85, 92-95, 144, 146 mine drainage, 33-34, 76, 169, 171, 203 rivers, 33-34, 202-204 Adaptive Environmental Assessment, 345-346 Advocacy, environmental, 35, 51, 52, 437-438, 507 lakes, 169, 208, 234-235, 247-248 rivers, 272, 402, 406 Africa, 143 Agricultural Credit Act, 499 Agricultural Wetland Reserve Program, 12, 52, 285-286, 288-289, 366 , 371 Agriculture Conservation Reserve Program, 9, 51, 285-286, 288, 302, 500, 507 export policy, 49-50 extent of land under, 21, 22 federal policy, general, 49-50 floodplains, uses, 176, 198 lakes, nonpoint runoff, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 393-397 pollution, general, 47 rivers, general, 176, 198, 201, 417 rivers, nonpoint runoff 9, 171-172, 191-192, 416-417, 481-482 wetlands, lost to, 34, 50, 194, 277, 280, 283, 284, 285, 295, 299, 300-301, 302, 492, 497, 505-506 wetlands, restoration of farmlands to, 4, 9, 12, 35, 51, 52, 270, 284-286, 288-289, 300, 301, 302, 307, 309, 320-321, 354, 366, 371, 500, 507-509 Air quality and pollution 47 Clean Air Acts, 47, 144, 373 lakes, non-acid pollutants, 77, 86-87 standards, 144 see also Acidification Alabama, 136 Alaska, 262 Alewives, 82, 388 Algal blooms, 78, 84, 105, 112, 115-134, 147, 148, 153, 199, 394 Aluminum, 83, 112, 124, 126-129 American Fisheries Society, 193 American Rivers Conservation Council, 169, 208 Anadromous fish, see Salmonids Anadromous Fish Restoration Program, 468 Arizona, 167 Arkansas, 346

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Arkansas River, 370-371 Army Corps of Engineers, 359, 360, 363, 371 dams, 200, 219, 451, 454 demonstration projects, wetlands, 49 dredging, 33, 109, 194, 404, 405, 406 lakes, 87, 108-109 rivers, 194, 229-230, 402, 404-411, 451, 453, 471-472, 479-480, 484 , 492-493 wetlands, 49, 286-287, 289, 290, 513, 514 wetlands, alteration permits see Section 404 permits Artificial circulation, 132-133, 140 Artificial marsh creation, 18, 123, 203 ASIWPCA, 87-91 Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators , 192 Atchafalaya River, 244, 363, 398-406 Australia, 143 B Bank stabilization, rivers, 170, 207, 221, 228, 427, 428, 454, 470 -477 Baseline and reference data, 19, 60 rivers, 173-174, 187, 188, 194, 244-245, 487 watersheds, 346-347 wetlands, 11, 300, 323-324, 328-329, 331 Bays, topographic Carolina Bay, 299-300 Chesapeake Bay, 53, 353, 358 San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296-299, 319, 321 San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295 Benefit-cost analysis4, 358-359 river restoration, 410-411, 473-474 Best management practices, 351 lakes, 115, 124-125, 141 Bioaccumulation, 83, 86, 95, 96, 146-147, 148, 199, 380, 389-391 Biogeochemical cycles lake acidification and, 83 restoration of, 18 wetlands, 12, 331 Biological agents, 319 lake restoration, 73, 121-12, 131, 134-137, 153 Biomanipulation, see Food web management Biotechnical engineering, 217-218, 247 Blanco River, 173, 181, 217, 218, 229-230, 470-477 Boats, 201-202 lampreys, 82, 202, 212, 387, 388 navigation, 201-202, 287, 366-367, 404, 406-409 zebra mussels, 82, 305 Buffers, wetlands, 11, 321 Bureau of Land Management, 49, 193-194, 246, 461 Bureau of Reclamation, 43, 289 Bush administration, 34-35, 51, 262, 307, 351 C California, 283, 307, 317, 326 Mattole River, 172, 173, 457-463 San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296-299, 319, 321 San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295 California Coastal Conservancy, 353 California Sea Grant Program, 327 Canada lakes, 83, 92, 95, 145, 353, 385 wetlands, 300 see also Prairie potholes Carolina Bay, 299-300 Carrying capacity, 67 Case studies, 17, 379-518 lakes, 104, 112-113, 118-121, 123, 127-129, 136, 142, 380-398, rivers, 167-168, 170-171, 203, 218, 219, 228, 234-235, 398-496 wetlands, 272-275, 294-295, 297-299, 302, 496-518 Channelization, 1-2, 169, 180-181, 183, 186, 194-195, 207, 229, 302 , 417, 470-495 extent of, 33 Palmiter method, 173, 174, 221-222 surveillance, 9-10 see also Bank stabilization; Dikes and levees Charles River, 268 Chesapeake Bay, 53, 353, 358 Civilian Conservation Corps, 211, 222, 461 Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States, 231, 247 Classification systems greenways, 216

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy lakes, strees factors, 76-97, 107-108 rivers, 9, 166, 188-206, 231-232, 247, 248 wetlands, 8, 231, 247, 262-264, 277-278 see also Definitional issues Clean Air Acts, 47, 144, 373 Clean Lakes Program, 7, 72-73, 107-109, 110, 149, 150, 364 Clean Water Acts, 9, 34, 44-47, 72-73, 191, 262, 279, 285, 287, 288 , 295, 307, 360, 369, 414-415, 437, 465, 468, 469, 482, 499, 506 Clear Lake, 123 Climate change, global, 36, 177, 280-282 Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana, 52 Coastal Ocean Program, 327, 367 Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, 52, 287 Coastal zones, 52 rivers and, 177 wetlands, 35, 271, 272-275, 281-283, 287, 310, 311, 315, 331 wetlands, tidal action, 272-273, 282-283, 314-315 see also Bays, topographic; Estuaries Colorado, 216-217, 228 Blanco River, 173, 181, 217, 218, 229-230, 470-477 Connecticut, 331 Conservation and conservationists advocacy organizations, 35, 51, 52, 169, 208, 222, 235, 272, 402, 406, 507 historical perspective, 41 see also Refuges Conservation Reserve Program, 9, 51, 285-286, 288, 302, 500, 507 Copper, 133-134, 199 Cost factors, 351, 361, 372 bank stabilization, 221 benefit-cost analysis, 4, 358-359, 410-411, 473-474 dam removal, 220 federal cost-sharing, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493 flood control, 268-269, 365 flood insurance premiums, 365 grazing on federal lands, 193-194 lake restoration, 6, 73, 107, 110, 111, 122, 124, 129, 133, 134, 137, 142, 144, 153, 215 opportunity-cost analysis, 4, 358-359 project scaling, 59 restoration, national, 35-36 river dredging, 33 river restoration, 179, 221, 247, 410-411, 473-474, 482, 490, 494 wastewater treatment, 27, 350 water rights marketing, 373 wetland restoration, 270-271, 283, 286, 307, 308, 490, 494, 502 Council on Competitiveness, 35 Council on Environmental Quality, 148, 267, 279, 288, 363 Court cases, see Litigation Czechoslovakia, 123 D Dams, 26, 33, 166, 186, 188, 200-201, 219-221, 451, 454, 455, 514 COE, 200, 219, 451, 454 history, 41, 51, 200 lake outflow control, 79 natural, 178 navigation, 201-202, 406 removal costs, 220 thermal effects, 170 Data bases, 347 lakes, 87-97, 109-110 rivers, 231-232 wetlands, 11, 331 DDT, 147, 389 Definitional issues ecologic restoration and related terms, 2, 5, 17-21, 293, 352, 360 greenways, 216 hydrological restoration, 21, 62 integrated resource management, 341 lake restoration, 72, 74, 97-104 nonstructural techniques, 209 restoration, general, 16, 17-21, 68, 360 rivers and river restoration, 170, 185, 207, 209, 217-218, 231 wetlands, 34-35, 262-264, 279, 293 see also Classification systems Delta Experimental Forest, 498, 500 Demonstration projects, 17 lake restoration, 108, 120-121 river restoration, 51, 484-495 watersheds, 7 wetlands, 49 see also Case studies

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Department of Agriculture, 4, 49-50, 52, 194, 285-286, 360 Farmers Home Administration, 51, 285, 289, 500 Depressional wetlands, 283, 291-292 prairie potholes, 51, 55-56, 284-285, 291, 300-301, 312, 505-509 Des Plaines River, 22 Dikes and levees, 8, 9, 169, 176, 178, 180-181, 201, 207, 215, 247 , 269, 295, 300, 301, 370-371, 400-401, 402, 472 Dilution lake eutrophication control, 125 river capacities, 166, 169, 170 Dissolved oxygen, 27, 47 lakes, 130, 139-141 rivers, 182-183, 199-200, 414, 438, 467 Drainage, general rivers, 194-195 wetlands, 1-2, 41, 49, 270, 264-265, 284, 291-292, 300-301, 507-508 see also Section 404 permits Dredged Materials Research Program, 290 Dredging COE, 33, 109, 194, 404, 405, 406 lakes, 109, 114, 129, 141-142, 395 rivers, 33, 194, 404, 405, 406 wetlands, 292, 296 see also Section 404 permits see also Channelization Drinking water, 6, 133, 150 Ducks Unlimited, 507 E Easements, 9, 51, 286, 288-289, 427, 492, 500, 507, 508 Economic factors federal incentives, wetland losses, 50-51 financing of land and water markets, 3 fishing, 75, 176-177, 206, 294, 429, 452 lake uses, 32, 42, 75-76, 143-144, 148, 149-150, 388 restoration projects, 30 rivers, 176-177, 207, 208, 427 tax policy, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491 wetlands, 14, 15, 268-270, 301, 307, 490-491 see also Cost factors; Funding Ecoregion approach, 36, 60, 358, 368-369 acidification, 202-204 historical perspectives, 43-44 lakes, 88, 93-95, 97-104, 152 rivers, 98, 103, 187-188, 244-245 wetlands, 277-280, 329 Ecosystem perspective, general definitional issues, restoration, 2, 5, 17-21, 293, 352, 360 ecosystem function, 63-64, 65, 67-68, 326-327 lakes, 104-105, 147-148, 151 riverine-riparian, 175, 179-181, 184-187, 229-230, 232-233, 244, 489, 494 wetlands, 12, 303, 307, 324, 326-327, 329, 489, 494, 500-501, 517518 see also Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration Edmondson, W. T., 119 Education, 12-13 lakes, 154, 391 rivers, 230-231, 247-248, 466, 493 wetlands, 270, 293, 330 Egypt, 201 Electric generators, 26, 214, 219-220, 369, 474 Elwha River, 220 Emergency Wetlands Resources Act, 506 Emergent plants, 123-124, 197, 203, 296, 304, 482 Environmental Defense Fund, 35 Environmental Easement Program, 9 Environmental Protection Agency construction grants, 51, 364 historical perspectives, 44-47, 360, 363 lakes, 6, 7, 32, 72-73, 87-97, 107-109, 110, 120, 149, 150, 152, 343, 364, 391 rivers and streams, 27, 31, 230-231, 469 wetlands, 263, 289, 307, 310, 316-317, 318, 347, 372, 500 see also Section 404 permits Epilimnion, 127 Erosion and erosion control, 8, 32, 401, 428-428, 501 see also Bank stabilization Estuaries, 282-283, 315, 367, 460-461 Carolina Bay, 299-300 Chesapeake Bay, 53, 353, 358 Hackensack Meadowlands, 297-299, 374-375, 510-518 San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296-299, 319, 321 San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Europe lakes, 82, 83, 92, 119, 143, 145 landscape ecology, 342 rivers, 177 Eutrophication and eutrophic lakes, 14-15, 26, 32, 55-56, 73, 76, 77-79, 87, 91-92, 393-397 algal blooms, 78, 84, 105, 112, 115-134, 147, 148, 153, 199, 394 Lake Michigan, 380-381, 383-384, 385-386 Lake Washington, 74 models, 78-79, 121, 122-123, 153 research, 7 restoration technology, 97-103, 106, 115-141 surveys, 91-92 Evaluation, 16, 55-57, 64-69, 355-356 adaptive assessment, 345-346, 357-358 lake restoration, 74, 104-108, 110-112, 151, 153, 397 rivers, 169, 172, 173-175, 178, 187, 194, 206-208, 222, 231, 248, 410-411, 415-416, 454-455, 462-463, 466-467, 468-469, 477, 485-487 , 489-490, 492-494 social factors, 62-64, 68-69 wetlands, 290, 308-309, 312, 315-326, 328, 330, 489-490, 492-494, 500-501, 502, 503, 508-509, 516-518 see also Baseline and reference data; Restoration criteria; Surveillance and monitoring Everglades, 49-50, 51-52, 287, 480-481, 482 see also Kissimmee River Executive Order 11988, 499 Executive Order 11990, 499 F Fallon Paiote Shoshone Truckee Carson Pyramid Lake Settlement Act, 287 Farm Bill, see Food Security Act Farmers Home Administration, 51, 285, 289, 500 Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, 19 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology , 7, 152 Federal Emergency Management Agency, 365 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 219 Federal government, 16, 351, 353-376 agricultural policy, general, 49-50 cost sharing by, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493 flood control, 214-215, 480 floodplain management, 48-49, 214-215 grazing on federal lands, 193-194, 246 historical perspectives, 41-52 lake restoration, 107-109, 148-151, 152-153 landscape restoration, 356-357, 361, 369 local efforts, cooperation with, 4, 5, 352, 361, 370, 461-462 nonpoint pollution efforts, 46, 47, 372 public lands, 49-50, 193-194, 213, 246, 301 river restoration, 214-215, 420, 437-438, 461-462 states, cooperation with, 4, 51-53, 108, 286, 373-375 taxation, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491 water allocation, 53, 213, 287, 372-373 water quality, general, 44-47, 371-372 watershed demonstration projects, 7 wetlands, 9, 41, 49, 50-51, 285-289, 302, 306-310, 330 see also Army Corps of Engineers; Environmental Protection Agency; Laws, specific federal; National programs; Policy issues; other specific departments and agencies Federal Reserved Water Rights, 213 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 45, 191 see also Clean Water Acts Fencing, 216-217, 516 Fish and fisheries, 14, 29 acid pollution, 84-85 alewives, 82, 388 bioaccumulation, toxins, 83, 86, 95, 96, 146-147, 148, 199, 380, 389-391 consumption advisories, 86, 95, 96, 389-390 economic factors, 75, 176-177, 206, 294, 429, 452 floods and, 183-184 lakes, 75, 78, 81-83, 84-85, 86, 112-113, 131-132, 134-139, 140-141 , 147, 380, 383, 387-389, 393, 394, 395

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy lakes, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389 macrophytes, 81, 105, 134-139, 143, 153 models, 220-221, 462 rivers, 15, 28-29, 33, 166, 170-171, 172, 177-178, 179, 183-184, 187-188, 194-197, 201, 202, 204-206, 211-212, 217-218, 220-221, 222 -227, 229, 234-244, 245-246, 401, 403, 406-411, 413, 414, 416, 418 , 425, 427, 451-453, 462, 481 rivers, exotic species, 166, 201-202, 212 rivers, salmonids, 172, 197, 206, 212, 214, 220, 222, 223-227, 388 , 451-453, 454-455, 458, 459-463, 468 seasonal factors, 204-205, 403, 452 water quality management and, 112-113, 132, 147-148 wetlands, 268, 270, 294, 305-306, 403 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 265 Fish and Wildlife Service, 51, 171, 194, 215, 220, 222, 263, 284, 285, 343, 391, 406, 409, 468, 480, 507, 508, 509, 513 see also Refuges and preserves Flood insurance, 48, 215, 365-366, 491 Flood pulse concept, 401-402 Floodplains, 8, 30, 31, 175, 179-182, 201, 231-232, 291, 363, 401, 412-429, 477-496 agricultural uses, 176, 198 federal management, 48-49, 214-215 forested, 264, 301, 302, 304, 311-312, 496-505 nonstructural management, 48-49, 214-215, 365 riparian zone interactions, 169, 175, 184-187, 188, 207, 208, 232, 247 sedimentation, 176, 198, 264 urban, 167-168, 214 see also Forests and forestry; Riparian zones Floods and flood control, 14, 21, 22, 33, 367, 471-472 costs, 268-269, 365 dam failures, 219 federal programs, 214-215, 480 fisheries and, 183-184 historical perspective, 41-42, 471-472 lakes, 32, 79 laws, general, 41-42 rivers, 167-168, 174, 179-180, 183-184, 400-403, 415, 479, 480, 481 , 490 wetlands and, 268-269, 291, 286-287, 291, 294, 301, 302, 312, 491 wildlife and, 183-184 see also Dikes and levees Florida, 310, 327, 373 Everglades, general, 49-50, 51-52, 287, 480-481, 482 Kissimmee River, 51, 52-53, 169, 208, 291, 293, 296, 367, 477-496 Lake Apopka, 147, 393-398 lakes, other, 96, 107, 109, 135-136, 397 rivers, 202 Flow regime, 167-168, 170-171, 175, 178-181, 183, 189, 201, 214, 245-246, 247, 402-403, 454-455 low-flow augmentation, 438-439, 455 scour, 174, 179-180, 247, 461 Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act, 4, 9, 12, 52 Food and Drug Administration, 389-390 Food Security Act (Farm Bill), 50, 285, 286, 288, 371, 499, 500, 506 Food web management, 7, 67 lakes, 77, 82-83, 131-132, 148, 153, 387, 388, 396 wetlands, 265, 267-268, 269, 273-274, 295, 318 Foreign countries, see International perspectives and programs Forest Service, 49, 193-194, 222, 246, 300, 499 Forests and forestry rivers and, 33, 178, 192-194, 198, 403-404, 439-440, 457, 459, 463 timber harvesting, 49, 201, 211, 217, 439-449, 459, 497, 503 wetlands, 264, 301, 302, 304, 311-312, 496-505 Foxcote Reservoir, 124 Functional attributes, 67-68 lakes, 104 rivers and streams, 175, 185, 188 wetlands, 263, 265-271, 272-273, 283, 290, 317-318, 320, 322, 323, 325-327, 330 see also Hydrological conditions and functions Functional equivalency, 271, 275, 312, 323, 324-326, 373-374

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Functional improvement, 63-64, 272-275 Funding, 4 education programs, 154, 248 EPA construction grants, 51, 364 Everglades restoration, 51-52 federal cost-sharing, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493 federal restoration trust funds, 4, 51, 285, 289, 368-369 federal water resources development, 43, 366-367, 370-371 Kissimmee River restoration, 51 lake restoration, 7, 107-108, 110, 120, 149 154 Mississippi River restoration, 33, 407, 409 prioritization, 58, 107, 187, 208-209, 330, 347, 352 river restoration, 234, 248, 407-409, 414-415, 427, 454, 465, 469, 482, 484, 487, 492 wetlands restoration, 52, 273, 285-286, 287, 307, 323, 330, 482, 484, 487, 492, 493, 511 G General Accounting Office, 193-194, 246 Genetic issues, 60-61, 63, 69, 204-206, 313 Geological conditions, as structural characteristics, 66 Geological Survey, 208, 342, 346, 415, 438-439 Germany, 124 Global effects climate change, 36, 177, 280-282 sea level, 36, 37, 280-282 wetlands, 12, 15, 280-282 Grass carp, 135-136 Grazing, 8, 21, 49, 290, 299, 471 federal lands, 193-194, 246 fencing, 216-217 Government, see Federal government; Local efforts; Regulations; Standards; State-level efforts Great Lakes, 22, 71, 82, 87, 92, 95, 117, 119, 143, 202, 305, 342, 353 see also specific lakes Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, 342 Greenways, 30, 172, 216, 283, 439-440 Ground water lake restoration using, 145-146 recharge, 14 rivers, 167-168, 467-468 salinity, 36 wetlands, 263, 291, 292 Gulf of Mexico, 281, 315 H Hackensack Meadowlands, 297-299, 374-375, 510-518 Hatcheries, 204-205 Herbicides, 105, 139, 229, 515 Historical perspectives agency missions, 360 dams, 41, 51, 200 ecoregion approach, 43-44 EPA, 44-47, 360, 363 federal government, 41-52 floods and flood control, 41-42, 471-472 lakes, 72, 74, 82-83, 87-97, 104, 110-112, 118-121, 127-128, 135-136 , 380-383, 384-388, 393-397, 413-414 management trends, 41-54, 363 paleoecology, 7, 19 rivers, 33-34, 166, 176, 191-192, 194, 211, 214, 222, 412-414, 436 -438, 457-459, 463-464, 471-473, 497-499 watersheds, 42-43, 46, 346-347 wetlands, 10, 23, 264-265, 271, 276-277, 280, 284, 294-295, 296, 300, 302, 320, 497, 505, 513-515 see also Baseline and reference data; Case studies Human factors, see Social factors Hydrologic Services Program, 368 Hydrological conditions and functions Everglades, 51-52, 480-481 lakes, 79-80, 96, 98 models, 347, 367-368, 490, national units, 25 restoration, defined, 21, 62 rivers, 56, 172-173, 175, 186, 207, 223, 230, 231, 234, 283, 412-413 , 435-436, 467-468, 474, 479-481, 484-485 as structural characteristic, 66 urban areas, 22 wetlands, 24, 268-269, 277, 279, 283, 290-293, 297, 312, 321, 330, 500, 507-508, 513-514 see also Flow regimes Hypolimnion, 123, 127-128, 131, 139-140 Hypoheos, 182-183

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy I Idaho, 86 Illinois, 109-110, 142, 174, 191, 194, 199, 214, 215 Illinois River, 22, 169, 199-200 207, 215, 217, 412-432 Indiana, 103, 215 Inland Waterways Authorization Act, 407 Inland Waterways Commission, 42-43 Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration, 5-6, 7, 17, 341-349, 351 lakes, 147-148, 151 rivers, 175, 184-187 spatial dimension, 384, 344, 345-346, 347-348 wetlands, 307, 329 see also Landscape ecology; Watersheds Interagency coordination, 5, 7, 171, 343, 360, 361-362 lakes, 112, 150, 151, 152 wetlands, 285, 307-308, 514 Interdisciplinary approach, see Multidisciplinary approach Internal Revenue Service, 50 International Joint Commission, 95, 343 International perspectives and programs export policy, agriculture, 49-50 lakes, 73, 82, 83, 92, 95, 119, 124, 129, 143, 144-145, 342, 343, 385 landscape ecology, 342 rivers, 176, 177, 201 UN, 36 wetlands, 300 Iowa, 232 Iron, 124, 133 Insects as biocontrol agents, 135, 136-137, 153, 319 see also Pesticides Izaak Walton League, 406 K Kansas, 95 Kentucky, 109 Kissimmee River, 51, 52-53, 169, 208, 287, 291, 293, 296, 367, 477 -496 L Lake Apopka, 147, 393-398 Lake Baldwin, 136 Lake Coeur d'Alene, 86 Lake Erie, 82, 92, 385 Lake Huron, 92 Lake Kissimmee, 208 Lake Michigan, 22, 92, 96, 144, 147, 191, 210, 380-392, 413-414 Lake Okeechobee, 50, 207, 479, 480, 491 Lake Ontario, 92, 385 Lakes and reservoirs, 6-7, 21, 26, 71-164, 355, 454 acidification, 32, 73, 76, 83-85, 92-95, 144-146 advocacy, environmental, 169, 208, 234-235, 247-248 agricultural runoff, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 393-397 air pollutants, non-acid, 77, 86-87 artificial circulation, 132-133, 140 best management practices, 115, 124-125, 141 biological agents, restoration, 73, 121-122, 131, 134-137, 153 Canadian, 83, 92, 95, 145, 353, 385 case studies, 104, 112-113, 118-121, 123, 127-129, 136, 142, 380-398 classification, stress factors, 76-97, 107-108 COE, 87, 108-109 cost of restoration, 6, 73, 107, 110, 111, 122, 124, 129, 133, 134 , 137, 142, 144, 153, 215 dams, outflow control, 79 data bases, 87-97, 109-110 definitional issues, restoration, 72, 74, 97-104 demonstration projects, 108, 120-121 dissolved oxygen, 130, 139-141 dredging, 109, 114, 129, 141-142, 395 economic factors, 32, 42, 75-76, 143-144, 148, 149-150, 388 ecoregion approach, 88, 93-95, 97-104, 152 ecosystem perspective, general, 104-105, 147-148, 151 education on, 154, 391 EPA, 6, 7, 32, 72-73, 87-97, 107-109, 110, 120, 149, 150, 152, 343 , 364, 391 epilimnion, 127

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Europe, 82, 83, 92, 119, 143, 145 evaluation, 74, 104-108, 110-112, 151, 153, 397 existing conditions, 31-32, 71, 75-97 exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389 federal government, general, 107-109, 148-151, 152-153 fish, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389 fisheries, 75, 78, 81-83, 84-85, 86, 112-113, 131-132, 134, 139, 140-141, 147, 380, 383, 387-389, 393, 394, 395 floods and flood control, 32, 79 food web management, 77, 82-83, 131-132, 148, 153, 387, 388, 396 funding, 7, 107-108, 110, 120, 149, 154 ground water and, 145-146 historical perspectives, 72, 74, 82-83, 87-97, 104, 110-112, 118-121 , 127-128, 135-136, 380-383, 384-388, 393-397, 413-414 hydrology, 79-80, 96, 98 hypolimnion, 123, 127-128, 131, 139-140 interagency coordination, 112, 150, 151, 152 international perspectives, 73, 82, 83, 92, 95, 119, 124, 129, 143 , 144-145, 342, 343, 385 local restoration efforts, 117 macrophytes, 81, 105, 134-139, 143, 153 management, general, 105, 112-113, 115, 131-134, 142 morphology, general, 96, 98 nonpoint-source pollution, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 76-77, 122-124, 393-397 oligotrophic, 78, 85, 103 pesticides, 86-87, 95, 147, 389 planning, 107, 151, 151 point-source pollution, 76, 78-78, 380-381, 385, 395 recreation, 71, 75, 103, 118, 388 research on, 7-8, 152-154 restoration methodology, 97-103, 106, 113-147, 152-154, 380-398 rivers and, 98, 103, 147, 422-424 salinity, 79 seasonal factors, 123, 130, 140-141 sediments, 15, 31-32, 73, 79, 80, 85, 96, 98, 114-115, 129-130, 141 -142, 149, 386, 390-391, 395 social issues, 71, 75-76, 105-107, 141 standards, restoration criteria, 74, 104-107, 151 standards, water quality, 103, 117, 150 state-level efforts, 6-7, 72-73, 86, 87-88, 89, 91, 95-96, 108, 109 -110, 150, 151, 395-396 surveillance and monitoring, 73-75, 87-97, 91-92, 109-112, 150 thermal conditions, 26, 132-133, 140 toxic substances, 7, 32, 73, 76, 85-87, 95-96, 114, 126, 129, 131, 133-134, 139, 146-147, 149, 150, 153, 389-391 urban areas, 75, 380-381, 385 vegetation, emergent, 123-124, 197, 203, 296, 304, 482 vegetation, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389 vegetation, macrophytes, 81, 105, 148, 134-139, 153 wastewater, 76, 105-107, 112, 115, 117-122, 127-128, 385 water level, 79-80, 137-138, 395-396 water quality, general, 32, 71-72, 88, 90, 98-102, 105-106, 112-113 , 118-121, 146-147, 153 watersheds, 103, 113-125, 147-148, 151, 152-153 wetlands associated with, 74, 123-124, 137-138, 312 wildlife, 77, 91 see also Eutrophication and eutrophic lakes; Great Lakes; Phosphorus; specific lakes Lake Sammamish, 121 Lake Superior, 82, 96 Lake Toho, 397 Lake Trummen, 129 Lake Victoria, 143-144 Lake Washington, 74, 117, 118-119 Lampreys, 82, 202, 212, 387, 388 Landfill, 19, 292, 294, 296, 313-314, 512 see also Section 404 permits Landscape ecology, 60, 341, 343-344, 346-348 national program, 356-357, 361, 369 wetlands, 10, 272, 279-280, 290-291, 292, 301, 329, 504 see also Watersheds

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Laws, general flood control, 41-42 restoration, definitional issues, 19, 360 Laws, specific federal Agricultural Credit Act, 499 Clean Air Acts, 47, 144, 373 Clean Water Acts, 9, 34, 44-47, 72-73, 191, 262, 279, 285, 287, 288 , 295, 307, 360, 369, 414-415, 437, 465, 468, 469, 482, 499, 506 Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, 52, 287 Emergency Wetlands Resources Act, 506 Executive Orders 11988 and 11990, 499 Fallon Paiote Shoshone Truckee Carson Pyramid Lake Settlement Act, 287 Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act, 19 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 45, 191 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 265 Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act, 4, 9, 12, 52 Food Security Act (Farm Bill), 50, 285, 286, 288, 371, 499, 500, 506 Inland Waterways Authorization Act, 407 National Environmental Policy Act, 288, 363, 402 Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act, 453 Reclamation Act, 41 Sports and Fish Restoration Act, 234 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, 169 Swamplands Acts, 41, 49, 264 Tax Reform Act, 285 Water Quality Act, 108 Water Resources Development Acts, 48-49, 50, 53, 286-287, 354, 360 , 366, 371, 407, 409, 493, 499, 500 Water Resources Planning Act, 44, 363 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 9, 169, 466 Laws, state 210 dams, 219 greenways, 216 pollution control, 436, 438, 469 wetland restoration, 483, 487, 488-489, 491-492, 511, 512 water level, 215 water allocation, 166, 210, 212-214, 245, 287 League for Coastal Protection, 272 Legal issues, 306, 308, 320 see also Laws; Litigation; Private property; Regulations Levees, see Dikes and levees Limestone, 73, 145-146 Litigation, 272, 273, 369, 406, 482 Local efforts federal cooperation with, 4, 5, 352, 361, 370, 461-462 lake restoration, 117 river restoration, 419-420, 461-462 wastewater treatment, 45 wetland preserves, 317 Louisiana, 52, 136, 244, 280, 281, 286, 287, 320, 346, 363, 497-499 Low-flow augmentation, 438-439, 455 M Macrophytes, lakes, 81, 105, 134-139, 143, 153 Maine, 219 Management measures, general, 350-351, 361-362 adaptive, 345-346, 357-358 best management practices, 115, 124-125, 141, 351 defined, 20, 341 fisheries versus water quality, 112-113, 132, 147-148 floodplains, federal, 48-49, 214-215, 363 historical perspectives, 41-54, 363 lakes, 105, 112-113, 115, 131-134, 142 rivers, 178-184, 223, 234, 246-247, 403-405, 419-429, 460-462 state-level efforts, 52-54 wetlands, 321, 329 see also Nonstructural methods Mapping, 347 floodplains, 48 wetlands, 278 Massachusetts, 173, 215, 268, 464, 467 Mattole River, 172, 173, 457-463 Medical Lake, 112-113, 148 Mercury, 86, 96, 98, 148

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Merrimack River, 173, 463-469 Metals aluminum, 83, 112, 124, 126-129 copper, 133-134, 199 iron, 124, 133 mercury, 86, 96, 148 mining, toxic, 85-86, 169, 171 trace metals, general, 83, 85, 96 Methodology current study, 15-17, 379 lake restoration, 97-103, 106, 113-147, 152-154, 380-398 river restoration, 169-175, 187, 205, 209-230, 231, 246-247, 420-429 , 459-463, 465-469, 475-477 wetland restoration, 272-275, 282-320, 327, 330-331, 501-503, 515 516 wetlands, cumulative impacts, 280 see also Multidisciplinary approach; Nonstructural methods Mexico, 167 Michigan, 103, 174, 210-212 Microorganisms, 331 Milwaukee River, 220-221, 222 Mining acid pollution, 33-34, 76, 169, 171, 203 toxic metals, 85-86, 169, 171 wetlands, 294-295, 323 Minnesota, 53, 75, 95, 96, 98, 100-101, 103, 109, 110, 120-121, 123 , 284-285, 353 Mississippi, 136, 174, 496-505 Mississippi River, 33, 169, 177, 178, 181, 200, 207, 209, 232, 244 , 264, 283, 286, 301, 387, 404, 406-412 damming of, 33 wetlands, bottomland hardwoods, 496-505 Missouri, 234-235 Missouri River, 200, 366 Mitigation measures, general, 359 defined, 19-20 evaluation of, 64 lakes, 72, 105 wetlands, 298, 307-308, 317-318, 499, 511-512, 515-518 wetlands, ''no net loss" policy, 34, 35, 262-263, 307, 354-355, 500 see also Section 404 permits Models adaptive planning, 345-346, 357-358 hydrological, 347, 367-368, 490, lake eutrophication, 78-79, 121, 122-123, 153 river fisheries, 220-221, 462 wetland restoration, 270-271, 296, 301, 490 see also Demonstration projects Monitoring, see Surveillance and monitoring Morphology lakes, 96, 98 rivers, 172-173, 175, 180, 196-197, 207, 223, 230, 234, 435, 475-476 see also Channelization as structural characteristic, 66 Moses Lake, 125 Multidisciplinary approach current study methodology, 16-17 education for, 12-13 evaluation via, 65 interagency coordination, 5, 7, 112, 150, 151, 152, 171, 285, 307 308, 343, 360, 361-362, 391, 514 wetland restoration, 308, 494 see also Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration N National Acid Precipitation Program, 85, 202 National Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Trust Fund, 4, 368-369 National Environmental Policy Act, 288, 363, 402 National Eutrophication Survey, 91-92 National Flood Insurance Program, 48, 215 National Governors Association, 53 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 327, 367-368, 512 -513 National Park Service, 51, 219, 287 National programs, 3-5, 15, 35-37, 350-376 Clean Lakes Program, 7, 72-73, 107-109, 110, 149, 150, 364 costs, 35-36 flood control, 214-215 landscape ecology, 356-357, 361, 369 surveys, 9, 33-34, 35, 87-97, 169, 171, 176, 194, 248, 200, 202, 208, 248, 265, 355-356 watershed management, 42-44

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy National Research Council, 16, 148, 379 National Resources Planning Board, 42, 43 National Rivers Inventory, 208 National Surface Water Inventory, 33-34 National Surface Water Survey, 92-95, 202 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation , 176 National Wetland Inventory, 9, 169, 248 National Wetlands Policy Forum, 34 National Wildlife Federation, 402 Nature Conservancy, 52 Navigation, 201-202, 287, 366-367, 404, 406-409 Nebraska, 217 Nevada, 52, 287 New Hampshire, 109, 173, 463-469 New Jersey, Hackensack Meadowlands, 297-299, 374-375, 510-518 New York, 95, 96, 145, 510 Nile River, 201 Nonpoint-source pollution, 3, 15, 351 agricultural, 6, 9, 32, 103, 115, 150, 171-172, 191-192, 393-397, 416-417, 481-482 federal policy, 46, 47, 372 lakes, 6, 32, 103, 115, 150, 76-77, 122-124, 393-397 rivers, 191-193, 195, 441, 449 Nonprofit organizations, environmental advocates, 4, 35, 51, 52, 169, 208, 247-248, 272, 234-235, 402, 406, 437-438, 507 Nonstructural methods floodplain management, 48-49, 214-215, 363 river restoration, 209-217 see also Regulations North American Lake Management Society, 91, 109 North American Waterfowl Management Plan, 500 North Carolina, 85, 174, 318 O Oconee River, 216 Ohio, 101-103, 173 Oligotrophic lakes, 78, 103 acidification of, 85 Omnibus Water Bill, see Water Resources Development Acts Opportunity-cost analysis, 4, 358-359 Oregon wetlands, 264, 300, 305, 327 Willamette River, 170-171, 216, 433-456 Organizational issues federal-local coordination, 4, 5, 352, 361, 370, 461-462 federal planning, history, 42-52 interagency coordination, 5, 7, 112, 150, 151, 152, 171, 285, 307 308, 343, 360, 361-362, 391, 514 lake restoration, 112-113, 391 national restoration program, 3-4, 361-363 river restoration, 426-427 triage, restoration, 5, 151 wetland restoration, 306-310, 316, 499-500 see also Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration; Multidisciplinary approach; Planning Organochlorine compounds, 86-87, 95, 147, 389-391 Ouchita Wildlife Management Area, 497, 499, 502-503 P Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act, 453 Paleoecology, 7, 19, 153-154 Palmiter method, 173, 174, 221-222 Papua New Guinea, 143 Pere Marquette, 210, 211-212 Pesticides lakes, 86-87, 95, 147, 389 rivers, 199 Phosporous, 78, 79, 101, 102, 114, 115, 117, 119, 121-131, 147-148 , 153, 198, 395, 482, 491 Lake Michigan, 382-383, 384-387 Pinchot, Gifford, 41 Planning, 55-64, 68-69 adaptive, 345-346, 357-358 historical perspectives, 42-54 interagency coordination, 5, 7, 112, 150, 151, 152, 171, 285, 307 308, 343, 360, 361-362, 514 lakes, 107, 151, 151 large-scale restoration, 6, 369 local, 370

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy prioritization of goals, 58, 107, 187, 208-209, 330, 347, 352 rivers, 208-209, 223, 232-235, 244 triage, restoration, 5, 151 wetlands, 321, 329 Point-source pollution, 15, 372 lakes, 76, 78-79, 380-381, 385, 395 rivers, 169, 190-191 state control efforts, 53 Policy issues, 16, 352, 354-368 historical perspectives, 41-42, 50-52 national restoration strategy, 3-5, 10 taxation, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491 wastewater, 44-47, 371-372 wetlands, defined, 34-35, 262-264, 279, 293 wetlands, "no net loss," 34, 35, 262-263, 307, 354-355, 500 Political factors, 487-488, 499-500 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 86-87, 95-96, 148, 380, 389-391 Prairie potholes, 51, 55-56, 284-285, 291, 300-301, 312, 505-509 Precipitation (meteorology), 6, 22, 27, 122-123 see also Acidification "Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources," 215 Private property river restoration, 222, 234-235, 427, 469 wetlands, 270, 301, 308, 316, 320, 505-509 see also Easements Private sector, 373-375 environmental advocates, 4, 35, 51, 52, 169, 208, 247-248, 272, 234 -235, 402, 406, 437-438, 507 fishing, commercial, 206 restoration, general, 36 see also Agriculture; Grazing; Mining Preservation, 19-20 see also Conservation and conservationists; Refuges Projections dams, 200 lake restoration, 6 population, 36, 204 river restoration, 10, 403, 468 wetland restoration, 12, 354, 488 see also Global effects Public education, 12-13 lakes, 154, 391 rivers, 247-248, 466, 493 wetlands, 270, 293, 330 Public lands, federal, 49-50, 193-194, 213, 246, 301 Public opinion, 2, 12-13, 44, 402, 419, 483-484 Q Quayle, J. Danforth, 35 R Reclamation, 19, 20, 21, 169, 171 Reclamation Act, 41 Recreation resources and uses lakes, 71, 75, 103, 118, 388 rivers, 176-177, 178, 204-206, 211-212, 214, 234-235, 429 wetlands, 270, 330 Reference data, see Baseline and reference data Refuges, 497-498, 502-503 riverine, 402, 404-405, 406-411 wetland, 272-275, 280-281, 305, 317, 320 Regulations, 210 floodplains and riparian areas, 48-49, 209 hydroelectric dams, 219 restoration, definitional issues, 19 wetlands, 10, 262, 278, 307-310, 317, 491; see also Section 404 permits see also Standards Rehabilitation, 19, 20, 21, 72 Research and development, 16 lakes, 7-8, 152-154 rivers, 454 wetlands, 11, 270, 289-292, 327-329, 330-331, 501 see also Demonstration projects; Evaluation; Methodology; Surveillance and monitoring Reservoirs, see Lakes and reservoirs Resolution Trust Corporation, 51, 285, 289 Restoration criteria, 16, 57-59, 64, 65-68, 354-355 lakes, 74, 104-107, 151 rivers, 172, 178, 206-208, 410-411, 489-490, 494

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy wetlands, 290, 308-309, 316-317, 318-319, 320-326, 328, 500-501, 502, 508-509 Riparian zones, 172, 179 floodplain interactions with, 169, 175, 184-187, 188, 207, 208, 232 , 247 grazing, 8, 21, 49, 193-194, 216-217, 246, 290, 299, 471 Rivers and streams, 8-10, 165-261, 355, 362-363 acid pollution, 33-34, 202-204 advocacy, 272, 402, 406 agriculture, general, 176, 198, 201, 417 agriculture, nonpoint runoff, 9, 171-172, 191-192, 416-417, 481-482 bank stabilization, 170, 207 221, 228, 427, 428, 454, 470-477 baseline and reference data, 173-174, 187, 188, 194, 244-245, 487 benefit-cost studies, 410-411, 473-474 case studies, 167-168, 170-171, 203, 218, 219, 228, 234-235, 398-496 classification, stress factors, 9, 166, 188-206, 231-232, 247, 248 coastal, 177 see also Estuaries COE, 194, 229-230, 402, 404-411, 451, 453, 471-472, 479-480, 484, 492-493 cost of restoration, 179, 221, 247, 410-411, 473-474, 482, 490, 494 data bases, 231-232 definitional issues, restoration, 170, 185, 207, 209, 217-218, 231 demonstration projects, 51, 484-495 dilution, 166, 169, 170 dissolved oxygen, 182-183, 199-200, 414, 438, 467 dredging, 33, 194, 404, 405, 406 economic factors, 176-177, 207, 208, 427 ecoregion approach, 98, 103, 187-188, 244-245 ecosystem perspective, general, 175, 179-181, 184-187, 229-230, 232 -233, 244, 489, 494 education on, 230-231, 247-248, 466, 493 EPA, 27, 31, 230-231, 469 Europe, 177 evaluation, 169, 172, 173-175, 178, 187, 194, 206-208, 222, 231, 248, 410-411, 415-416, 454-455, 462-463, 466-467, 468-469, 477, 485 -487, 489-490, 492-494 existing conditions, 9, 27-31, 32-34, 165, 166, 176-178, 188-206, 208, 248 federal development policy, history, 41-43 federal restoration efforts, 214-215, 420, 437-438, 461-462 fish, 15, 28-29, 33, 166, 170-171, 172, 177-178, 179, 183-184, 187 -188, 194-197, 201, 202, 204-206, 211-212, 217-218, 220-221, 222-227 , 229, 234-244, 245-246, 401, 403, 406-411, 413, 414, 416, 418, 425 , 427, 451-453, 462, 481 fish, exotic species, 166, 201-202, 212 fish, salmonids, 172, 197, 206, 212, 214, 220, 222, 223-227, 388, 451-453, 454-455, 458, 459-463, 468 floods and flood control, 167-168, 174, 179-180, 183-184, 400-403, 415, 479, 480, 481, 490 flow augmentation, 166, 169, 170, 171 forests, 33, 178, 192-194, 198, 403-404, 439-440, 457, 459, 463 functional attributes, 175, 185, 188 funding, 234, 248, 407-409, 414-415, 427, 454, 465, 469, 482, 484, 487, 492 ground water, 167-168, 467-468 historical perspectives, 33-34, 166, 176, 191-192, 194, 211, 214, 222, 412-414, 436-438, 457-459, 463-464, 471-473, 497-499 hydroelectric generators, 26, 214, 219-220, 369, 474 hydrology, 56, 172-173, 175, 186, 207, 223, 230, 231, 234, 283, 412 -413, 435-436, 467-468, 474, 479-481, 484-485 hypoheos, 182-183 international perspectives, 176, 177, 201 lakes and, 98, 103, 147, 422-424 local efforts, 419-420, 461-462 management, general, 178-184, 223, 234, 246-247, 403-405, 419-429, 460-462 morphology, 172-173, 175, 180, 196-197, 207, 223, 230, 234, 435, 475-476 nonpoint-source pollution, 191-193, 195, 441, 449 pesticides, 199

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy planning, general, 208-209, 223, 232-235, 244 point-source pollution, 169, 190-191 private property, 222, 234-235, 427, 469 projections, 10, 403, 468 recreations, 176-177, 178, 204-206, 211-212, 214, 234-235, 429 refuges, 402, 404-405, 406-411 research on, 454 restoration criteria, 172, 178, 206-208, 410-411, 489-490, 494 restoration methodology, 169-175, 187, 205, 209-230, 231, 246-247, 420-429, 459-463, 465-469, 475-477 salinity, 177, 400-401, 481 scour, 174, 179-180, 247, 461 seasonal factors, 33, 167, 170, 174-175, 181, 188-189, 207, 403, 415, 426, 436, 438-439, 479-480 sediments, 33, 172, 174, 176, 177, 180, 192-193, 195-200, 207, 230 , 401, 402-403, 409, 416-419, 420-429, 459, 461, 472, 474, 475 social factors, 165-166, 402, 419, 426-427 spatial dimension, 172-173, 174, 180, 181-183, 185, 209, 244 state-level efforts, 173, 210, 212-213, 234-235, 244, 420, 437-438 , 439-451, 461-462, 482-495 surveillance and monitoring, 9, 175, 222, 244-245, 247, 409-410, 415-416, 444-447, 484-485 temporal dimension, 175, 180, 181, 189, 207, 214, 217, 244, 409-411 , 424 thermal conditions, 28, 170, 174, 183, 200, 436, 453, 454-455, 457 topography, 196-197 toxic substances, 33, 166, 198, 199, 441, 450-451 university programs, 248, 286, 419 urban development, 167-168, 172, 191-192, 214, 414-415 vegetation, 15, 173, 174, 175, 194-198, 207, 418-425, 427-429, 461 wastewater, 165-166, 170, 191, 413-416, 436-455, 463-469 water quality, 27-29, 98, 103, 166, 169, 170, 179, 189, 191, 231, 413-429, 436-455, 441-469 wetlands associated with, 283, 286, 287, 291, 293, 295, 300, 301, 312, 403, 477-495, 514 wildlife, 166, 175, 177-178, 181, 183-184, 188-189, 194-195, 202, 403-404, 406-411 wildlife, exotic species, 166, 201-202, 212 see also Channelization; Dams; Dikes and levees; Floodplains; Flow regimes; Greenways; Riparian zones; Watersheds; specific rivers Roosevelt, Franklin D., 42 Roosevelt, Theodore, 42 Runoff, 6, 22, 27, 122-123 see also Nonpoint-source pollution Russell Sage National Wildlife Refuge System, 320, 499 S Sacramento River, 295 Salinity, 295, 300, 513 ground water, 36 lakes, 79 rivers, 177, 400-401, 481 Salmon River, 300 Salmonids, 172, 197, 206, 212, 214, 220, 222, 223-227, 388, 451-453 , 454-455, 458, 459-463, 468 San Diego Bay, 61, 271, 272-275, 296, 299, 319, 321 San Francisco Bay, 61, 294-295 San Joaquin River, 295 San Juan River, 228, 472, 473, 476 Santa Cruz River, 167-168 Savannah River, 300 Scale issues, 36, 59-60, 345-346, 347-348, 361, 369, 424, 517 see also National programs Scandinavia, 73, 144-145 Scheduling issues, 59 wetlands, evaluation periods, 319 Scour, rivers, 174, 179-180, 247, 461 Sea level, 36-37, 280-282 see also Tidal action Seasonal factors fish, 204-205, 403, 452 lakes, 123-130, 140-141 migratory wildlife, 344 see also Salmonids; Waterfowl reservoirs rivers, 33, 167, 170, 174-175, 181, 188-189, 207, 403, 415, 426, 436, 438-439, 479-480

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy thermal factors, 26 wetlands, 262, 505 Section 404 permits, 46-47, 262-263, 279-280, 287-288, 307, 317, 373-375, 474, 475, 479-480, 484, 492-493, 499, 512 Sedimentation and sediment-water systems, 1 dams and, 200 floodplains, 176, 198, 264 lakes, 15, 31-32, 73, 79, 80, 85, 96, 98, 114-115, 129-130, 141-142 , 149, 386, 390-391, 395 rivers, 33, 172, 174, 176, 177, 180, 192-193, 195-200, 207, 230, 401, 402-403, 409, 416-419, 420-429, 459, 461, 472, 474, 475 turbidity, 28, 172, 195-196, 198-199, 416-418 wetlands, 12, 264, 269, 274-275, 283, 293, 327, 330, 331 see also Dredging; Erosion and erosion>control Selenium, 85 Shagawa Lake, 120-121 Sierra Club, 272, 406 Social factors, 62-64, 68-69, 350-352 evaluation and, 62-64, 68-69 fish consumption advisories, 86, 95, 96, 389-390 lakes, 71, 75-76, 105-107, 141 opportunity-cost analysis, 4, 358-359 planning and, 62-64 politics, 487-488, 499-500 population, 36, 191, 204, 436 public opinion, 2, 12-13, 44, 402, 419, 483-484 rivers, 165-166, 402, 419, 426-427 water resources planning, 44, 235 wetlands, 269-271 see also Public opinion; Recreational resources and uses Soil conditions as structural characteristic, 66 see also Erosion and erosion control; Sedimentation and sediment-water systems Soil Conservation Service, 43, 51, 194, 284, 286, 342 South Carolina, 281, 300 Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, 498, 500, 502 Spatial dimension heterogeneity, assessment measurement, 66, 324 integrated ecosystem restoration, 342, 344, 345-346, 347-348 large rivers, 173, 185, 209, 244 project scale, 36, 59-60, 345-346, 361, 369, 424, 517 rivers, general, 180, 181-183, 185 small lakes, 143 small rivers, 172-173, 174, 185 wetlands, 324 Sports and Fish Restoration Act, 234 Springfield Lake, 142 Standards air quality, 144 drinking water, 6, 133, 150 lake water quality, 103, 117, 150 prioritization of goals, 58, 107, 187, 208-209, 330, 347, 352 product standards, 117 wastewater effluent, 46, 372 water quality, 6, 46, 103, 117, 150, 372, 438, 465, 467 see also Baseline and reference data; Restoration criteria State-level efforts, 52-53, 353, 370 federal cooperation with, 4, 51-53, 108, 286, 373-375 federal cost-sharing, 43, 45, 51, 72-73, 108, 150, 352, 474, 493 fish consumption advisories, 86, 95, 96, 389-390 historical perspectives, 51-54 integrated ecosystem restoration, 342 lakes, 6-7, 72-73, 86, 87-88, 89, 91, 95-96, 108, 109-110, 150, 151 , 395-396 point-source pollution, 53 rivers, 173, 210, 212-213, 234-235, 244, 420, 437-438, 439-451, 461 -462, 482-495 wetlands, 49-50, 51-52, 53, 271, 276, 277, 295, 297-299, 482-495 see also Laws, state; specific states Stewardship 2000, 507 Stillwater wetlands, 52, 287 Streams, seeRivers and streams

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Structural attributes, 65, 66-77, 104, 175, 188, 321, 323, 351 see also Hydrological conditions and functions Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, 169 Surveillance and monitoring, 6, 15, 355-357 channelization, 9-10 lakes, 73-75, 87-97, 91-92, 109-112, 150 national programs, 9, 33-34, 35, 87-97, 169, 171, 176, 194, 248, 200, 202, 208, 248, 265, 355-356 planning for, 59, 64 rivers, 9, 175, 222, 244-245, 247, 409-410, 415-416, 444-447, 484 485 wetlands, 322-323, 328, 516 see also Baseline and reference data Swampbuster program, 50, 285 Swamplands Acts, 41, 49, 264 Sweden, 129, 145 Sweetwater Marsh National Wildlife Refuge, 272-275 Switzerland, 119 Systems perspective, see Ecosystem perspective; Integrated aquatic ecosystem restoration T Tax policy, 50, 169, 171, 209, 285, 406, 491 Tax Reform Act, 285 Technical assistance, 13, 248, 454 wetlands drainage, 49 Temporal dimension assessment criteria, 66, 153, 319, 322-323, 324 integrated ecosystem restoration, 344, 347 lakes, 153 rivers, 175, 180, 181, 189, 207, 214, 217, 244, 409-411, 424 scheduling issues, 59, 319 wetlands, 263, 319, 322-323, 324, 326-327, 329-330 see also Historical perspectives; Seasonal factors Tennessee River, 177 Tennessee Valley Authority, 43, 88, 289 Tensas National Wildlife Refuge, 497-499 Tensas River, 280, 346-347 Texas, 136 Thermal conditions electric generators, 26 lakes, artificial circulation, 132-133, 140 reservoirs, 26 rivers, 28, 170, 174, 183, 200, 436, 453, 454-455, 457 wetlands, 310-311 Tidal action wetlands, 272-273, 282-283, 310, 314-315, 515, 516 see also Estuaries Topographic factors, 20-21 rivers, 196-197 as structural characteristic, 66-67 wetlands, 277, 280, 283, 284, 292, 327, 515 see also Depressional wetlands; Landscape ecology Toxic substances, 26-27, 47 algicides, lakes, 133-134 bioaccumulation, 83, 86, 95, 96, 146-147, 148, 199, 380, 389-391 herbicides, 105, 139, 229, 515 lakes, 7, 32, 73, 76, 85-87, 95-96, 114, 126, 129, 131, 133-134, 139, 146-147, 149, 150, 153, 389-391 mercury, 86, 96, 148 mining and, 85-86, 169, 171 organochlorine compounds, 86-87, 95, 147, 389-391 PCBs, 86-87, 95-96, 148, 380, 389-391 pesticides, 86-87, 95, 147, 199, 389 rivers and streams, 33, 166, 198, 199, 441, 450-451 wetlands, 292, 313 see also Acidification Trace metals, 83, 85, 96 Truman, Harry S., 42 Turbidity, 28, 172, 195-196, 198-199, 416-418 U "Unified National Program for Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration," 362-363 "Unified National Program for Flood-plain Management," 48, 362 A Unified National Program for Managing Flood Losses, 214-215 United Kingdom, 124, 145, 176

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy United Nations, 36 Universities and colleges lakes, 152 rivers, 248, 286, 419 technical assistance by, 13, 286 wetlands, 286 Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, 407 Urban development, 21-22 floodplains, 167-168, 214 lakes, 75, 380-381, 385 rivers, 167-168, 172, 191-192, 214, 414-415 wetlands, 270, 277, 283, 293, 297-299, 307, 312, 317, 330, 510-511 , 513-514 U.S.Fish and Wildlife Wetlands Inventories, 265 V Vegetation endangered species, 303 genetic issues, restoration planning, 60-61, 63, 69, 313 herbicides, 105, 139, 229, 515 integrated ecosystem restoration, 341, 343-345 lakes, emergent plants, 123-124, 197, 203, 296, 304, 482 lakes, exotic species, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389 lakes, macrophytes, 81, 105, 148, 134-139, 153 rivers, 15, 173, 174, 175, 194-198, 207, 418-425, 427-429, 461 as structural characteristic, 66 wetland, 11, 264, 272-275, 290, 292, 297, 303, 304, 311, 313, 318 319, 329, 508, 509, 513-517 wetlands, exotic species, 268, 305-306, 311, 327 see also Forests and forestry W Wahnback Reservoir, 124 Washington, 74, 112-113, 117, 118-119, 121, 125, 126, 148 Wastes, solid, 511, 512, 517 Wastewater and wastewater treatment, 26, 27 costs, 27, 350 federal policy, general, 44-47, 371-372 lakes, 76, 105-107, 112, 115, 117-122, 127-128, 385 local efforts, 317 rivers and streams, 165-166, 170, 191, 413-416, 436-455, 463-469 standards, 46, 372 wetlands, 62, 269, 295, 371-372 see also Nonpoint-source pollution; Point-source pollution Water allocation, 9, 210, 212-214, 245-246, 372-373 federal policy, 53, 213, 287, 372-373 Western water law, 166, 210, 214, 245, 287 Water consumption and supply, 24-26, 71, 246, 373 drinking water, 6, 133, 150 Waterfowl, 267, 304, 311, 345, 418, 425, 481, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516 Water quality and pollution, 27, 44-47, 350 federal policy, general, 44-47, 371-372 fisheries management and, 112-113, 132, 147-148 lakes, 32, 71-72, 88, 90, 98-102, 105-106, 112-113, 118-121, 146-147 , 153 lakes, standards, 103, 117, 150 rivers and streams, 27-29, 98, 103, 166, 169, 170, 179, 189, 191, 231, 413-429, 436-455, 441-469 standards, 6, 46, 103, 117, 150, 372, 438, 465, 467 as structural characteristic, 66 wetlands, 62, 269, 277, 292, 293, 371-372, 516 see also Acidification; Eutrophication and eutrophic lakes; Nonpoint-source pollution; Phosphorus; Point-source pollution; Salinity; Toxic substances Water levels floodplains, 215 lakes, 79-80, 137-138, 395-395 manipulation of, general, 24 sea level, 36-37, 280-282 wetlands, 280-282, 306-307 Water Quality Act, 108 Water Resources Council, 44, 363 Water Resources Development Acts, 48-49, 50, 53, 286-287, 354, 360 , 366, 371, 407, 409, 493, 499, 500

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy Water Resources Forecasting Service, 367-368 Water Resources Planning Act, 44, 363 Watersheds, 320, 501, 504, 508 baseline and reference data, 346-347 demonstration projects, 7 erosion control, 8, 32, 401, 428-428, 501 historical perspectives, planning, 42-43, 46, 346-347 integrated ecosystem restoration, 341, 342, 344, 353 lakes, 103, 113-125, 147-148, 151, 152-153 water quality, ecoregion approach, 103 see also Erosion and erosion control; Sedimentation and sediment-water systems West and East Twin Lakes, 127-128 Wetlands, 10-12, 262-340, 354-355 agricultural displacement of, 34, 50, 194, 277, 280, 283, 284, 285 , 295, 299, 300-301, 302, 492, 497, 505-506 agricultural land, restoration to, 4, 9, 12, 35, 51, 52, 270, 284 286, 288-289, 300, 301, 302, 307, 309, 371, 320-321, 354, 366, 371 , 500, 507-509 artificial marsh creation, 18, 123, 203 baseline and reference data, 11, 300, 323-324, 328-329, 331 biogeochemical cycles, 12, 331 buffers, 11, 321 case studies, 272-275, 294-295, 297-299, 302, 496-518 classification, stress factors, 8, 231, 247, 262-264, 277-278 COE, 49, 286-287, 289, 290, 513, 514 see also Section 404 permits coastal, 35, 271, 272-275, 281-283, 310, 311, 315, 331 see also Estuaries coastal, tidal action, 272-273, 282-283, 314-315 cost of restoration, 270-271, 283, 286, 307, 308, 490, 494, 502 data bases, 11, 331 definitional issues, restoration, 34-35, 262-264, 279, 293 demonstration projects, 49 drainage of, 1-2, 41, 49, 270, 264-265, 284, 291-292, 300-301, 507 -508 dredging, 292, 296 economic factors, 14, 15, 268-270, 297, 301, 307, 490-491 ecoregion approach, 277-280, 329 ecosystem perspective, general, 12, 303, 307, 324, 326-327, 329, 489, 494, 500-501, 517-518 education on, 270, 293, 330 EPA, 263, 289, 307, 310, 316-317, 318, 347, 372, 500 evaluation, 290, 308-309, 312, 315-326, 328, 330, 489-490, 492-494 , 500-501, 502, 503, 508-509, 516-518 existing conditions, 34-35, 265, 271, 277 federal efforts, general, 9, 41, 49, 50-51, 285-289, 302, 306-310, 330 fish, 268, 270, 294, 295, 305-306, 403 flood control functions of, 268-269, 291, 286-287, 291, 294, 301, 302, 312, 491 food web management, 265, 267-268, 269, 273-274, 295, 318 forests, 264, 301, 302, 304, 311-312, 496-505 functional attributes, 263, 265-271, 272-273, 283, 290, 317-318, 320, 322, 323, 325-327, 330 funding, 52, 273, 285-286, 287, 307, 323, 330, 482, 484, 487, 492, 493, 511 global change, 12, 15, 280-282 ground water, 263, 291, 292 historical perspectives, 10, 23, 264-265, 271, 276-277, 280, 284, 294-295, 296, 300, 302, 320, 497, 505, 513-515 hydrology, 24, 268-269, 277, 279, 283, 290-293, 297, 312, 321, 330 , 500, 507-508, 513-514 interagency coordination, 285, 307-308, 514 lake-associated, 74, 123-124, 137-138, 312 landscape ecology, 10, 272, 279-280, 290-291, 292, 301, 329, 504 local preservation, 317 mining, 294-295, 323 mitigation measures, general, 19-20, 298, 307-308, 317-318, 499, 511-512, 515-518 mitigation measures, "no net loss" policy, 34, 35, 262-263, 307, 354-355, 500 models, 270-271, 296, 301, 490 planning, 321, 329

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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy private property, 270, 301, 308, 316, 320, 505-509 projections, 12, 354, 488 R&D, 11, 270, 289-292, 327-329, 330-331, 501 recreation, 270, 330 refuges, 272-275, 280-281, 305, 317, 320 regulations, 10, 262, 278, 307-310, 317, 491 research on, 11, 270, 289-292, 327-329, 330-331, 501 restoration criteria, 290, 308-309, 316-317, 318-319, 320-326, 328 , 500-501, 502, 508-509 restoration methodology, 272-275, 282-320, 327, 330-331, 501, 503, 515-516 restoration models, 270, 271, 296, 301, 490 rivers, associated, 283, 286, 287, 291, 293, 295, 300, 301, 312, 403, 477-495, 514 seasonal factors, 262, 505 sediments, 12, 264, 269, 274-275, 283, 293, 327, 330, 331 social factors, 269-271 state laws, 483, 487, 488-489, 491-492, 511, 512 state-level efforts, other, 49-50, 51-52, 53, 271, 276, 277, 295, 297-299, 482-495 surveillance and monitoring, 322-323, 328, 516 temporal dimension, 263, 319, 322-323, 324, 326-327, 329-330 thermal conditions, 310-311 topographic factors, 277, 280, 283, 284, 292, 327, 515 see also Depressional wetlands toxic substances, 292, 313 urban areas, 270, 277, 283, 293, 297-299, 307, 312, 317, 330, 510 511, 513-514 vegetation, 11, 264, 272-275, 290, 292, 297, 313, 303, 304, 311, 313, 318-319, 329, 508, 509, 513-517 vegetation, exotic species, 268, 305-306, 311, 327 wastewater, 62, 269, 295, 371-372 water levels, 280-282, 306-307 water quality, 62, 269, 277, 292, 293, 371-372, 516 wildlife, 11, 265-268, 272-274, 281, 289, 290, 292, 297, 304-306, 405, 318-319, 329, 330, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516, 517-518 wildlife, exotic species, 268, 280, 305-306 see also Floodplains; Lakes; Riparian zones; Section 404 permits Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 9, 169, 466 Wildlife, 14 endangered and extinct, 2, 3, 91, 177-178, 222, 229, 265, 272-274, 280, 304-305, 345 exotic species, lakes, 78, 80-83, 96, 134, 137-138, 142-144, 387-389 exotic species, rivers, 166, 201-202, 212 exotic species, wetlands, 268, 280, 305-306 floods and flood control, 183-184 genetic issues, restoration planning, 60-61, 63, 69, 204-206 integrated ecosystem restoration, 341, 343-345 lakes, 77, 91 migratory, 344 see also Salmonids; Waterfowl planning and, 60 riverine, 166, 175, 177-178, 181, 183-184, 188-189, 194-195, 202, 403-404, 406, 407, 406-411 as structural characteristic, 66 waterfowl, 267, 304, 311, 345, 418, 425, 481, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516 watersheds, 346-347 wetlands, 11, 265-268, 272-274, 281, 289, 290, 292, 297, 304-306, 405, 318-319, 329, 330, 500, 507, 508, 515, 516, 517-518 see also Fish and fisheries; Refuges Willamette River, 170-171, 170, 216, 433-456 Wisconsin, 95, 103, 126, 145-146, 215, 220-221, 222 World Register of Dams, 200 Y Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, 497-498, 502 Z Zebra mussels, 82, 305