is composed of many small companies loosely connected to integrated circuit manufacturers. In Japan, on the other hand, equipment vendors and device manufacturers are tightly linked and are often parts of the same company.

Plasma processes used today in fabricating microelectronic devices have been developed largely by time-consuming, costly, empirical exploration. The chemical and physical complexity of plasma-surface interactions has so far eluded the accurate numerical simulation that would enable process design. Similarly, plasma reactors have also been developed by trial and error. This is due, in part, to the fact that reactor design is intimately intertwined with the materials process for which it will be used. Nonetheless, fundamental studies of surface processes and plasma phenomena—both experimental and numerical—have contributed to process development by providing key insights that enable limitation of the broad process-variable operating space. The state of the science that underpins plasma processing technology in the United States is outlined in Chapter 4. Although an impressive arsenal of both experimental and numerical tools has been developed, significant gaps in understanding and lack of instrumentation limit progress.

The broad interdisciplinary nature of plasma processing is highlighted in the discussion of education issues outlined in Chapter 5, which addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with providing a science education in the area of plasma processing. For example, graduate programs specifically focused on plasma processing are rare because of insufficient funding of university research programs in this field. By contrast, both Japan and France have national initiatives that support education and research in plasma processing.

FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Finding and Conclusion: In recent years, the number of applications requiring plasmas in the processing of materials has increased dramatically. Plasma processing is now indispensable to the fabrication of electronic components and is widely used in the aerospace industry and other industries. However, the United States is seeing a serious decline in plasma reactor development that is critical to plasma processing steps in the manufacture of VLSI microelectronic circuits. In the interest of the U.S. economy and national defense, renewed support for low-energy plasma science is imperative.

Finding and Conclusion: The demand for technology development is outstripping scientific understanding of many low-energy plasma processes. The central scientific problem underlying plasma processing concerns the interaction of low-energy collisional plasmas with solid surfaces. Understanding this problem requires knowledge and expertise drawn from plasma physics, atomic physics, condensed matter physics, chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, materials science, computer science, and computer engineering. In the absence of a coordinated approach, the diversity of the applications and of the science tends to diffuse the focus of both.

Finding: Technically, U.S. laboratories have made many excellent contributions to plasma processing research—making fundamental discoveries, developing numerical algorithms, and inventing new diagnostic techniques. However, poor coordination and inefficient transfer of insights gained from this research have inhibited its use in the design of new plasma reactors and processes.

Finding: The Panel on Plasma Processing of Materials finds that plasma processing of materials is a critical technology that is necessary to implement key recommendations contained in the National Research Council report Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1989) and to enhance the health of technologies as identified in Report of the National Critical Technologies Panel (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991). Specifically, plasma processing is an essential element in the synthesis and processing arsenal for manufacturing electronic, photonic, ceramic, composite, high-performance metal, and alloy materials.



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