with higher levels of anger, dissociation, PTSD, higher levels of violent behaviors, and lower levels of parental monitoring (Buka et al., 2001; Fowler et al., 2009; Slovak and Singer, 2001; Zona and Milan, 2011).

Methods that may be used to investigate these questions include ethnographic and qualitative research strategies, survey methods (including the Youth Behavioral Risk Survey), and community-based participatory approaches.

Identify factors associated with juveniles and youths having access to, possessing, and carrying guns.

Examples of topics that could be examined:

Which individual and/or situational factors influence the illegal acquisition, carrying, and use of guns by juveniles?

What types of weapons do youths obtain and carry?

How do youths acquire these weapons (e.g., through legal or illegal means)?

What are key community-level risk and protective factors (such as the role of social norms), and how are these risk and protective factors affected by the social environment and neighborhood/community context?

What are key differences between urban and rural youth with regard to risk and protective factors for firearm-related violence?

Impact of Having a Firearm at Home

A recent Pew Foundation report found that “the vast majority of gun owners say that having a gun makes them feel safer. And far more today than in 1999 cite protection—rather than hunting or other activities as the major reason for why they own guns” (Pew Research Center, 2013). Despite gun owners’ increased perception of safety, research by Kellermann et al. (1992, 1993, 1995) describes higher rates of suicide, homicide, and the use of weapons involved in home invasion in the homes of gun owners. However, other studies conclude that gun ownership protects against serious injury when guns are used defensively (Kleck and Gertz, 1995; Tark and Kleck, 2004).

Additional research is needed to weigh the competing risks and protective benefits that may accompany gun ownership in different communities. This information will be invaluable to individuals wanting to



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