Index

A

Adenosine monophosphate, 60–62 , 69

Advisory bodies, 16–17 , 18 , 110 , 121–123 , 128–129

Alcohol abuse, 7 , 8 , 18 , 34 , 41–42 , 44 , 45 , 124

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration,8 , 18 , 44 , 45 , 124

Algorithms, 11 , 97 , 102

Anatomy and anatomical data, 2 , 10 , 73–74 , 103 , 118 , 136

axons, 55–56 , 58 , 96

behavioral studies, 51

blood-brain barrier, 56

brain function and, 3 , 6 , 14 , 15 , 25 , 26 , 53–56 , 93–94

cerebral cortex, 4 , 5 , 6 , 32 , 34 , 39 , 40 , 51 , 53 , 58 , 118

magnetic resonance imaging, 9 , 39–40 , 52–53 , 73 , 96–97 , 99

pain, 35–36 , 37

pilot projects, 15 , 115

schizophrenia, 6 , 38 , 39 , 67–69

substance abuse, 5 , 34 , 35

visual perception, 4 , 31–32 , 33 , 34

see also Neurons

Animal studies, 14 , 50 , 51 , 53 , 67–69 , 82 , 95 , 114 , 115 , 127

drug studies, 34 , 55

genetic studies, 87–88

monkey studies, 14 , 32 , 51 , 114

pain, 37

visual perception, 32

Antibodies, 43 , 55 , 62

Architectures

brain, 6 , 10

computer, 3 , 117 , 119–120

parallel processors, 54

ARPANET, 84

Artificial intelligence, 54 , 59

Association for Computing Machinery, 70

Attitudes, 17 , 106 , 111

Axons, 55–56 , 58 , 96



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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Index A Adenosine monophosphate, 60–62 , 69 Advisory bodies, 16–17 , 18 , 110 , 121–123 , 128–129 Alcohol abuse, 7 , 8 , 18 , 34 , 41–42 , 44 , 45 , 124 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration,8 , 18 , 44 , 45 , 124 Algorithms, 11 , 97 , 102 Anatomy and anatomical data, 2 , 10 , 73–74 , 103 , 118 , 136 axons, 55–56 , 58 , 96 behavioral studies, 51 blood-brain barrier, 56 brain function and, 3 , 6 , 14 , 15 , 25 , 26 , 53–56 , 93–94 cerebral cortex, 4 , 5 , 6 , 32 , 34 , 39 , 40 , 51 , 53 , 58 , 118 magnetic resonance imaging, 9 , 39–40 , 52–53 , 73 , 96–97 , 99 pain, 35–36 , 37 pilot projects, 15 , 115 schizophrenia, 6 , 38 , 39 , 67–69 substance abuse, 5 , 34 , 35 visual perception, 4 , 31–32 , 33 , 34 see also Neurons Animal studies, 14 , 50 , 51 , 53 , 67–69 , 82 , 95 , 114 , 115 , 127 drug studies, 34 , 55 genetic studies, 87–88 monkey studies, 14 , 32 , 51 , 114 pain, 37 visual perception, 32 Antibodies, 43 , 55 , 62 Architectures brain, 6 , 10 computer, 3 , 117 , 119–120 parallel processors, 54 ARPANET, 84 Artificial intelligence, 54 , 59 Association for Computing Machinery, 70 Attitudes, 17 , 106 , 111 Axons, 55–56 , 58 , 96

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH B Basic research, 2 , 19 , 21 , 23 , 52 , 94 , 103 , 116 Behavioral factors, 3 , 15 , 48–53 , 94 genetic influences, 15 , 50 , 51 schizophrenia, 37–38 , 40 , 67 substance abuse, 5 see alsoMotor functions ; Sensory perception Bibliographic databases, 9 , 77 , 78 , 94 , 98 , 117 Binding, biochemical see Receptors, Biochemistry, 2 , 10 , 25 , 52 , 53 , 60–65 , 74 behavioral effects, 51 databases, 9 , 12 , 17 , 29–30 , 68–69 , 79–82 , 94 , 98 developmental processes and, 57 , 126 genetic regulation, 27 immunocytochemistry, 55 , 56–57 neuronal, 54–57 , 58 ; see also Receptors pain, 36 , 37 pilot projects, 15 schizophrenia, 6 , 27 , 38–40 , 68 substance abuse, 5 , 34 , 35 visual perception, 4 , 33 see also Molecular processes; Pharmacology Blood-brain barrier, 56 Blood flow, 52 Brain Browser , 82 , 83 BrainMap, 97 Brain Map Advisory Panel, 16–17 , 18 , 121–123 , 128–129 Brain Mapping Initiative, 3 , 8 , 13–19 , 26 , 44–45 , 114–129 Brain nuclei, 5 , 31 , 34 , 50 , 53 , 54 , 67 Brain Research , 99 Bromley, Allan, 86 C Caenorhabditis elegans, 87–88 Cancer, 30 , 53 , 62 Cartography, 10 , 91 CD-ROM, 102 Cerebral cortex, 53 , 58 , 118 electrical activity, 51 schizophrenia, 6 , 39 , 40 substance abuse, 5 visual perception, 4 , 32 , 34 Clinical research, 2 , 6 , 19 , 21 , 23 , 37 , 52 , 94 , 116 behavioral/emotional disorders, 52 pain, 6 , 37 Collins, Francis, 30 Communication, 1 , 2 , 8 , 23 disorders, 41 pain research, 36 social aspects, 104–107 software, 15 , 101 see also Consortia; Networks Computer simulations, 14 , 22 , 73 pattern recognition, 4 , 71 visual perception, 33 x-ray crystallography, 8–9 , 72–73 Confidentiality, see Privacy rights Consortia, 15 , 16 , 17 , 116 , 121 , 122 , 123–124 , 128 Contracts, federal, 18 , 123–124 Coordination, 2 , 22–23 , 25 advisory bodies, 16–17 , 18 , 110 , 121–123 , 128–129 Brain Mapping Initiative, 3 , 8 , 13–19 , 26 , 44–45 , 114–129 consortia, 15 , 16 , 17 , 116 , 121 , 122 , 123–124 , 128 databases, 10 , 15–16 electronic collaboratory groups, 87–88 long-term, 125–127 pilot projects, 13 , 14–15 , 109–110 , 120–123

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH professional organizations, 7 , 10 , 23 , 43 , 70 , 74 , 91–92 symposia, 10 , 23 , 92 , 139–141 see also Standards Corporation for National Research Initiatives, 82 Cost and cost analyses computer operations, 69–70 database software, 81 imaging technology, 97 mental disorders, 41 , 44 neurological diseases, 7 , 41 , 44 , 126 research financing, 8 , 18–19 , 105 , 125 substance abuse, 34 , 41 Coulson, Alan, 87 Current Contents , 77 D Data banks, 98, 117 Databases, 1–2 , 8 , 9–11 , 15–16 , 23 , 67 , 76–84 , 91 , 97–99 , 100 , 107–108 , 114 , 117 attitudes about, 17 bibliographic, 9 , 77 , 78 , 94 , 98 , 117 biochemical processes, 9 , 12 , 17 , 29–30 , 68–69 , 79–82 , 94 , 98 Brain Mapping Initiative, 3 , 8 , 13–19 , 26 , 44–45 , 114–129 coordination of, 10 , 15–16 evaluation, 16 genome, 9 , 12 , 29 , 41 , 79–82 , 87–88 , 91 , 95 , 98 , 103 , 105 , 128 images in, 9–11 , 77 , 83 , 85–86 , 93–97 , 98–99 , 100 , 114 , 117 , 136 informal data in, 77 , 88 , 93 , 98 , 104 , 108 , 117 international issues, 11 , 15–16 , 17 , 81 , 97 , 98–99 , 117 , 128 management of, 3 , 10 , 11 , 22 , 29 , 77 , 79 , 81 , 82 , 83–84 , 100–101 , 119–120 molecular data, 9 , 12 , 17 , 29–30 , 68–69 , 79–82 National Neural Circuitry Database, 3 , 11 , 14 , 22 , 26 , 91 , 97 , 136–138 object-oriented, 77 , 100 , 114 on-line, 9 , 76 , 79–82 , 97 pain, 6 , 37 preliminary findings data, 12 protein sequencing, 9 , 12 , 17 , 29–30 , 68–69 , 79–82 , 95 , 105 , 128 public, 97–98 published articles, standards for inclusion in, 12 , 92 , 110 , 119 relational, 77 , 82 , 100 schizophrenia, 6–7 , 40–41 , 67–69 software, general, 81 , 101 substance abuse, 5 , 35 textual data, 11 , 76 , 93 , 96 , 102 , 116 , 117 university-associated, 82 , 83 , 97 visual perception, 33 Data storage, 101–102 , 107 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 84 Defense Mapping Agency, 10 , 91 Department of Agriculture, 81 Department of Defense, 10 , 18 , 81 , 84–85 , 91 , 124 Department of Energy, 18 , 44 , 81 , 82 , 124 Department of Veterans Affairs, 8 , 44 Developmental processes and stages, 14 , 27 , 50 , 94–95 , 114 , 127 neurochemistry, 57 , 126 schizophrenia, 6 , 37 , 40 visual defects, 32 , 53

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Diseases and disorders, 7 , 9 , 14 , 41–42 , 53 cancer, 30 , 53 , 62 cost of, 7 , 41 , 44 , 126 motor functions, 50–51 neurofibromatosis, 30 , 65 , 95 neurological, general, 1 , 7 , 21 , 27 , 41–42 , 43 , 53 , 56–57 , 65 , 95 , 114 , 118 , 126 , 127 pain, 5–6 , 35–37 visual deficits, 4 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 53 , 64 see also Injuries; Mental illness; Substance abuse Digital graphics, 73–74 cartography, 10 , 91 DNA, 64 , 81 , 87 Dopamine, 6–7 , 34 , 38 , 40 , 54 Drug abuse, see Substance abuse E Education, 110 , 122 learning processes, 15 , 51 , 59 , 67 Electroencephalographic recordings, 51–52 , 73 Electron microscopes, 43 , 54 , 58 , 73 , 125 Electrophysiology, 43 , 54 , 73 , 94 , 118 behavioral research, 50–52 event-related potential, 52 , 73 ion channels, 60 , 68 , 94 , 118 neuronal, 55 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 68 , 94 , 118 pain, 36 visual perception, 33 , 52 Emotion, 3 , 15 , 25 , 27 , 32 , 34 , 36 , 48–53 see also Mental illness Ethics, 16 , 105 , 110 , 118–119 , 121 privacy rights, 16 , 104–105 , 121 see also Intellectual property European Molecular Biology Library, 81 Evaluation, 15 , 23 databases, 16 data sharing and, 12 , 16 , 23 , 104 , 105 , 108 , 118–119 imaging techniques, 96–97 peer review, 12 , 14–15 , 17 , 105 , 116–117 , 128 pilot projects, 13 , 14–15 , 108 , 109–110 , 116–117 , 122 , 128 Event-related potential, 52 , 73 F Federal government, 7–8 , 23 , 44 , 45–46 , 74–76 , 81–82 , 128–129 Brain Map Advisory Panel, 16–17 , 18 , 123–124 , 128–129 contracts, 18 , 123–124 grants, 18 , 111 , 124 networks, 85–87 National Neural Circuitry Database, 3 , 11 , 14 , 22 , 26 , 91 , 97 , 136–138 National Research and Education Network, 17 , 18 , 86 , 87 , 100 , 120 , 128 NSFNET, 9–10 , 17 , 85–86 , 120 , 123 , 128 see also specific agencies The Federal High Performance Computing Program, 86 Foundations, 8 , 18 , 44 , 46 Freedom of information, 16 , 121 public domain, 16 , 17 , 97–98 , 117–120 , 128 Free text, see Textual data Funding, 7–8 , 12 , 13 , 44 , 45–46 , 81–82 , 92 , 111 , 121 , 123–125 Brain Map Advisory Panel, 16 , 18–19 , 121 , 128–129 foundations, 8 , 18 , 44 , 46 grants, research, 18 , 111 , 124

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH G GenBank, 81 Genetics, 25 , 27 , 30 , 60–65 , 92 , 122–123 behavioral, 15, 50,51 color vision, 64 DNA, 64, 81, 87 emotion, 15 learning, 51 neurofibromatosis, 30 RNA, 57, 63, 68 schizophrenia, 6–7, 38, 40–41,67–69 Genomes, 6, 17, 27, 62, 110, 113, 122–123, 128 animal studies, 87–88 databases, 9, 12, 29, 41, 79–82, 87–88, 91, 95, 98, 103, 105, 128 Human Genome Project, 17, 110, 123, 128 networks, 87–88 Geographical factors consortia, 15, 116, 128 laboratory locations, 12, 14, 116–117, 128 Geometric data, 116 Glia, 56 Gore, Albert, 22, 86 Grants, research, 18, 111, 124 Graphics, 7, 8–9, 13, 14, 26, 67–76, 96, 98, 102, 114, 136 computer simulations, 4, 8–9, 14, 22, 33, 71, 72–73 HyperCard, 82 pain, 37 standards, 11, 98–99 visual perception, models of see also Images and image processing Gusella, James, 30 H Historical perspectives, 32, 50, 64, 70, 78, 124–125 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 8, 44 Hubel, David, 32 Human–computer interface, 11, 12, 100–101, 102–103, 109 see also Graphics Human Genome Project, 17, 110, 123, 128 HyperCard, 82 I Images and image processing, 7, 9, 11, 26, 39–40, 74, 91, 100, 108, 114, 116 computer simulations, 4, 8–9, 14, 22, 33, 71, 72–73 databases, 9–11, 77, 83, 85– evaluation, 96–97 magnetic resonance imaging, 9, 39–40, 52–53, 73, 96–97, 99 networks, 9–10, 82, 83, 88, 100, 102, 103, 108 object-oriented databases, 77, 100, 114 pattern recognition, 4, 71 PET scanning, 6, 9, 39–40, 52, 53, 73, 96–97, 99 see also Graphics; Vision and visualization Immunocytochemistry, 55, 56–57 Informal data, 77, 88, 93, 98, 104, 108, 117 Information management, 1, 3, 22, 26–30, 43–44 databases, 3, 10, 11, 22, 29, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83–84, 100–

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Injuries, 7 , 21 , 27 , 52 , 56 , 62 , 126–127 pain and, 5–6 , 36 , 37 visual perception, 33 Institute of Medicine, 1 , 22 , 136 Intellectual property, 12 , 16 , 104 , 105 , 118–119 , 121 public domain, 16 , 17 , 97–98 , 117–120 , 128 Intelligenetics, Inc., 81 International Brain Research Organization, 43 International perspectives and programs, 18 , 43 , 117 , 124–125 , 129 databases, 11 , 15–16 , 17 , 81 , 97 , 98–99 , 117 , 128 networks, 9 , 85 , 87 , 97 , 117 , 120 research policy, 2 , 23 Internet, 85 , 87 , 120 Ion channels, 60 , 68 , 94 , 118 J Japanese DNA Data Bank, 81 Journal of Neuroscience , 99 L Learning processes, 15 , 51 , 59 , 67 Legal issues freedom of information, 16 intellectual property, 12 , 16 , 104 , 105 , 118–119 , 121 privacy rights, 16 , 104–105 , 121 public domain, 16 , 17 , 97–98 , 117–120 , 128 Local area networks, 84–85 , 100 , 120 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 81 M MacArthur Foundation, 8 , 44 Magnetic resonance imaging, 9 , 39 , 52–53 , 73 , 96–97 , 99 Magnetoencephalography, 52 Mathematics, 59–60 , 73 , 116 Memory, 94 animal/human, 51 , 59 computer, 26 , 70 , 102 Mental illness, 1 , 7 , 27 , 41–42 , 43 , 44 , 52 affective disorders, 7 , 41–42 National Institute of Mental Health, 1 , 2 , 22 , 23 , 75 schizophrenia, 6–7 , 27 , 37–41 , 52 , 67–69 Microcircuits, 26 , 57–60 national database, 3 neural, 3 , 26 , 27 , 35 , 53–54 , 59 , 85 Microprocessors, 26 Models, 22 , 88 , 100 , 1140–17 Brain Mapping Initiative, 3 , 8 , 13–19 , 26 , 44–45 , 114–129 computer simulations, 4 , 8–9 , 14 , 22 , 33 , 71 , 72–73 molecular, 92 , 95 , 106 Molecular processes, 2 , 14 , 25 , 57 , 60–65 , 114 , 127 antibodies, 43 , 55 , 62 databases, 9 , 12 , 17 , 29–30 , 68–69 , 79–82 emotion, 15 modeling, 92 , 95 , 106 PET scanning, 6 , 9 , 39–40 , 52 , 53 , 73 , 96–97 , 99 schizophrenia, 40 substance abuse, 5 visual perception, 4 , 33 x-ray crystallography, 8–9 , 72–73 see also Genetics; Protein sequencing; Receptors Monkey studies, 14 , 32 , 51 , 114 Motor functions, 33 , 34 , 36 , 48 , 50–51 , 94

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH N Nathans, Jeremy, 64 National Academy of Sciences, 86 National Center for Biotechnology Information, 100 , 109 , 119–120 National Center for Research Resources, 81 National Digital Library System, 88 National Information Standards Organizations, 120 National Institute for General Medical Sciences, 82 National Institute of Mental Health, 1 , 2 , 22 , 23 , 75 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, 41 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1 , 2 , 22 , 23 , 126 National Institutes of Health, 7–8 , 18 , 44 , 45 , 74–76 , 81 , 124 see also specific institutes National Library of Medicine, 9 , 22 , 76 , 79 , 81–82 , 100 , 103 National Center for Biotechnology Information, 100 , 109 , 119–120 National Neural Circuitry Database, 3 , 11 , 14 , 22 , 26 , 91 , 97 , 136–138 National Research and Education Network, 17 , 18 , 86 , 87 , 100 , 120 , 128 National Research Council, 86 National Science Foundation, 1 , 2 , 8 , 18 , 22 , 23 , 44 , 70–71 , 75–76 , 81 , 82 NSFNET, 9–10 , 17 , 85–86 , 120 , 123 , 128 Networks, 1 , 7–8 , 9–10 , 11 , 14 , 21–22 , 23 , 83 , 84–88 , 93 , 100 , 108 , 120 communications software, 15 , 101 , 108 , 120 data standards, 10 , 11 , 15 , 85 , 87 , 92 , 98–99 , 102–104 , 108 , 109 , 110 , 116 , 119 , 120 images, 9–10 , 82 , 83 , 88 , 97 , 100 , 102 , 103 , 108 international perspectives, 9 , 85 , 87 , 97 , 117 , 120 Internet, 85 , 87 , 120 local area, 84–85 , 100 , 120 neural, 2 , 25 , 27 National Neural Circuitry Database, 3 , 11 , 14 , 22 , 26 , 91 , 97 , 136–138 National Research and Education Network, 17 , 18 , 86 , 87 , 100 , 120 , 128 NSFNET, 9–10 , 17 , 85–86 , 120 , 123 , 128 on-line databases, 9 , 76 , 79–82 , 97 public domain, 16 , 17 , 97–98 , 117–120 , 128 social aspects, 104–107 standards, 10 , 11 , 15 , 85 , 87 , 116 university, 85 , 120 wide area, 84 , 85 Neural hierarchy, 2 , 3 , 10 , 15 , 27 , 48–65 , 94 , 95 , 99 , 107 , 108 Neurons, 27 , 43 , 55–65 , 74 , 94 axons, 55–56 , 58 , 96 circuitry, 3 , 26 , 27 , 35 , 53–54 , 59 , 85 electrophysiology, 55 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 68 , 94 , 118 ion channels, 60 , 68 , 94 , 118 networks, 2 , 3 neurochemistry, 54–57 , 58 synapses, 27 , 57–62 , 68 , 94 see also Receptors Neurofibromatosis, 30 , 65 , 95 Newton, Isaac, 64

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Nonprofit organizations, see Foundations NSFNET, 9–10 , 17 , 85–86 , 120 , 123 , 128 O Object-oriented databases, 77 , 100 , 114 Office of Naval Research, 44 Office of Science and Technology Policy, 86 On-line databases, 9 , 76 , 79–82 , 97 Organizational issues, 2 , 8 , 84 , 121–122 research hierarchy, 3, 27–28 , 31 see also Coordination; Information management Oscilloscope, 43 , 125 P Pagels, Heinz, 21 Pain, 5–6 , 35–37 Parallel processors, 54 Pattern recognition, 4 , 71 Pavlov, Ivan, 50 Peer review, 12 , 14–15 , 17 , 105 , 116–117 , 128 Pew Charitable Trusts, 8 Pharmacology, 14 , 35 , 52 , 60 , 74 , 114 , 127 dopamine, 6–7 , 34 , 38 , 40 , 54 see also Substance abuse Physiology, 2 , 14 , 21 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 43 , 53–54 , 55 , 57 , 114 , 136 anatomy and brain function, 3 , 6 , 14 , 15 , 25 , 26 , 53–56 , 93–94 pain, 35–37 pilot projects, 14 schizophrenia, 38 visual perception, 2 , 3 , 4 , 14 , 25 , 31–34 see also Electrophysiology Pilot projects, 13 , 14–15 , 19 , 92 , 95–96 , 107–109 , 116–117 , 118 , 120 , 122 , 123–125 , 128 , 129 anatomy, 15 , 115 coordination, 13 , 14–15 , 109–110 , 120–123 evaluation, 13 , 14–15 , 108 , 109–110 , 116–117 , 122 , 128 Policy issues, general, 2 , 16 , 23 Positron emission tomography, 6 , 9 , 39–40 , 52 , 53 , 73 , 96–97 , 99 Privacy rights, 16 , 104–105 , 121 Private sector, 74 foundations, 8 , 18 , 44 , 46 Problem solving algorithms, 11 , 97 , 102 artificial intelligence, 54 , 59 Professional organizations, 7 , 10 , 23 , 43 , 70 , 74 , 91–92 consortia, 15 , 16 , 17 , 116 , 121 , 122 , 123–124 , 128 symposia, 10 , 23 , 92 , 139–141 Projections, 67 , 113–116 , 125–127 networks, 86–87 Protein sequencing, 62 , 122–123 databases, 9 , 12 , 17 , 29–30 , 68–69 , 79–82 , 95 , 105 , 128 Protein synthesis, 57 Prototypes, see Pilot projects Public domain databases, 97–98 software, 16 , 17 , 117–120 , 128 Public Health Service, 18 , 124 Publications, 28 , 43 , 98 , 99 , 105 bibliographic databases, 9 , 77 , 78 , 94 , 98 , 117 newsletters, 87 standards for related data in databases, 12 , 92 , 110 , 119 study methodology, 10 , 92

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Q Quality control, 16 , 121 , 122 see also Evaluation; Standards R Receptors, neuronal, 5 , 6–7 , 34 , 35 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 52 , 58 , 60–63 , 94 , 96 , 126 Reference databases, see Bibliographic databases Relational databases, 77 , 82 , 100 Research basic, 2 , 19 , 21 , 23 , 52 , 94 , 103 , 116 clinical, 2 , 6 , 19 , 21 , 23 , 37 , 52 , 94 , 116 costs, 8 , 18–19 , 105 , 125 fragmentation of, 3 , 13 , 43–44 policy, 2 , 3 , 23 see also Technological innovations Research Triangle Institute, 126 RNA, 57 , 63 , 68 Robotics, 4 S Schizophrenia, 6–7 , 27 , 37–41 , 52 , 67–69 anatomical data, 6 , 38 , 39 , 67–69 behavioral factors, 37–38 , 40 , 67 cerebral cortex, 6 , 39 , 40 chemical processes, 6 , 27 , 38–40 , 68 databases, 6–7 , 40–41 , 67–69 developmental aspects, 6 , 37 , 40 genetics, 6–7 , 38 , 40–41 , 67–69 Sensors, electronic, 4 , 118 Sensory perception, 25 , 27 , 48 , 52 pain, 5–6 , 35–37 see also Vision and visualization Sex differences, 64 Sociological issues, 12–13 , 104–107 , 110 , 117 , 118–119 , 121 , 126 attitudes, 17 , 106 , 111 pain, 37 privacy rights, 16 , 104–105 , 121 standard data formats, 12 , 118–119 see also Intellectual property Society for Neuroscience, 7 , 10 , 23 , 43 , 74 , 91–92 Software, 74–75 , 108 , 109 database, 81 , 101 human–computer interface, 11 , 108 public domain, 16 , 17 , 117–120 , 128 telecommunications, 15 , 101 , 108 , 120 Sulston, John, 87 Standards, 22 data formats, 10 , 11 , 12 , 15 , 85 , 87 , 92 , 98–99 , 102–104 , 108 , 109 , 110 , 116 , 119 , 120 graphics, 11 , 98–99 publication, 12 , 92 , 110 , 119 social factors, 12 Study methodology consortia, 15 , 16 , 17 , 116 , 121 , 122 , 123–124 , 128 symposia, 10 , 23 , 92 , 139–141 see also Task forces Substance abuse, 4–5 , 7 , 34–35 , 41–42 , 50 , 126 alcohol abuse, 7 , 8 , 18 , 34 , 41–42 , 44 , 45 , 124 anatomical data, 5 , 34 , 35 animal studies, 34 , 55 chemical processes, 5 , 34 , 35 cost of, 34 , 41 databases, 5 , 35 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1 , 2 , 22 , 23 , 126

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MAPPING THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS: INTEGRATING ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES INTO NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Supercomputer Network Study Act, 86 Supercomputing centers, 120 Sutherland, Ivan, 70 Symposia, 10 , 23 , 92 , 139–141 Synapses, 27 , 57–62 , 68 , 94 axons, 55–56 , 58 , 96 ion channels, 60 , 68 , 94 , 118 T Task forces study methodology, 23 , 91–92 , 97 , 100 , 101 , 107 , 111 , 136–138 topics and rosters, current study, 133–135 visualization, 70–72 Technological innovations,general, 2 , 6 , 7 , 42–44 , 51–53 , 99–102 , 124–125 social factors, 104–107 Telecommunications, see Communication; Networks Textual data, 11 , 116 , 76 , 93 , 96 , 102 , 116 U Universities and colleges, 109 databases, 82 , 83 , 97 data-sharing controls by, 12 , 105 , 119 graphics developments, 74 networks, 85 , 120 User interface, see Human–computer interface V Vision and visualization, 4 , 13 , 26 , 29 , 31–34 , 67 , 70–73 anatomical data, 4 , 31–32 , 33 , 34 of brain function, 2 , 3 , 4 , 14 , 25 , 31–34 , 43 , 53–54 cerebral cortex, 4 , 32 , 34 chemical processes, 4 , 33 color, 31 , 64 deficits, 4 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 53 , 64 developmental processes, 32 , 53 electrophysiology, 33 , 52 neurons, 4 , 32 , 33 pattern recognition, 4 , 71 physiology, 2 , 3 , 4 , 14 , 25 , 31–34 x-ray crystallography, 8–9 , 72–73 W White, Ray, 30 Wide area network, 84 , 85 Wiesel, Torsten, 32 Women, 126 X X-ray crystallography, 8–9, 72–73 X-rays, 74