authors. But the responsibility for such disclosure rests with scientists themselves.

  • The research environment is stressful and yet conducive to the remarkable productivity of researchers. The rewards for successful research are greater now than in the past, but today's rapid pace of development may undermine critical internal checks and balances and may increase opportunities for misrepresentation or distortion of research results. Thus the scientific community must organize to reinforce its standards and to ensure the responsible conduct of research.


1. See, for example, Association of American Universities (1988).

2. The Office of Technology Assessment suggests that a “kind of lottery mentality appears to have taken hold in the 1980s: the more grant proposals submitted, the greater the probability that one would be funded” (OTA, 1990, p. 10).

3. The mean is represented by rounding off to one significant figure.

4. See also, for example, Angell (1986).

5. See, for example, the editorial policies of the New England Journal of Medicine (1992).

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