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Conclusions and Recommendations

DEFINING THE PROBLEM

The outlook for malaria control is grim. The disease, caused by mosquito-borne parasites, is present in 102 countries and is responsible for over 100 million clinical cases and 1 to 2 million deaths each year. Over the past two decades, efforts to control malaria have met with less and less success. In many regions where malaria transmission had been almost eliminated, the disease has made a comeback, sometimes surpassing earlier recorded levels. The dream of completely eliminating malaria from many parts of the world, pursued with vigor during the 1950s and 1960s, has gradually faded. Few believe today that a global eradication of malaria will be possible in the foreseeable future.

Worldwide, the number of cases of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous species of the parasite, is on the rise. Drug-resistant strains of P. falciparum are spreading rapidly, and there have been recent reports of drug resistance in people infected with P. vivax, a less virulent form of the parasite. Furthermore, mosquitoes are becoming increasingly resistant to insecticides, and in many cases, have adapted so as to avoid insecticide-treated surfaces altogether.

In large part because of the spread of drug and insecticide resistance, there are fewer tools available today to control malaria than there were 20 years ago. In many countries, the few remaining methods are often ap-



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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities 1 Conclusions and Recommendations DEFINING THE PROBLEM The outlook for malaria control is grim. The disease, caused by mosquito-borne parasites, is present in 102 countries and is responsible for over 100 million clinical cases and 1 to 2 million deaths each year. Over the past two decades, efforts to control malaria have met with less and less success. In many regions where malaria transmission had been almost eliminated, the disease has made a comeback, sometimes surpassing earlier recorded levels. The dream of completely eliminating malaria from many parts of the world, pursued with vigor during the 1950s and 1960s, has gradually faded. Few believe today that a global eradication of malaria will be possible in the foreseeable future. Worldwide, the number of cases of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous species of the parasite, is on the rise. Drug-resistant strains of P. falciparum are spreading rapidly, and there have been recent reports of drug resistance in people infected with P. vivax, a less virulent form of the parasite. Furthermore, mosquitoes are becoming increasingly resistant to insecticides, and in many cases, have adapted so as to avoid insecticide-treated surfaces altogether. In large part because of the spread of drug and insecticide resistance, there are fewer tools available today to control malaria than there were 20 years ago. In many countries, the few remaining methods are often ap-

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities plied inappropriately. The situation in many African nations is particularly dismal, exacerbated by a crumbling health infrastructure that has made the implementation of any disease control program difficult. Malaria cases among tourists, business travelers, military personnel, and migrant workers in malarious areas have been increasing steadily in the last several years, posing new concerns that the disease will be introduced to currently nonmalarious areas. Recent epidemics have claimed tens of thousands of lives in Africa, and there is an increasing realization that malaria is a major impediment to socioeconomic development in many countries. Unless practical, cost-effective strategies can be developed and successfully implemented, malaria will continue to exact a heavy toll on human life and health around the world. Although often considered a single disease, malaria is more accurately viewed as many diseases, each shaped by subtle interactions of biologic, ecologic, social, and economic factors. The species of parasite, the behavior of the mosquito host, the individual's immune status, the climate, human activities, and access to health services all play important roles in determining the intensity of disease transmission, who will become infected, who will get sick, and who will die. Gem miners along the Thailand-Cambodia border, American tourists on a wildlife safari in East Africa, villagers living on the central highlands in Madagascar, residents of San Diego County, California, a young pregnant woman in Malawi, Swiss citizens living near Geneva International Airport, children in Africa south of the Sahara, and a U.S. State Department secretary in Tanzania seem to have little in common, yet they are all at risk of contracting malaria. Because of the disease's variable presentations, each will be affected differently, as illustrated below. For the hundreds of thousands of Thai seasonal agricultural workers who travel deep into the forest along the Thailand-Cambodia border to mine for gems, malaria is the cost of doing business. These young men are exposed to aggressive forest mosquitoes, and within two to three weeks after arriving, almost every miner will get malaria. Many gem miners seek medications to prevent and self-treat mild cases of the disease. But because malaria in this part of the world is resistant to most antimalarial drugs, the few effective drugs are reserved for the treatment of confirmed cases of malaria. To complicate matters, there are no health services in the forest to treat patients, and the health clinics in Thailand are overburdened by the high demand for treating those with severe malaria, most of whom are returning gem miners. A similar scenario involving over 400,000 people exists among gold miners in Rondonia, Brazil. Each year, over seven million U.S. citizens visit parts of the world

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities where malaria is present. Many, at the recommendation of their travel agent or physician, take antimalarial medications as a preventive measure, but a significant number do not. Tourists and other travelers who have never been exposed to malaria, and therefore have never developed protective immunity, are at great risk for contracting severe disease. Ironically, it is not the infection itself that poses the biggest danger, but the chance that treatment will be delayed because of misdiagnosis upon the individual's return to the United States. Most U.S. doctors have never seen a patient with malaria, are often confused by the wide array of symptoms, and are largely unaware that malaria in a nonimmune person can be a medical emergency, sometimes rapidly fatal. Prior to 1950, malaria was the major cause of death in the central highlands of the African island nation of Madagascar. In the late 1950s, an aggressive program of indoor insecticide spraying rid the area of malaria-carrying mosquitoes, and malaria virtually disappeared. By the 1970s, confident of a victory in the battle against malaria, Madagascar began to phase out its spraying program; in some areas spraying was halted altogether. In the early 1980s, the vector mosquitoes reinvaded the central highlands, and in 1986 a series of devastating epidemics began. The older members of the population had long since lost the partial immunity they once had, and the younger island residents had no immunity at all. During the worst of the epidemics, tens of thousands of people died in one three-month period. The tragedy of this story is that it could have been prevented. A cheap antimalarial drug, chloroquine, could have been a powerful weapon in Madagascar, where drug resistance was not a significant concern. Because of problems in international and domestic drug supply and delivery, however, many people did not receive treatment and many died. In the last 18 months, surveillance has improved, spraying against the mosquito has resumed, and more effective drug distribution networks have been established. Malaria-related mortality has declined sharply as a result. Malaria, once endemic in the southern United States, occurs relatively infrequently. Indeed, there have been only 23 outbreaks of malaria since 1950, and the majority of these occurred in California. But for each of the past three years, the San Diego County Department of Health Services has had to conduct an epidemiologic investigation into local transmission of malaria. An outbreak in the late summer of 1988 involved 30 persons, the largest such outbreak in the United States since 1952. In the summer of 1989, three residents of San Diego County—a migrant worker and two permanent residents—were diagnosed with malaria; in 1990, a teenager living in a suburb of San Diego County fell ill with malaria. All of the cases were treated successfully, but these incidents raise questions about the possibility of new and larger outbreaks in the future. Malaria

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities transmission in San Diego County (and in much of California) is attributed to the presence of individuals from malaria-endemic regions who lack access to medical care, the poor shelter and sanitation facilities of migrant workers, and the ubiquitous presence of Anopheles mosquitoes in California. A 24-year-old pregnant Yao woman from the Mangochi District in Malawi visited the village health clinic monthly to receive prenatal care. While waiting to be seen by the health provider, she and other women present listened to health education talks which were often about the dangers of malaria during pregnancy, and the need to install screens around the house to keep the mosquitoes away, to sleep under a bednet, and to take a chloroquine tablet once a week. Toward the end of her second trimester of pregnancy, the woman returned home from her prenatal visit with her eight tablets of chloroquine wrapped in a small packet of brown paper. She promptly gave the medicine to her husband to save for the next time he or one of their children fell ill. The next week she developed a very high malarial fever and went into labor prematurely. The six-month-old fetus was born dead. Over a two-week period in the summer of 1989, five Swiss citizens living within a mile of Geneva International Airport presented at several hospitals with acute fever and chills. All had malaria. Four of the five had no history of travel to a malarious region; none had a history of intravenous drug use or blood transfusion. Apart from their symptoms, the only thing linking the five was their proximity to the airport. A subsequent epidemiologic investigation suggested that the malaria miniepidemic was caused by the bite of stowaway mosquitoes en route from a malaria-endemic country. The warm weather, lack of systematic spraying of aircraft, and the close proximity of residential areas to the airport facilitated the transmission of the disease. Malaria is a part of everyday life in Africa south of the Sahara. Its impact on children is particularly severe. Mothers who bring unconscious children to the hospital often report that the children were playing that morning, convulsed suddenly, and have been unconscious ever since. These children are suffering from the most frequently fatal complication of the disease, cerebral malaria. Other children succumb more slowly to malaria, becoming progressively more anemic with each subsequent infection. By the time they reach the hospital, they are too weak to sit and are literally gasping for breath. Many children are brought to hospitals as a last resort, after treatment given for “fever” at the local health center has proved ineffective. Overall, children with malaria account for a third of all hospital admissions. A third of all children hospitalized for malaria die. In most parts of Africa, there are no effective or affordable options to prevent the

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities disease, so children are at high risk until they have been infected enough times to develop a partial immunity. A 52-year-old American woman, the secretary to the U.S. ambassador in Tanzania, had been taking a weekly dose of chloroquine to prevent malaria since her arrival in the country the year before. She arrived at work one morning complaining of exhaustion, a throbbing headache, and fever. A blood sample was taken and microscopically examined for malaria parasites. She was found to be infected with P. falciparum, and was treated immediately with high doses of chloroquine. That night, she developed severe diarrhea, and by morning she was found to be disoriented and irrational. She was diagnosed as having cerebral malaria, and intravenous quinine treatment was started. Her condition gradually deteriorated—she became semicomatose and anemic, and approximately 20 percent of her red blood cells were found to be infected with malaria parasites. After continued treatment for several days, no parasites were detected in her blood. Despite receiving optimal care, other malaria-related complications developed and she died just nine days after the illness began. The cause of death: chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. These brief scenarios give a sense of the diverse ways that malaria can affect people. So fundamental is this diversity with respect to impact, manifestation, and epidemiology that malaria experts themselves are not unanimous on how best to approach the disease. Malariologists recognize that malaria is essentially a local phenomenon that varies greatly from region to region and even from village to village in the same district. Consequently, a single global technology for malaria control is of little use for specific conditions, yet the task of tailoring strategies to each situation is daunting. More important, many malarious countries do not have the resources, either human or financial, to carry out even the most meager efforts to control malaria. These scenarios also illustrate the dual nature of malaria as it affects U.S. policy. In one sense, it is a foreign aid issue; a devastating disease is currently raging out of control in vast, heavily populated areas of the world. In another sense, malaria is of domestic public health concern. The decay of global malaria control and the invasion of the parasite into previously disease-free areas, coupled with the increasing frequency of visits to such areas by American citizens, intensify the dangers of malaria for the U.S. population. Tourists, business travelers, Peace Corps volunteers, State Department employees, and military personnel are increasingly at risk, and our ability to protect and cure them is in jeopardy. What is desperately needed is a better application of existing malaria control tools and new methods of containing the disease.

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities In most malarious regions of the world, there is inadequate access to malaria treatment. Appropriate health facilities may not exist; those that do exist may be inaccessible to affected populations, may not be supplied with effective drugs, or may be staffed inappropriately. In many countries, the expansion of primary health care services has not proceeded according to expectations, particularly in the poorest (and most malarious) nations of the tropical world. In some countries, antimalarial interventions are applied in broad swaths, without regard to underlying differences in the epidemiology of the disease. In other countries, there are no organized interventions at all. The malaria problem in many regions is compounded by migration, civil unrest, poorly planned exploitation of natural resources, and their frequent correlate, poverty. During the past 15 years, much research has focused on developing vaccines for malaria. Malaria vaccines are thought to be possible in part because people who are naturally exposed to the malaria parasite acquire a partial immunity to the disease over time. In addition, immunization of animals and humans by the bites of irradiated mosquitoes infected with the malaria parasite can protect against malaria infection. Much progress has been made, but current data suggest that effective vaccines are not likely to be available for some time. Compounding the difficulty of developing more effective malaria prevention, treatment, and control strategies is a worldwide decline in the pool of scientists and health professionals capable of conducting field research and organizing and managing malaria control programs at the country level. With the change in approach from malaria eradication to malaria control, many malaria programs “lost face,” admitting failure and losing the priority interest of their respective ministries of health. As external funding agencies lost interest in programs, they reduced their technical and financial support. As a consequence, there were fewer training opportunities, decreased contacts with international experts, and diminished prospects for improving the situation. Today, many young scientists and public health specialists, in both the developed and developing countries, prefer to seek higher-profile activities with better defined opportunities for career advancement. THE REPORT Background It is against this backdrop of a worsening worldwide malaria situation that the Institute of Medicine was asked to convene a multidisciplinary committee to assess the current status of malaria research and control and to make recommen-

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities dations to the U.S. government on promising and feasible strategies to address the problem. During the 18-month study, the committee reviewed the state of the science in the major areas of malariology, identified gaps in knowledge within each of the major disciplines, and developed recommendations for future action in malaria research and control. Organization Chapter 2 summarizes key aspects of the individual state-of-the-science chapters, and is intended to serve as a basic introduction to the medical and scientific aspects of malaria, including its clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control. Chapter 3 provides a historical overview of malaria, from roughly 3000 B.C. to the present, with special emphasis on efforts in this century to eradicate and control the disease. The state-of-the-science reviews, which start in Chapter 4, begin with a scenario titled “Where We Want To Be in the Year 2010.” Each scenario describes where the discipline would like to be in 20 years and how, given an ideal world, the discipline would have contributed to malaria control efforts. The middle section of each chapter contains a critical review of the current status of knowledge in the particular field. The final section lays out specific directions for future research based on a clear identification of the major gaps in scientific understanding for that discipline. The committee urges those agencies that fund malaria research to consult the end of each state-of-the-science chapter for suggestions on specific research opportunities in malaria. Sponsorship This study was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A major finding of the committee is the need to increase donor and public awareness of the growing risk presented by the resurgence of malaria. Overall, funding levels are not adequate to meet the problem. The committee believes that funding in the past focused too sharply on specific technologies and particular control strategies (e.g., indiscriminate use of insecticide spraying). Future support must be balanced among the needs outlined in this report. The issue for prioritization is not whether to select specific technologies or control strategies, but to raise the priority for solv-

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities ing the problem of malaria. This is best done by encouraging balanced research and control strategies and developing a mechanism for periodically adjusting support for promising approaches. This report highlights those areas which the committee believes deserve the highest priority for research or which should be considered when U.S. support is provided to malaria control programs. These observations and suggestions for future action, presented below in four sections discussing policy, research, control, and training, represent the views of a multidisciplinary group of professionals from diverse backgrounds and with a variety of perspectives on the problem. Policy The U.S. government is the largest single source of funds for malaria research and control activities in the world. This investment is justified by the magnitude of the malaria problem, from both a foreign aid and a public health perspective. The increasing severity of the threat of malaria to residents of endemic regions, travelers, and military personnel, and our diminishing ability to counter it, should be addressed by a more comprehensive and better integrated approach to malaria research and control. However, overall U.S. support for malaria research and control has declined over the past five years. The committee believes that the amount of funding currently directed to malaria research and control activities is inadequate to address the problem. Over the past 10 years, the majority of U.S. funds available for malaria research have been devoted to studies on immunity and vaccine development. Although the promise of vaccines remains to be realized, the committee believes that the potential benefits are enormous. At the same time, the relative paucity of funds available for research has prevented or slowed progress in other areas. Our incomplete knowledge about the basic biology of malaria parasites, how they interact with their mosquito and human hosts, and how human biology and behavior affect malaria transmission and control remains a serious impediment to the development and implementation of malaria control strategies. The committee believes that this situation must be addressed without reducing commitment to current research initiatives. The committee further believes that such research will pay long-term dividends in the better application of existing tools and the development of new drugs, vaccines, and methods for vector control. The committee recommends that increased funds be made available so that U.S. research on malaria can be broadened according to the priorities addressed in this report, including laboratory and field research on the biology of malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors, and their interaction with humans.

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities The committee believes that the maximum return on investment of funds devoted to malaria research and control can be achieved only by rigorous review of project proposals. The committee further believes that the highest-quality review is essential to ensure that funding agencies spend their money wisely. The committee believes that all U.S.-supported malaria field activities, both research and control, should be of the highest scientific quality and relevance to the goals of malaria control. The committee recommends decisions on funding of malaria research be based on scientific merit as determined by rigorous peer review, consistent with the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health or the United Nations Development Program/World Bank/ World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, and that all U.S.-supported malaria field projects be subject to similar rigorous review to ensure that projects are epidemiologically and scientifically sound. Commitment and Sustainability For malaria control, short-term interventions can be expected to produce only short-term results. The committee believes that short-term interventions are justified only for emergency situations. Longer-term interventions should be undertaken only when there is a national commitment to support sustained malaria surveillance and control. The committee recommends that malaria control programs receive sustained international and local support, oriented toward the development of human resources, the improvement of management skills, the provision of supplies, and the integration of an operational research capability in support of an epidemiologically sound approach to malaria control. Surveillance During the major effort to eradicate malaria from many parts of the world that began in the late 1950s and ended in 1969, it was important to establish mechanisms to detect all malaria infections. As a result, systems were established in many countries to collect blood samples for later microscopic examination for the presence of parasites. Each year, the results from more than 140 million slides are reported to the World Health Organization, of which roughly 3 to 5 percent are positive for malaria. This approach seeks to answer the question posed 30 years ago: How many people are infected with the malaria parasite? It does not answer today's questions: Who is sick? Where? Why? The committee concludes that the mass collection of blood slides requires considerable resources, poses seri-

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities ous biosafety hazards, deflects attention from the treatment of ill individuals, and has little practical relevance for malaria control efforts today. Instead of the mass collection of slides, the committee believes that the most effective surveillance networks are those that concurrently measure disease in human populations, antimalarial drug use, patterns of drug resistance, and the intensity of malaria transmission by vector populations. The committee believes that malaria surveillance practices have not received adequate recognition as an epidemiologic tool for designing, implementing, and evaluating malaria control programs. The committee recommends that countries be given support to orient malaria surveillance away from the mass collection and screening of blood slides toward the collection and analysis of epidemiologically relevant information that can be used to monitor the current situation on an ongoing basis, to identify high-risk groups, and to detect potential epidemics early in their course. Inter-Sectoral Cooperation The committee believes that insufficient attention has been paid to the impact that activities in non-health-related sectors, such as construction, industry, irrigation, and agriculture, have on malaria transmission. Conversely, there are few assessments of the impact of malaria control projects on other public health initiatives, the environment, and the socioeconomic status of affected populations. Malaria transmission frequently occurs in areas where private and multinational businesses and corporations (e.g., hotel chains, mining operations, and industrial plants) have strong economic interests. Unfortunately and irresponsibly, some local and multinational businesses contribute few if any resources to malaria control in areas in which they operate. The committee recommends greater cooperation and consultation between health and nonhealth sectors in the planning and implementation of major development projects and malaria activities. It also recommends that all proposed malaria control programs be analyzed for their potential impact on other public health programs, the environment, and social and economic welfare, and that local and multinational businesses be recruited by malaria control organizations to contribute substantially to local malaria control efforts. New Tools for Malaria Control The committee believes that, as a policy directive, it is important to support research activities to develop new tools for malaria control. The

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities greatest momentum for the development of new tools exists in vaccine and drug development, and the committee believes it essential that this momentum be maintained. The committee recognizes that commendable progress has been made in defining the characteristics of antigens and delivery systems needed for effective vaccines, but that the candidates so far tested fall short of the goal. Much has been learned which supports the hope that useful vaccines can be developed. To diminish activity in vaccine development at this stage would deal a severe blow to one of our best chances for a technological breakthrough in malaria control. The committee recommends that vaccine development continue to be a priority of U.S.-funded malaria research. Only a handful of drugs are available to prevent or treat malaria, and the spread of drug-resistant strains of the malaria parasite threatens to reduce further the limited pool of effective drugs. The committee recognizes that there is little economic incentive for U.S. pharmaceutical companies to undertake antimalarial drug discovery activities. The committee is concerned that U.S. government support of these activities, based almost entirely at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), has decreased and is threatened with further funding cuts. The committee concludes that the WRAIR program in antimalarial drug discovery, which is the largest and most successful in the world, is crucial to international efforts to develop new drugs for malaria. The benefits of this program in terms of worldwide prevention and treatment of malaria have been incalculable. The committee strongly recommends that drug discovery and development activities at WRAIR receive increased and sustained support. The next recommendation on policy directions reflects the committee 's concern about the lack of involvement in malaria research by the private sector. The committee believes that the production of candidate malaria vaccines and antimalarial drugs for clinical trials has been hampered by a lack of industry involvement. Greater cooperation and a clarification of the contractual relationships between the public and private sectors would greatly enhance the development of drugs and vaccines. The committee recommends that mechanisms be established to promote the involvement of pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms in the development of malaria vaccines, antimalarial drugs, and new tools for vector control. Coordination and Integration The committee is concerned that there is inadequate joint planning and coordination among U.S.-based agencies that support malaria research and

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities control activities. Four government agencies and many nongovernmental organizations in the United States are actively involved in malaria-related activities. There are also numerous overseas organizations, governmental and nongovernmental, that actively support such activities worldwide. The complexity and variability of malaria, the actual and potential scientific advances in several areas of malariology, and most important the worsening worldwide situation argue strongly for an ongoing mechanism to assess and influence current and future U.S. efforts in malaria research and control. The committee strongly recommends the establishment of a national advisory body on malaria. In addition to fulfilling a much needed coordinating function among U.S.-based agencies and between the U.S. and international efforts, the national advisory body could monitor the status of U.S. involvement in malaria research and control, assess the relevant application of knowledge, identify areas requiring further research, make recommendations to the major funding agencies, and provide a resource for legislators and others interested in scientific policy related to malaria. The national advisory body could convene specific task-oriented scientific working groups to review research and control activities and to make recommendations, when appropriate, for changes in priorities and new initiatives. The committee believes that the national advisory body should be part of, and appointed by, a neutral and nationally respected scientific body and that it should actively encourage the participation of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, industry, and university scientists in advising on the direction of U.S. involvement in malaria research and control. The increasing magnitude of the malaria problem during the past decade and the unpredictability of changes in human, parasite, and vector determinants of transmission and disease point strongly to the need for such a national advisory body, which can be responsive to rapidly changing problems, and advances in scientific research, relating to global efforts to control malaria. Malaria Research Priorities Malaria control is in crisis in many areas of the world. People are contracting and dying of severe malaria in unprecedented numbers. To address these problems, the committee strongly encourages a balanced research agenda. Two basic areas of research require high priority. Research that will lead to improved delivery of existing interventions for malaria, and the development of new tools for the control of malaria.

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities Research in Support of Available Control Measures Risk Factors for Severe Malaria People who develop severe and complicated malaria lack adequate immunity, and many die from the disease. Groups at greatest risk include young children and pregnant women in malaria endemic regions; nonimmune migrants, laborers, and visitors to endemic regions; and residents of regions where malaria has been recently reintroduced. For reasons that are largely unknown, not all individuals within these groups appear to be at equal risk for severe disease. The committee believes that the determinants of severe disease, including risk factors associated with a population, the individual (biologic, immunologic, socioeconomic, and behavioral), the parasite, or exposure to mosquitoes, are likely to vary considerably in different areas. The committee recommends that epidemiologic studies on the risk factors for severe and complicated malaria be supported. Pathogenesis of Severe and Complicated Malaria Even with optimal care, 20 to 30 percent of children and adults with the most severe form of malaria—primarily cerebral malaria—die. The committee believes that a better understanding of the disease process will lead to improvements in preventing and treating severe forms of malaria. The committee further believes that determining the indications for treatment of severe malarial anemia is of special urgency given the risk of transmitting the AIDS virus through blood transfusions, the only currently available treatment for malarial anemia. Physicians need to know when it is appropriate to transfuse malaria patients. The committee recommends greater support for research on the pathogenesis of severe and complicated malaria, on the mechanisms of malarial anemia, and on the development of specific criteria for blood transfusions in malaria. Social Science Research The impact of drugs to control disease or programs to reduce human-mosquito contact is mediated by local practices and beliefs about malaria and its treatment. Most people in malaria-endemic countries seek initial treatment for malaria outside of the formal health sector. Programs that attempt to influence this behavior must understand that current practices satisfy, at some level, local concerns regarding such matters as access to and effectiveness of therapy, and cost. These concerns may lead to practices at odds with current medical practice. Further, many malaria control programs have not considered the social, cultural, and behavioral dimensions of malaria, thereby limiting the effectiveness of measures undertaken. The committee recognizes that control programs often fail to incorporate household or community concerns and resources

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities into program design. In most countries, little is known about how the demand for and utilization of health services is influenced by such things as user fees, location of health clinics, and the existence and quality of referral services. The committee concludes that modern social science techniques have not been effectively applied to the design, implementation, and evaluation of malaria control programs. The committee recommends that research be conducted on local perceptions of malaria as an illness, health-seeking behaviors (including the demand for health care services), and behaviors that affect malaria transmission, and that the results of this research be included in community-based malaria control interventions that promote the involvement of communities and their organizations in control efforts. Innovative Approaches to Malaria Control Malaria control programs will require new ideas and approaches, and new malaria control strategies need to be developed and tested. There is also a need for consistent support of innovative combinations of control technologies and for the transfer of new technologies from the laboratory to the clinic and field for expeditious evaluation. Successful technology transfer requires the exchange of scientific research, but more importantly, must be prefaced by an improved understanding of the optimal means to deliver the technology to the people in need (see Chapter 11). The committee recommends that donor agencies provide support for research on new or improved control strategies and into how new tools and technologies can be better implemented and integrated into on-going control efforts. Development of New Tools Antimalarial Immunity and Vaccine Development Many people are able to mount an effective immune response that can significantly mitigate symptoms of malaria and prevent death. The committee believes that the development of effective malaria vaccines is feasible, and that the potential benefits of such vaccines are enormous. Several different types of malaria vaccines need to be developed: vaccines to prevent infection (of particular use for tourists and other nonimmune visitors to endemic countries), prevent the progression of infection to disease (for partially immune residents living in endemic areas and for nonimmune visitors), and interrupt transmission of parasites by vector populations (to reduce the risk of new infections in humans). The committee believes that each of these directions should be pursued. The committee recommends sustained support for research to identify mechanisms and targets of protective immunity and to exploit the

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities use of novel scientific technologies to construct vaccines that induce immunity against all relevant stages of the parasite life cycle. Drug Discovery and Development Few drugs are available to prevent or treat malaria, and the spread of drug-resistant strains of malaria parasites is steadily reducing the limited pool of effective chemotherapeutic agents. The committee believes that an inadequate understanding of parasite biochemistry and biology impedes the process of drug discovery and slows studies on the mechanisms of drug resistance. The committee recommends increased emphasis on screening compounds to identify new classes of potential antimalarial drugs, identifying and characterizing vulnerable targets within the parasite, understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance, and identifying and developing agents that can restore the therapeutic efficacy of currently available drugs. Vector Control Malaria is transmitted to humans by the bites of infective mosquitoes. The objective of vector control is to reduce the contact between humans and infected mosquitoes. The committee believes that developments are needed in the areas of personal protection, environmental management, pesticide use and application, and biologic control, as well as in the largely unexplored areas of immunologic and genetic approaches for decreasing parasite transmission by vectors. The committee recommends increased support for research on vector control that focuses on the development and field testing of methods for interrupting parasite transmission by vectors. Malaria Control Malaria is a complex disease that, even under the most optimistic scenario, will continue to be a major health threat for decades. The extent to which malaria affects human health depends on a large number of epidemiologic and ecologic factors. Depending on the particular combination of these and other variables, malaria may have different effects on neighboring villages and people living in a single village. All malaria control programs need to be designed with a view toward effectiveness and sustainability, taking into account the local perceptions, the availability of human and financial resources, and the multiple needs of the communities at risk. If community support for health sector initiatives is to be guaranteed, the public needs to know much more about malaria, its risks for epidemics and severe disease, and difficulties in control. Unfortunately, there is no “magic bullet” solution to the deteriorating worldwide malaria situation, and no single malaria control strategy will be applicable in all regions or epidemiologic situations. Given the limited available financial and human resources and a dwindling pool of effective

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities antimalarial tools, the committee suggests that donor agencies support four priority areas for malaria control in endemic countries. The committee believes that the first and most basic priority in malaria control is to prevent infected individuals from becoming severely ill and dying. Reducing the incidence of severe morbidity and malaria-related mortality requires a two-pronged approach. First, diagnostic, treatment, and referral capabilities, including the provision of microscopes, training of technicians and other health providers, and drug supply, must be enhanced. Second, the committee believes that many malaria-related deaths could be averted if individuals and caretakers of young children knew when and how to seek appropriate treatment and if drug vendors, pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and other health care providers were provided with up-to-date and locally appropriate treatment and referral guidelines. The development and implementation of an efficient information system that provides rapid feedback to the originating clinic and area is key to monitoring the situation and preventing epidemics. The committee believes that the second priority should be to promote personal protection measures (e.g., bednets, screens, and mosquito coils) to reduce or eliminate human-mosquito contact and thus to reduce the risk of infection for individuals living in endemic areas. At the present time, insecticide-treated bednets appear to be the most promising personal protection method. In many environments, in addition to the treatment of individuals and use of personal protection measures, community-wide vector control is feasible. In such situations, the committee believes that the third priority should be low-cost vector control measures designed to reduce the prevalence of infective mosquitoes in the environment, thus reducing the transmission of malaria to populations. These measures include source reduction (e.g., draining or filling in small bodies of water where mosquito larvae develop) or the application of low-cost larval control measures. In certain environments, the use of insecticide-impregnated bednets by all or most members of a community may also reduce malaria transmission, but this approach to community-based malaria control remains experimental. The committee believes that the fourth priority for malaria control should be higher cost vector control measures such as large-scale source reduction or widespread spraying of residual insecticides. In certain epidemiologic situations, the use of insecticides for adult mosquito control is appropriate and represents the method of choice for decreasing malaria transmission and preventing epidemics (see Chapter 7 and Chapter 10). The committee recommends that support of malaria control programs include resources to improve local capacities to conduct prompt diagnosis, including both training and equipment, and to ensure the availability of antimalarial drugs.

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities The committee recommends that resources be allocated to develop and disseminate malaria treatment guidelines for physicians, drug vendors, pharmacists, village health workers, and other health care personnel in endemic and non-endemic countries. The guidelines should be based, where appropriate, on the results of local operational research and should include information on the management of severe and complicated disease. The guidelines should be consistent and compatible among international agencies involved in the control of malaria. The committee recommends that support for malaria control initiatives include funds to develop and implement locally relevant communication programs that provide information about how to prevent and treat malaria appropriately (including when and how to seek treatment) and that foster a dialogue about prevention and control. Organization of Malaria Control One of the major criticisms of malaria control programs during the past 10 to 15 years has been that funds have been spent inappropriately without an integrated plan and without formal evaluation of the efficacy of control measures instituted. In many instances, this has led to diminished efforts to control malaria. The committee strongly encourages renewed commitment by donor agencies to support national control programs in malaria-endemic countries. The committee recommends that U.S. donor agencies develop, with the advice of the national advisory body, a core of expertise (either in-house or through an external advisory group) to plan assistance to malaria control activities in endemic countries. The committee believes that the development, implementation, and evaluation of such programs must follow a rigorous set of guidelines. These guidelines should include the following steps: Identification of the problem Determine the extent and variety of malaria. The paradigm approach described in Chapter 10 should facilitate this step. Analyze current efforts to solve malaria problems. Identify and characterize available in-country resources and capabilities. Development of a plan Design and prioritize interventions based on the epidemiologic situation and the available resources.

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities Design a training program for decision makers, managers, and technical staff to support and sustain the interventions. Define specific indicators of the success or failure of the interventions at specific time points. Develop a specific plan for reporting on the outcomes of interventions. Develop a process for adjusting the program in response to successes and/or failures of interventions. Review of the comprehensive plan by a donor agency review board Modification of the plan based on comments of the review board Implementation of the program Yearly report and analysis of outcome variables To guide the implementation of the activities outlined above, the committee has provided specific advice on several components, including an approach to evaluating malaria problems and designing control strategies (the paradigm approach), program management, monitoring and evaluation, and operational research. Paradigm Approach Given the complex and variable nature of malaria, the committee believes that the epidemiologic paradigms (see Chapter 10), developed in conjunction with this study, may form the basis of a logical and reasoned approach for defining the malaria problems and improving the design and management of malaria control programs. The committee recommends that the paradigm approach be field tested to determine its use in helping policymakers and malaria program managers design and implement epidemiologically appropriate and cost-effective control initiatives. The committee recognizes that various factors, including the local ecology, the dynamics of mosquito transmission of malaria parasites, genetically determined resistance to malaria infection, and patterns of drug use, affect patterns of malaria endemicity in human populations and need to be considered when malaria control strategies are developed. In most endemic countries, efforts to understand malaria transmission through field studies of vector populations are either nonexistent or so limited in scope that they have minimal impact on subsequent malaria control efforts. The committee recognizes that current approaches to malaria control are clearly inadequate. The committee believes, however, that malaria control strategies are sometimes applied inappropriately, with little regard to the underlying differences in the epidemiology of the disease.

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities The committee recommends that support for malaria control programs include funds to permit a reassessment and optimization of antimalarial tools based on relevant analyses of local epidemiologic, parasitologic, entomologic, socioeconomic, and behavioral determinants of malaria and the costs of malaria control. Management Poor management has contributed to the failure of many malaria control programs. Among the reasons are a chronic shortage of trained managers who can think innovatively about health care delivery and who can plan, implement, supervise, and evaluate malaria control programs. Lack of incentives, the absence of career advancement options, and designation of responsibility without authority often hinder the effectiveness of the small cadre of professional managers that does exist. The committee recognizes that management technology is a valuable resource that has yet to be effectively introduced into the planning, implementation, and evaluation of most malaria control programs. The committee recommends that funding agencies utilize management experts to develop a comprehensive series of recommendations and guidelines as to how basic management skills and technology can be introduced into the planning, implementation, and evaluation of malaria control programs. The committee recommends that U.S. funding of each malaria control program include support for a senior manager who has responsibility for planning and coordinating malaria control activities. Where such an individual does not exist, a priority of the control effort should be to identify and support a qualified candidate. The manager should be supported actively by a multidisciplinary core group with expertise in epidemiology, entomology, the social sciences, clinical medicine, environmental issues, and vector control operations. Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and evaluation are essential components of any control program. For malaria control, it is not acceptable to continue pursuing a specific control strategy without clear evidence that it is effective and reaching established objectives. The committee recommends that support for malaria control programs include funds to evaluate the impact of control efforts on the magnitude of the problem and that each program be modified as necessary on the basis of periodic assessments of its costs and effectiveness.

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities Problem Solving (Operational Research) and Evaluation At the outset of any malaria prevention or control initiative and during the course of implementation, gaps in knowledge will be identified and problems will arise. These matters should be addressed through clearly defined, short-term, focused studies. Perhaps the most difficult aspects of operational research are to identify the relevant problem, formulate the appropriate question, and design a study to answer that question. The committee recommends that a problem-solving (operational research) component be built into all existing and future U.S.-funded malaria control initiatives and that support be given to enhance the capacity to perform such research. This effort will include consistent support in the design of focused projects that can provide applicable results, analysis of data, and dissemination of conclusions. Training The committee concludes that there is a need for additional scientists actively involved in malaria-related research in the United States and abroad. To meet this need, both short- and long-term training at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels must be provided. This training will be of little value unless there is adequate long-term research funding to support the career development of professionals in the field of malaria. The committee recommends support for research training in malaria. Whereas the curricula for advanced degree training in basic science research and epidemiology are fairly well defined, two areas require attention, especially in the developing world: social sciences and health management and training. The committee recommends that support be given for the development of advanced-degree curricula in the social sciences, and in health management and training, for use in universities in developing and developed countries. The availability of well-trained managers, decision makers, and technical staff is critical to the implementation of any malaria prevention and control program. The development of such key personnel requires a long term combination of formal training, focused short courses, and a gradual progression of expertise. The committee recommends support for training in management, epidemiology, entomology, social sciences, and vector control. Such training for malaria control may be accomplished through U.S.-funded grant programs for long-term cooperative relationships

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MALARIA: Obstacles and Opportunities between institutions in developed and developing countries; through the encouragement of both formal and informal linkages among malaria-endemic countries; through the use of existing training courses; and through the development of specific training courses. The committee recommends further that malaria endemic countries be supported in the development of personnel programs that provide long-term career tracks for managers, decision makers, and technical staff, and that offer professional fulfillment, security, and competitive financial compensation.