PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR ENERGY

held at the

Solar Energy Research Institute

1617 Cole Boulevard

Golden, Colorado

November 7 and 8, 1990

Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons

Energy Engineering Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1991



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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR ENERGY held at the Solar Energy Research Institute 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado November 7 and 8, 1990 Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons Energy Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is the president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Subcontract No. XX-9-19012-1 from the Solar Energy Research Institute Division of the Midwest Research Institute through the U.S. Department of Energy to the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 91-62494  International Standard Book Number 0-309-04577-0 NAP S-416 Copies available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy COMMITTEE ON POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR PHOTONS ALLEN J. BARD, (Chairman), Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas ADAM HELLER, (Vice Chairman), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas J. LAMBERT BATES, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, Washington ELSA M. GARMIRE, Center for Laser Studies, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California ARTHUR GOLDSTEIN, Ionic, Incorporated, Watertown, Massachusetts JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY, Consultant, Dallas, Texas DAVID F. OLLIS, Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina ADEL F. SAROFIM, Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts NICK SERPONE, Department of Chemistry, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada MICHAEL A. TENHOVER, B. P. Research, Warrensville Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio VERONICA VAIDA, Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado National Research Council Staff KAMAL J. ARAJ, Study Director, Energy Engineering Board JAN C. KRONENBURG, Study Assistant (to February, 1991)

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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy ENERGY ENGINEERING BOARD JOHN A. TILLINGHAST (Chairman), Tiltec, Portsmouth, New Hampshire DONALD B. ANTHONY, Bechtel Corporation, Houston, Texas RICHARD E. BALZHISER, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto California BARBARA R. BARKOVICH, Barkovich and Yap, Consultants, San Rafael California JOHN A. CASAZZA, CSA Energy Consultants, Arlington, Virginia RALPH C. CAVANAGH, Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco CA DAVID E. COLE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan H. M. (HUB) HUBBARD, Midwest Research Institute, Golden, Colorado ARTHUR E. HUMPHREY, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (to February, 1991) CHARLES IMBRECHT, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California CHARLES D. KOLSTAD, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois HENRY R. LINDEN, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois JAMES J. MARKOWSKY, American Electric Power Service Corporation, Columbus OH (to February, 1991) SEYMOUR L. MEISEL, Mobile R&D Corporation (retired), Princeton, New Jersey DAVID L. MORRISON, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia MARC H. ROSS, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Garrett Ceramic Component Division, Torrance, California HAROLD H. SCHOBERT, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA GLEN A. SCHURMAN, Chevron Corporation (retired), San Francisco, California JON M. VEIGEL, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee BERTRAM WOLFE, GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, California Staff ARCHIE L. WOOD, Executive Director, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems and Director, Energy Engineering Board (to January, 1991) MAHADEVAN (DEV) MANI, Director, Energy Engineering Board KAMAL J. ARAJ, Senior Program Officer ROBERT COHEN, Senior Program Officer (retired) GEORGE LALOS, Senior Program Officer JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program Officer JUDITH A. AMRI, Administrative Coordinator THERESA M. FISHER, Administrative Secretary JAN C. KRONENBURG, Administrative Secretary (until February, 1991) PHILOMINA MAMMEN, Administrative Secretary NANCY WHITNEY, Administrative Secretary

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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy Preface The Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons was formed on May 7, 1990 by the Energy Engineering Board of the National Research Council. Its task was to assess potential applications of concentrated solar energy in nonelectric areas and recommend research needed for further development. To carry out its task, the Committee convened a workshop to assess the current state of the field in a number of potential applications and to discuss technologies for which concentrated solar energy might be utilized. The workshop was held at the facilities of the Solar Energy Institute (SERI) in Golden, Colorado, on November 7–8, 1990. This proceeding is the record of that workshop containing all the summary papers submitted by the speakers as well as the rapporteur reports summarizing the presentations and the discussion. The committee's final report, which will be published separately, draws on these proceedings for background material. The committee trusts that papers included in these proceedings will stimulate further interest and study by the technical community. The committee acknowledges the contribution of Kamal J. Araj, the study director, in organizing and coordinating the workshop and editing the papers that form the proceedings. Administrative secretaries Jan Kronenburg and Susan Clarendon carried out the word processing, revising and rerevising many hundreds of pages of highly technical documents with patience and aplomb. The committee would like to extend its gratitude to Meir Carasso, SERI Project Manger, for his assistance in coordinating SERI technical presentations; and to Diane Christodaro and Linda Horrell, for their assistance in logistical support and administrative arrangements during the workshop. Allen J. Bard, Chairman Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons

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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy Contents 1.   Session 1 - Water Treatment: Advanced Photooxidation Processes   1     Chemical Models of Advanced Oxidation Processes William H. Glaze   6     Mechanistic Studies of the Photocatalytic Behavior of TiO2 Particles in a Photoelectrochemical Slurry Cell and the Relevance to Photodetoxification Reactions M.W. Peterson, J.A. Turner, and A.J. Nozik   9     Effect of Light Intensity on Photocatalytic Reaction Craig S. Turchi   16     A Comparison of Advanced Oxidation Processes with Semiconductor-Catalyzed Photo-Oxidation Gary R. Peyton   20     Ultrox Operating Experiences with UV/Oxidation; Economics Jack D. Zeff   22     Solar Photocatalyzed Process Economics Hal Link   25     Photocatalyzed Removal of Multiple Contaminants from Water Hussain Al-Ekabi   28     Immobilized Catalysts in Solar Concentrators Mark S. Mehos   30     Photocatalysis with Large-Scale Trough Collectors James E. Pacheco   32 2.   Session 2 - Waste Treatment   35     High-Temperature Photochemistry Induced by Concentrated Solar Radiation Barry Dellinger, John Graham, Joel M. Berman, and Don Klosterman   38     Chemical Processes During Incineration and Implications on Detoxification of Hazardous Wastes Using Solar Photons Wing Tsang   48     Solar Technology Applications in Chemical Waste Management Peter S. Daley   51

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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy 3.   Session 3 - Materials Processing And Synthesis   59     Applications of Energetic Particles in Improving Coating Adhesion Properties George R. Fenske   63     Pulsed Laser Processing of Solar Cells Rajiv K. Singh and J. Narayan   69     Surface Modification Technologies Using Concentrated Solar Radiation J. R. Pitts, J. T. Stanley, E. Tracy, and C. L. Fields   78     A Comparison of the Economics of Materials Processing with Solar Furnaces and High-Intensity ARC Lamps Gregory J. Kolb   84 4.   Session 4 - Solar Pumping of Lasers   97     Solar Pumped Lasers: Work in Progress at The University of Chicago Roland Winston   99     Blackbody Pumped Lasers Walter H. Christiansen   103     Solar Pumped Lasers and Their Applications Ja H. Lee   106 5.   Session 5 - Photochemical Synthesis   109     Photophysics and Photochemistry of Porphyrin Systems John S. Connolly   113     Potential Industrial Applications of Photons James T. Yardley   116 6.   Session 6 - Fuel Processing ADN Thermochemical/Photochemical Cycles   117     Gas Research Institute Experience in Solar Fuel Research Kevin Krist   121     Thermal, Thermalchemical, and Hybrid Solar Hydrogen Production E. Bilgen   124     Chemical Reactions Driven by Concentrated Solar Energy Moshe Levy   129

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Proceedings of a Workshop: Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Energy     Inexpensive Phenol Replacements from Biomass: An Ongoing Technology Transfer Effort Helena L. Chum   132 7.   Session 7 - Advanced Research   137     The Biotechnology of Cultivating Dunaliella Rich in Beta Carotene: From Basic Research to Industrial Production Mordhay Avron   138     Production Potential of Biochemicals from Algae and Other Biotechnological Innovations Enabled by Higher Solar Concentration Lewis M. Brown   140 8.   Plenary Session   141     Status of European R&D in Solar Chemistry and Industrial Interest in this Technology Paul Kesselring   141 Appendix A.   Workshop Agenda   145 Appendix B.   List of Participants   153