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1 ~ . 1dICROLIVESTOCK LitIte-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future Board on Science and Technology for International Development National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. This report was prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Develop- ment, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN-5538-G-SS-1023-00. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 90-63998 ISBN 0-309-04437-5

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PANEL ON MICROLIVESTOCK RALPH W. PHILLIPS, Deputy Director General (Retired), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Chairman EDWARD S. AYENSU, Senior Advisor to the President, African Devel- opment Bank, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. BONNIE V. BEAVER, Professor of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA KURT BENTRSCHKE, Professor of Pathology and Reproductive Medicine, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California, USA ROY D. CRAWFORD, Professor of Animal and Poultry Genetics, De- partment of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatche- wan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada TONY J. CUNHA, Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus, University of Florida, Gainesville, and Dean Emeritus, School of Agriculture, California Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, USA DAVID E. DEPPNER, Director, New Forest Project, International Center, Washington, D.C., USA ELIZABETH L. HENSON, Executive Director, American Minor Breeds Conservancy, Pittsboro, North Carolina, USA DONALD L. MUSS, Menard, Texas, USA (Formerly Regional Animal Production Officer, FAO, Santiago, Chile) DAVID R. LINCICOME, Guest Scientist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Assistant Secretary for External Affairs? Smith- sonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA ARNE W. NORDSKOG, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Sci- ence, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA LINDA M. PANEPINTO, Director, Miniature Swine Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA KURT J. PETERS, Professor of Animal Breeding and Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, West Germany, and Director of Research, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia JOHN A. PINO, Senior Fellow, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., USA HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Program in Agriculture, Uni- versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA MICHAEL H. ROBINSON, Director, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., USA KNUT SCHMIDT-NIEESON, James B . Duke Professor of Physiology, Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA . . .

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ALBERT E. SOLLOD, Associate Professor and Head, Section of Inter- national Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA LEE M. TALBOT, Visiting Fellow, World Resources Institute, Washing- ton, D.C., USA CLAIR E. TERRILL, Sheep and Goat Scientist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA CHRISTEN M. WEMMER, Assistant Director for Conservation, National Zoological Park, Front Royal, Virginia, USA DANNY C. WHARTON, Associate Curator Animal Departments, New York Zoological Park, Bronx Zoo, The Bronx, New York, USA CHARLES A. WOODS, Professor and Curator, Florida State Museum, University of Flonda, Gainesville, Florida, USA THOMAS M. YUILL, Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Training, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA * * * NOEL D. VIETMEYER, Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID), National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Microlivestock Study Director and Scientific Editor NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF F.R. RUSKIN, BOSTID Editor MARK DAFFORN, Technical Writer MARY JANE ENGQUIST, Staff Associate ELIZABETH MOUZON, Senior Secretary JOHN VREYENS, MUCIA Intern 1V

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CONTRIBUTORS The following individuals have made general contributions to the develop ment of this book. All of the persons listed as research contacts in Appen dix B also contributed-usually on one or two species that are their scientific specialty. ASH1Q AHMAD, Wildlife Management Specialist, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan ANGEL C. ALCALA, Division Research, Extension and Development, Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines HART! AMMANN, Basel, Switzerland PATRICK ANDAU, Forest Department, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia S.P. ARORA, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India S. AYYAPPAN, CIFRI, Kausabyaganga, Bhubaneswar Orissa, India WALTER BAKHUIS, Caribbean Marine Biological Institute, Willemstad, Curagao, Netherlands Antilles JAMES R. BARBORAK, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica PUSHKAR NATH BHAT, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India STEVE BENNETT, Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies K.P. BLAND, Department of Physiology, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland MELVIN BOLTON, Yeppoon, Queensland, Australia JOSEPH BONNEMAIRE, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences Agronomiques Appliquees, Dijon, France R.D.S. BRANCKAERT, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Universite du Burundi, Bujumbura, Burundi PETER BRAZAITIS, Herpetology, New York Zoological Society, The Bronx, New York, USA L. DE LA BRETONNE, JR., Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA P. BRINCK, Department of Animal Ecology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden LESETE BROWNRIGG, CIAT, Cali, Colombia D. HOMER BUCK, Illinois Natural History Survey, Kinmundy, Illinois, USA GERARDO BUDOWSKI, Natural Renewable Resources Programme, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica DAVID BUTCHER, Taronga Zoo, Mosman, New South Wales, Australia JULIAN 0. CALDECOTT, World Wildlife Fund Malaysia, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia GARY CALLIS, Texline, Texas, USA J.K. CAMOENS, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines A. CHRISTOPHER CARMICHAEE, The Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA ROBERT H. CHABRECK, School of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA A.M. CHAGULA, Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania v

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CHARAN CHANTALAKHANA, Department of Animal Science, Kasetsart Univer- sity, Bangkok, Thailand PETER R. CHEEKE, Rabbit Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA G.S. CHILD, Forest Resources Division, FAG, Rome, Italy A.S. CHOPRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Coop- eration, New Delhi, India W. ROSS COCKRILL, 29 Downs Park West, Bristol, England, BS6 7QH CRISOSTOMO CORTES, Dairy Promotion and Extension Section, Dairy Devel- opment Division, Manila, Philippines WYLAND CRIPE, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA A. BEN DAVID, Holon, Israel C. DEVENDRA, International Development Research Centre, Singapore RODNEY DILLINGER, International Agency for Apiculture Development, Rockford, Illinois, USA DIRECTOR, Natal Parks Board, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa ROLLANDE DUMONT, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences Agronomiques Appliquees, Dijon, France N.G. EHIOBU, Department of Agricultural Sciences, College of Education, Agbor, Nigeria nn~ A T n FA UNFR nf~n~rtme.nt Of 7~1~v I Jniversitv of Washington, Seattle ~ ~ ~ ~ 1~ ~ ~ ~ A ^` ~ ~ ~ A ~ ~ ^_ r - - - _ =, , _ _ , Washington, USA JOHN A. FERGUSON, Overseas Development Administration, Eland House, London, England ABELARDO FERRER D., Quinta Nueva Exparta, San Bernardino, Caracas, Venezuela LYNWOOD A. FIEDLER, Section of International Programs, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver Wildlife Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA H. FISCHER, Tropical Science Centre, Division of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, West Germany J. FURTADO, Commonwealth Science Council, London, England FRANK GOLLEY, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA E. GONZALES J., Instituto de Produccidn Animal, Universidad Central de Venezuela, El Limon-Maracay, Venezuela GRAHAM GOUDIE, Mainland Holdings, Lae, Papua New Guinea ALISTAIR GRAHAM, Tanglewood, Crowborough, East Sussex, England GORDON GRIGG, Zoology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia M.R. DE GUMAN, JR., Food and Fertilizer Technology Center, Taipei, Taiwan COLIN P. GROVES, Department of Prehistory and Anthropology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia J. HARDOUIN, Institut de Medicine Tropicale "Prince Leopold," Antwerp, Belgium GEOFFREY HAWTIN, International Development Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V1

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GORDON HAVORD, Technical Advisory Division, UNDP, New York, New York, USA TIN HLA, Veterinary Department, Director General's Office, Rangoon, Burma JAMES HENTGES, Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA W.F. HOLLANDER, Department of Genetics Iowa, USA Iowa State University, Ames, RENE E. HONEGGER, Herpetology, Zurich Zoo, Zurich, Switzerland JACK HOWARTH, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, California, USA HUANG CHU-CHIEN, Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China ANGUS HUTTON, Gympie, Queensland, Australia H.A. JASIOROWSKI, Animal Production and Health Division, FAG, Rome, Italy MUHAMMAD YAQUB JAVAID, Directorate of Fisheries, Government of the Punjab, Punjab, India J. MANGALARA] JOHNSON, Nudumalai Sanctuary, Vannarpet, Udagamandalani India MAT! KAAL, Tallinn Zoo, ESSR Tallin, USSR STELLAN KARLSSON, Simontorp Aquaculture AB, Blentarp, Sweden JACKSON A. KATEGILE, International Development Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya ROBERT E. KENWARD, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Furzebrook Research Station, Wareham, Dorset, England JAMES M. KEARNEY, Miami, Florida, USA F. WAYNE KING, Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Florida, USA H.-G. KLOS, Zoologischer Garten Berlin, Berlin, West Germany NELS M. KONNERUP, Boom International, Stanwood, Washington, USA NAVU KWAPENA, Office of Environment and Conservation, Boroko, Papua New Guinea THOMAS E. LACHER, Huxley College of Environmental Studies, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington, USA JOHN K. LOOSLT, Gainesville, Florida, USA PETER LUTZ, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA CRAIG MACFARLAND, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica CONSTANCE M. MCCORKLE, Department of Rural Sociology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA ROBERT E. MCDOWELL' Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA JEFFREY A. MCNEELY, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland ADRIAN G. MARSHALL, Institute of South-East Asian Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland RICHARD R. MARSHALL, Veterinary Medicine, Sutter Hospitals Medical Research Foundation, Sacramento, California, USA G.H.G. MARTIN, Department of Zoology, Kenyatta University College, Nairobi, Kenya . . V11

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IAN L. MASON, Edinburgh, Scotland JOHN C. MASON, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada J. MAYO MARTIN, Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas, USA Yo~ANDA MATAMOROS, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica Rosin McKERGoN, Livestock Development Corporation, Lae, Papua New Guinea M. MGHENI, Faculty of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania P. MoNG~N, Station de Recherches Avicoles, INRA-Centre de Tours, Nouzilly, Monnaie, France JOSE ROBERTO DE ALENCAR MOREIRA, Agricultural Research Center of the Humid Tropics, Belem, Para, Brazil W.L.R. OLIVER, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands, United Kingdom WERNER PAUWELS, Basel, Switzerland W.J.A. PAYNE, Worcester, England IAN PLAYER, Wilderness Leadership School, Bellair, Natal, South Africa JAMES H. POWELL, JR., Plainview, Texas, USA WILLIAM R. PRITCHARD, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA HECTOR HUGO L~ PUN, International Development Research Centre, Bogota, Colombia V~cENTE T. Qu~RANTE, Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Project, Bureau of Animal Industry, Manila, Philippines DAN RATTNER, The Institute of Animal Research, Kibbutz Lahav, D.N. Negev, Israel C.V. REDDY, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India RHoEHE~T, Institute of Applied Science and Technology, University Campus, Turkeyen, Guyana CHAR~Es T. Ross~Ns, Department of Zoology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA CARMEN MA. ROIAS G., CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica D.H.L. Ror~NsoN, Sardinia, Italy Ju~o E. SANCHEZ P., Museo Nacional, San Jose, Costa Rica JEFF SAYER, World Conservation Centre, Gland, Switzerland G. SEIFERT, Tropical Cattle Research Centre, CSIRO, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia ANDRES E~oY SE~As, Servicio Nacional de Fauna Silvestre, Maracay, Venezuela S.K. SHAH, Institute of Animal Sciences, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan STEH CHENx~A Department of Animal Science, Nanjing Agricultural College, Nanjing, People~s Republic of China B.P. SINGH, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Chandra Sekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India C. CATIBOG SINHA, Forest Research Institute, College, Laguna, Philippines . . . v~'

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A.J. SMITH, Tropical Animal Health, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, Great Britain A. MITHAT EFENDI, Ankara, Turkey HENRY STODDARD, Shamrock Veterinary Clinic and Fisheries, Cross City, Florida, USA SUKUT SULARSASA, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Gadjalu Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia D.L. SUTTON, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA NICHOLAS SMYTHE, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama J. SZUMIEC, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Fish Culture Station, Chybie, Poland N. TABUNAKAWAI, Ministry of Primary Industries, Suva, Fiji FRANK M. THOMPSON, Wild Animal Brokers, Bradenton, Florida, USA ALLEN D. TILLMAN, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA DON TULLOCH, Winnellie, Northern Territory, Australia CONRADO A. VALDEZ, Dairy Development Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Manila, Philippines LUIS VARONA, Havana, Cuba PRAN VOHRA, Department of Avian Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA ANTOON DE VOS, Whitford, Auckland, New Zealand GRAHAME WEBB, Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Win- nellie, Northern Territory, Australia DAGMAR WERNER, Fundacion Pro Iguana Verde, Heredia, Costa Rica GARY WETTERBERG, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., USA CHAREES H. WHARTON, Clayton, Georgia, USA F.W. BERT WHEEEER, College Station, Texas, USA ROMULUS WHITAKER, Madras Crocodile Bank, Perur, Tamil Nadu, India WILDEIFE CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAE, New York Zoological Society, The Bronx, New York, USA R.R. YEO, USDA-ARS, University of California, Davis, California, USA BRUCE A. YOUNG, Department of Animal Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada CHAROON YOUNGPRAPAKORN, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm and Zoo, Samutprakan, Thailand THOMAS M. YUILL, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA W. ZEILLER, Miami Seaquarium, Miami, Florida, USA 1X

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Preface The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of the potential of small livestock species and to stimulate their introduction into animal research and economic development programs. It is geared particularly towards benefiting developing nations. "Microlivestock" is a term we have coined for species that are inherently small, such as rabbits and poultry, as well as for breeds of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs that are less than about half the size of the most common breeds. These miniature animals are seldom consid- ered in the broad picture of livestock development, but they seem to have a promising future. Wherever land is scarce it seems reasonable to assume that, things being equal, small animals would be more attractive than large ones. And land for livestock is becoming increas- ingly scarce. In this report we have emphasized multipurpose species with promise for smallholders. In some species, the promise is immediate; in others, it is long term, and much research must be undertaken before that promise can be realized or even understood. We have included wild species that seem to have potential as future livestock. Some are threatened with extinction but are described here because their economic merits may be the key to acquiring support for their protection. Also, we have highlighted rare breeds of domes- ticated species because the current tendency has been to concentrate on a small number of large breeds, and many potentially valuable breeds are becoming extinct through neglect. The book was prepared after an intensive survey of more than 300 animal scientists in 80 countries. They suggested more than 150 species for inclusion. The staff then drafted chapters on about 40 species and these drafts were reviewed by more than 400 researchers worldwide. The thousands of resulting comments, corrections, and additions were integrated into the drafts. The panel then met to review the product, to select the most promising species, and to rework the chapters based on their own experiences and joint conclusions. The result is the current 35 chapters. Most of the case studies and accounts of inno- vations highlighted in the various sidebars were developed by the staff study director. X1

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. . X11 MICROLIVESTOCK Collectively, this study covers many species, but it by no means exhausts all the microlivestock possibilities. Lack of space and time precludes discussion of creatures such as edible insects, snails, worms, turtles, and bats, which in some regions are highly regarded foods. Similarly, we have not included aquatic life. These decisions were arbitrary; perhaps invertebrates and aquatic species can be included in future volumes. This report is addressed to government administrators, technical- assistance personnel, and researchers in agriculture, nutrition, and related disciplines who are concerned with helping developing countries achieve a more efficient and balanced exploitation of their biological resources. Hence, we deal with the animals in a general way and do not cover details of biology, husbandry, or economics. A selection of readings that contains such technical information is cited in Appendix A. A further goal of this project has been to explore the common ground between the disparate arms of animal science: to show that specialists in wildlife, zoology, and livestock science have much to learn from one another's field of expertise; to show that "fanciers" of pigeons, pheasants, chinchillas, iguanas, and other species may have much to offer livestock breeders including germplasm; and that those who raise "obsolete" breeds are not only playing a vital role in the protection of rare genes but can offer the benefit of their experience to commercial livestock producers. Throughout this report, the scientific names of mammals follow those in: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 1982. J.H. Honacki, K.E. Kinman, and J.W. Koeppl, editors. Published by Allen Press, Inc.; and the Association of Sys- tematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas, USA. All dollar figures are in U.S. dollars; all ton figures are in metric tons. This report has been produced under the auspices of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation (ACTI) of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council. ACTI was mandated to assess innovative scientific and technological advances, with particular emphasis on those appropriate for developing countries. In this spirit, therefore, the current report includes some extremely unusual species. Whether these will eventually prove practical for widespread use is uncertain, but we present them here for researchers and others who look forward to challenges and enjoy the satisfaction of successful pioneering. The domestication of new poultry, as well as the management of rodents, iguanas, and small deer and antelope, should be viewed in this spirit. Current titles in the ACTI series on managing tropical animal resources are:

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PREFACE The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea. . . . x~ The production of these books has been supported largely by the Office of the Science Advisor of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), which also made this report possible. WARNING If misunderstood, this book is potentially dangerous. Because of the severity of the food crisis, the panel has selected some animal~mainly in the rodent section that are highly adaptable and grow quickly. These seem appropriate for raising only in areas where they already exist, which are clearly identified in those chapters. Such potentially invasive animals should not be introduced to other environments because they could become serious pests. In any trials, local species should always be given priority. How to cite this report: National Research Council. 1991. Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

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Contents Introduction 1 PART I MICROBREEDS 1 Microcattle 16 2 Microgoats 3 Microsheep 4 Micropigs 62 14 Part II POULTRY 72 5 Chicken 78 6 Ducks 90 7 Geese 100 8 Guinea Fowl 114 9 Muscovy 124 10 Pigeon 136 11 Quail 146 12 Turkey 156 13 Potential New Poultry 166 PART III RABBITS 178 14 Domestic Rabbit 182 PART IV RODENTS 192 15 Agouti 198 16 Capybara 17 Coypu 216 18 Giant Rat 19 Grasscutter 20 Guinea Pig 21 Hutia 250 22 Mara 256 23 Paca 262 24 Vizcacha 270 25 Other Rodents 224 232 240 PART V DEER AND ANTELOPE 284 26 Mouse Deer 290 27 Muntjac 298 xv

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XVI 28 Musk Deer 306 29 South America's Microdeer 314 30 Water Deer 320 31 Duikers 326 32 Other Small Antelope PART VI LIZARDS 342 33 Green Iguana 346 34 Black Iguana 354 PART VII OTHERS 360 35 Bees 362 APPENDIXES A Selected Readings B Research Contacts C 371 393 Biographical Sketches of Panel Members 427 INDEX OF SPECIES 437 336 Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) 440 BOSTID Publications 441 Art Credits Page 14 46 90 114 124 156 166 206 MICROLIVESTOCK Small Farmer's Journal Balai Penelitian Ternak, Bogor, Indonesia Tom Phillips, The Anstendig Institute, San Francisco Brenda Spears CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom Drawing from Lewis Wright's Poultry by J. Batty, reproduced by permission Nimrod Bood Services, Liss, United Kingdom Drawing by Charles W. Schwartz, reproduced by permission from Wildlife of Mexico: The Game Birds and Mammals, by A. Starker Leopold, courtesy University of California Press Small Farmer's Journal Courtesy, Department of Library Services, American Museum of Natural History David W. Macdonald

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ART CREDITS xvii 216 Charles A. Woods 232 Reproduced from The Rodents of West Africa, ~ Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). 250 Charles A. Woods 270 FAO, Santiago, Chile 290 Reprinted from Animals of Southern Asia by M. Tweedie, courtesy Paul Hamlyn Publishing, part of Reed International Book. 320 Huang Chu-Chien 346 Horacio Rivera 362 Drawing by Sarah Landry. Reprinted by permission of Harvard University Press from The Insect Societies, by Edward O. Wilson, p. 97. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, copyright ~ 1971 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Drawings on pages 198, 240, and 256 are reproduced by permission from The Random House Encyclopedia, copyright ~ 1983 by Random House, Inc. Silhouettes on pages 284, 297, 313, 319, 334, are reproduced from Hoofed Mammals of the World by Ugo Mochi and T. Donald Carter, reproduced with the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons. Copyright ~ 1953 by Ugo Mochi and T. Donald Carter, copyright renewed 1981 by Edna Mochi. All rights reserved. The maps on pages 203, 210, 219, 227, 236, 243, 253, 260, 265, 274, 292, 293, 309, and the drawings or pages 276 and 314 are adapted from Grcimek's Animal Life Encyclopaedia and are reproduced by permission of Coron Verlag, Lachen am Zurichsee, Switzerland. Drawings on pages 178, 224, 262, and 306, are reprinted by kind permission of Andromeda Oxford Ltd. and first published in the Encyclopedia of Mammals by David W. Macdonald, Facts on File (New York). Drawings on pages 326 and 336 are by Clare Abbott and are reprinted from The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion, courtesy the University of Pretoria. Cover Design by David Bennett

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1 UICROLIVESTOCK

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In the developing countries, there are over 100 million farms of less than five hectares, supporting about 700 million people, who represent about 17 percent of the world population. Even more significant is the fact that about 50 million farms have less than one hectare of land. C. Devendra and Marcia Burns Goat Production in the Tropics We may now be in the wind down stage of bigger is better animal selection trend and it has certain!: been a wild ride.... the lesson now being learned is that the bigger breeding animals . . . cost more to maintain, are often slower to reproduce, and may even have a shorter lifespan. Kelly Klober Small Farmer's Journal I ~