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Index A ab initio calculations, 172, 173 abscisic acid, 24 acentric materials, 72-73 acetic acid catalytic production of, 35, 39~0 from glucose, 101 acetone from glucose, 101 acetylene, 53 acid-base interactions, hy- drogen bonds and, 140 acid rain, 13-16, 19, 39, 52, 202, 211, 220 autos and, 13 coal burning and, 6 nitric acid and, 9 sulfur dioxide and, 14 Acrilon@, 65 acronyms (inside back cover) acrylic acid, 45 from glucose, 101 activation energy, 124 of inert molecules, 40, 45 acyclovir, 80 adamantadine, 132 adamantane, 132 NMR of, 181 adducts, DNA, 84, 190 adenine, 93, 94 adenosine triphosphate, 5~57 adrenalin, 77, 79, 80 major discussions; definitions adsorption, 153-155 aflatoxins, 140 agonists, 7~79 agriculture crop rotation, 31 food supply and, 23, 31 AIDS, 87 alcohols catalytic production of, 60 from glucose, 100 alkanes, 49, 50, 51 branched, 49, 50, 51 cyclic, 50, 51 from syn gas, 54 alkavinone, pressure synthe- sis of, 127 alkenes, 49, 50, 51 alkyl benzenes, energy movement in, 116 alloys, surface concentra- tion, 152-153 aluminophosphates, 46 aluminosilicates, 38 molecular sieves, 38 aluminum structural properties, 66 U.S. production of, 64 Ames test, 84 amide bonds, 94 amines, 92-93 amino acids, 94, 95 ammonia fertilizer manufacture, 152 nitrogen fixation and, 32 amorphous silicon, 69, 73 anaerobic respiration, 55 analgesics, 83 analog, 98 analytical chemistry, 158-162, 166 chromatography, 15~159, 166 environmental protection, 6,8, 15 instrumentation for, 194-199 lasers and, 9 lidar and, 9 mass spectrometry In, 16~161 optical spectroscopy in, 15~160 analytical separations, 15~159 chromatography, 158 anemia, 89 angina, 81 angiotensin-converting en- zyme, 76 anile, photochromism and, 155 animal tests species dependence, 207 toxicity and, 20~207 antagonists, 79 Antarctic meteorites, 157 antibacterials, 79-80 antibiotics, 79-80, 129,148 erythromycin, 139, 140 penicillin, 139 antibodies, 87, 142 potentiometric analysis, 148 229

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230 antifeedants, 27-28 antimetabolites, SS anti-smog legislation, 106 antiviral agents, 80, 90, 132 ants, leafcutters, 177 archeological chemistry, 166 aromatics, 49, 50, 51 arrhythmia, 82-83 arthritis, 86, 133 artificial enzymes, 43-45 artificial organs, materials for, 101 artificial skin, 99 ascorbic acid, 127 aspartic acid synthesis, 100 atherosclerosis, 81-82, 91 atmospheric chemistry, in- frared spectroscopy and, 199 atmospheric pollution, 202 infrared detection of, 160 199-200, 202 freons, 160, 199 lasers and, 171 atomic absorption, lasers and, 171 atomic theory, 1-2 ATP (see adenosine triphos- phate) atrazine, 30 Auger spectroscopy, 192, 194 automated synthesis, 102, 141, 147 automobile industry, 106 automobiles exhaust, O2 sensor, 72 gas mileage, 109 plastic, 62, 65 polymers in, 106, 109 autumn leaves, 149 auxins, 2~25 azadirachtin, 28 B bachelor's degree in chemis- try, 225 bacteriocides, trimethoprim, 143 bacteriorhodopsin, 142 major discussions; definitions INDEX BamH restriction enzyme, 96, 97 bases, 92-93 batteries, lithium-iodine, 47 benomyl, 30 benzene, 49, 51 toxicity of, 205 benzophenone, 119 benzopyrene, cancer and, 84 Bhopal, 5, 215-217, 220 bianthrones, photochromism and, 155 biocatalysis, 99-101 biochemistry, structure and C function, 14~147 biodegradable insecticides, 27 bioengineering, 99 biological molecules, 137-149 computers and 173 instrumentation for, 178-189 biomass, 48, 55-56,100-101 biomaterials, artificial organs and, 99 biomimetic enzymes, 45 biosynthesis, 137-141 leukotrienes and, 129 natural products, 139-140 biotechnology, 92-102, 107-108 medicine and, 98-99, 100 birth control, 87-88 drugs, 129 bitumin in shale oil, 55 block polymers, 67-68 self-organizing, 67-68 triblock, 67 blocker, enzyme, 77-78,79 blood clotting, 89 pressure, control of, 76 substitutes, 99 bond angles, vibrational fre- quencies and, 197-198 bond strengths, vibrational frequencies and, 197-198 books, preservation of, 222 boranes chiral, 135 organic synthesis and, 135 borohydrides, organic syn- ttiesis and, 133 bradykinin, hypertension and, 76 brassinolide, 136 structure of, 136 Bunsen burner flame, 52 butane, 50, 53 butylate, 30 caffeine, 82 -free coffee, 157 calcium channel blockers, 82 cancer, 84-86 aflatoxin and, 20~210 carcinogenesis, 84-85 carcinogens, 84 chemotherapy, 85-86, 143 children, recovery, 86 cisplatin and, 148, 190 colon, 206 enzymes and, 84 formaldehyde and, 210 NMR imaging and, 182 pesticides and, 211 platinum complexes, 90 selenium and, 7 skin cancer, ozone and, 210 smoking and, 90 TCE and, 20~207, 210 tumor inhibition, 143 vinyl chloride and, 205-206 capillary chromatography, 196-197 captopril, 81 hypertension and, 76 carbidopa, 1, 83 carbohydrates, cell manufac- ture of, 56-57 carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and, 15-16,52, 5~56 lasers, multiphoton excita- tion by, 123 carbon monoxide, 51

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INDEX acetic acid from, 35, 39~0 surface-bound, 38, 153 syn gas and, 54 toxicity of, 7, 208 carcinogens coal combustion and, 6 hazards from, 21~211, 220 soot and, 5 cardiac pacemakers, 47 cardiovascular disease, 80-82 careers in chemistry, 223-228 carophyllene oxide, natural fungicide, 177 cartap, 30 catalysis, 191,193, 194 air quality and, 39 electro-, 36, 42-43 enzyme, 37 GNP and, 36 heterogeneous, 36, 37-39 51, 151-152 homogeneous, 36, 39-42 metals and, 38 metathesis of olefins, 40 molecular sieves and, 38 nitrogen fixation and, 40, 152 photo-, 36-37, 42 surface area and, 37 surface depth and, 194 catalysts, 35, 36 auto exhaust, 51 chiral, 128, 129 clusters, 135 designed, 44, 46 heterogeneous, 151-152 hydrogenation by, 15~155 poisoning of, 154 ring closure, 132-133 stereoselective, 36, 41-42 syn gas, 54, 60 catalytic chemistry, 50-52 catalytic converter, 39 catalytic cracking, 38, 50, 51 catalytic poisoning, 51 catalytic reforming, 50 cavitands, 44 231 cell bleaching, lasers and, 171 culture, 101 sorting, lasers and, 171, 199 central nervous system, 83-84 ceramic whiskers, 66 structural properties, 66 ceramics, 63, 74, 108, 113, 114, 131 CFMs (see chlorofluorome- thanes) chemical change, 1 chemical etching, semicon- ductors and, 112 chemical industry, 36, 10~105, 10~113 economic benefits, 39, 10~1 14 employment by, 104 chemical kinetics, 117 chemical lasers, 59, 121, 122, 168 chemical products autos and, 106, 109 feedstocks, 52, 53, 55, 105~106 trade balance and, 36, 104 chemical reactions, 1 fast, 117-120,156, 171 instrumentation for study of, 169-176 light-initiated, 13~135 mode-selective, 125 pressure and, 127, 128 selective excitation of, 124-125 state-to-state, 121-122 chemical spills, 211-213, 21~215, 220 media treatment of, 21 1-213 chemical thermodynamics, 117 chemical vapor deposition, 42, 68, 73, 74 chemicals accidents involving, 213-216 large-scale use, 213-219 158-159, 166, 194-197 toxic, 20~205 chemiluminescence, 121 chemisorption, 153 chemistry, 63 archeological, 166 careers, 223-228 creativity in, 223-224 economic well-being and, 2,36, 104 education in, 224-228 employment, 104, 224 human needs and, 2, 21 instrumental methods and, 2, 167, 16~200 life processes and, 2 philosophical significance, 2 quality of life and, 2, 21 research in, 226, 228 special opportunities in, 2, 228 surface, 37,151-155, 166 teaching careers, 228 chemoselectivity, 131 chemotherapy, 85-86 aminopterin, 143 methotrexate, 143 Chernobyl, 58, 213 Cheverel phases, 71 chiral auxiliary, 128 chiral structures, 41 drugs and, 41~2 chiral synthesis, 135, 137 boranes, 135 chirality, 128 chlorine, electrocatalysis and, 42~3 chlorofluoromethane s (CFMs) alternatives for, 13 atmospheric detection, 160 ozone depletion and, 11-12, 210 stratospheric, 11 chlorophyll, 30, 57, 130 cholesterol enzymes for, 81~2 heart attacks and, 91 chromatography, 33, major discussions; definitions

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232 affinity, 200 capillary, 19~197 computers and, 195-196 forensics and, 196 gas, 19~195, 200 high-pe~ormance liquid, 195-196 instrumentation, 200 natural fungicides and, 177 reversed phase, 195, 196 supercritical liquids in, 19~197 two-dimensional, 159 chymotrypsin, 142 cimetidine, 79 circular dichroism, 199 cisplatin, 148 cancer and, 190 DNA adduct, 190 cleavage, genetic engineering and, 33 climate, greenhouse effect and, 15-16, 19, 52, 47-48 ClO, stratospheric, 12 clomiphene, 87 clones, 97 clotting, blood, vitamin K, 89 clusters, 40-41 catalysis and, 135 metal, 40~1, 45, 46 metal carbonyls, 4~1 naked, 41 CO (see carbon monoxide) CO2 (see carbon dioxide) coadso~ption, 154 coal, 48, 53-54, 60 acid rain and, 6 dioxins in, 185 hydrocarbons from, 153 cobalt catalysts, 39, 54 import dependence, 163 code, genetic, 93-94, 94-95 140 coenzymes, 88 cofactors, 88 coke, 52 combustion, 50,52 lasers and, 171 major discussions; definitions l~DEX molecular beams and, 122 compactin, cholesterol con- trol, 91 comparable risk, 210-211 220 composites, 108-109, 114 131 filamentary, 131 compounds, 2 rate of discovery, 2 computational chemistry, computers and, 172-173, 176 computers, 172-174 biological molecules and, 173 chromatography and, 195-196 graphics, 188 industrial use, 172 internal rotation, calcula- tion of, 172 mainframe, 172 mass spectrometry and, 185 molecular-scale, 112-113 NMR and, 180 relative speeds, 172 research in chemistry and, 176 super-, 173-174, 176 condensed phases, lS5-158 electronic properties, 155 optical properties, 155 conducting glasses, 73 conducting polymers, 69-70 74 para-phenylene, 70 phthalocyanines, 70 polyacetylene, 68, 70, 71 polypyrrole, 71 conducting stacks, 69-70, 71 conductivity electrical, 150, 194 superconductivity, 71-72. 150 conformational changes chairtboat, 145 DNA puckering, 14~145 conservation of energy, 48 contraceptives, 87-88 conversion catalysts, 38 conversion factors (inside front cover) corn starch, glucose from, 100 corrosion, 151, 194 cortisone, 133 cracking, catalytic, 38, 50, 51 critical elements, import de- pendence, 162-163 critical phenomena, 156-157 crop rotation, 31 crown ethers, 44 crude oil, 49, 50, 53, 55 crystal structures neutron diffraction and, 188 X-rays and, 18~187 cubane, 134 CVD (see chemical vapor deposition) cyclic adenosine monophos- phate (cAMP), 82 cycloaddition, 132 cyclobutane, 134 cyclodextrins, 44 cyclohexane, chair/boat forms, 145 cyclopropane, 134 cymetidine, 129 cytochrome c, NMR and, 181 cytokinins, 25 cytosine, 93 D dangling bonds, in silicon, 69 DDT, 203, 217-219 environmental persistence and, 6, 218 fatty tissue and, 218 malaria and, 6, 203, 217-218 decaffeination, 157 deltamethrin, 30 depletion

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INDEX Resorption techniques, mass spectrometry and, 184 detection environmental protection and, 7-10, 160, 199 food purity and, 19 hazard threshold and, 7, 218 detergents, 49, 61 catalytic production of, 39 diabetes, 98, 99 diamminedichloroplatinum, 190 cancer and, 190 diethyl zinc, book preserva- tion with, 222 diffraction crystal, X-rays and, 18~187 grating, 186 light, 186 neutrons, 188 X-rays, 186-187 dihydrofolate reductase, 143-144 dimensional units (inside front cover) dioxin, 19, 31, 52, 161, 207, 220 in coal, 184 industrial accidents, 214 lethal dose, 207 Seveso and, 213-214 toxic form, 9 dipropylnitrosamine, 31 distillation, 50 DNA, 92-94 A-, B-, 145-146 adducts, 84 cisplatin and, 190 code, 93-94, 9~95 cutting, 96, 97 double helix, 93 drug binding to, 187 hydrogen bonding in, 73 metals in, 135 puckering in, 144 145 recombinant, 93, 96-98 separation by FFF, 189 structure of, 144 146 233 synthesis of, 14~141 Z-, 1454146 doctorate in chemistry, 225-228 financial support of, 227-228 number of, 22~227 thesis work, 226 dope, L-, 41, 83, 12$ NMR of, 180 dopamine, 82 double helix, 93 drug binding, receptors and, 78 drugs arthritis, 133 asthma, 129 birth control, 129 designer, 90 fluorouracil(5-), 127 L-dopa, 41, 83, 128, 180 dye lasers, 17~171 dyes, 149 E. coli, 98, 99, 100 economics, chemical indus- try and, 104-114, 151-166 education in chemistry, 225-228 bachelor's degree, 225 college chemistry, 225 doctoral degree, 225-227 EEL spectra, 15~154, 192-193 electrical conductors conducting stacks, 69-70 novel, 69-73 organic, 69-71 polymeric, 6~71 semiconductors, 69 solid state ionic, 72, 74 superconductors, 71-72 150 electroanalytical chemistry, 162 electroantennagram, 29 electrocatalysis, 36,42-43 electrochemistry, 57-58, 60 bioanalysis and, 148 pacemaker batteries from, 47 electrolytes, nonaqueous, 47 electron diffraction, 51, 192, 199 electron donor ligands, 130 electron energy loss spec- troscopy (EELS), 153-154, 192-193 carbon monoxide, 154 ethylene, 154 electron spin phosphorescence, 118 resonance (ESR), 57, 189 electron transfer reactions, 133 electronic properties of sol- ids, 155 electrophoresis, 33 elements, 2 employment of chemists, 224 endorphins, 88, 142 energy, 48-61 from biomass, 55-56 catalysis and, 5~52 from coal, 53-54 from combustion, 52 distribution, chemical la- sers and, 121 feedstocks and, 105-106 hydrogen bonds, 140 materials and, 61 from natural gas, 53 from nuclear fission, 58-59 from nuclear fusion, 59 from petroleum, 48-52 rotational, 124 from shale oil, S5 solar, 56-58 from tar sands, 55 translational, 124 U.S. use of, 48, 60 vibrational, 120, 123, 124 energy movement, 120-121 intramolecular, 116, 12~121 lasers and, 116 molecular, 116 major discussions; definitions

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234 speed of, 116 energy transfer, 120 lasers and, 171 engineering plastics, 108-109, 113 enkephalins, 83, 88 environment, 5-19 analytical chemistry and, 6, 8, 15, 158, 160 pesticides and the, 18 protection strategies for, 6 quality of, 5-19 environmental pollution acid rain, 52 combustion and, 52, 55 photodegradable plastics, 4 radioactive wastes, 5~59 Environmental Protection Agency, 8, 161, 205, 218 enzyme immobilization, 100 enzyme inhibitors, 76, 77-78 enzymes, 37, 77-7S, 92, 9~95, 99-100 artificial, 43~5 and biomass, 55 carcinogenesis and, 84 cholesterol formation and, 81~2 chymotrypsin, 142 dihydrofolate reductase, 14~144 ligation, 96 nitrogen fixation and, 32 polymer models of, 135 restriction, 96 thrombin, 142 X-rays, 143-144 epidemiology, 205-206 causality and, 206 epitaxial growth, semicon- ductors and, 73 erythromycin, 132-133, 139, 140 ESR (see electron spin reso- nance) ethane, 49, 51, 53 internal rotation of, 172 ethanol from glucose, 100, 101 major discussions; definitions INDEX ethylene, 25, 53 combustion of, 122 hydrogenation of, 155 reaction with F2, 125 on rhodium, 154, 155 ethylene glycol, 60 eukaryotes, 147 eutrophication, 16 excimer lasers, 170, 171 exhaust auto, 51 catalysts, 39 Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, 175 extraterrestrial materials, 157-158 F familial hypercholesterole- mia, 91 fast atom bombardment (FAB), 183 fast chemical reactions, 117-120, 156, 171 feedstocks, chemical, 52, 53, 55, 105-106 femtoseconds, 170 fermentation, ethanol pro- duction, 100 ferrocene, 130 internal rotation in, 172 ferrodoxin, 41, 130 fe~Toelectricity, 72 ferrofluids, 103 fertility, 87-88 field flow fractionation (FFF), 197 DNA separation by, 189 fireflies, light emission by, 168 Fischer-Tropsch catalysis, 54 process, 45 fission, nuclear, 48, 58-S9, 163 natural reactor, 165 fixation of nitrogen, 31-32, 152 flavins, 89 floppy discs, polymers and, 62 flow cytometer, 199 fluorescence, 118, 119, 199 energy movement from, 116 IVR and, 116, 121 lasers and, 169 fluorine-C2H4 reaction, mode-selective excita- tion, 125 fluorocarbons, blood substi- tutes, 99 food, 22-34 from the sea, 33 food supply, parasitic weeds, 22 formaldehyde in beer, 210 in blood, 210 in cola, 210 in smog, 849, 202 toxicity of, 210 formic acid in smog, 202 fossil fuels coal, 53-54 greenhouse effect and, 52, 56 natural gas, 53 peat, 48 petroleum, 48-52 shale oil, 55 tar sands, 55 Fourier Transform algorithm, 173 IR, 19~199 MS, 183, 189 NMP, 180 free-electron lasers (FEL), 175-176 infrared light from, 176 freons (see also chlorofluo- romethanes) infrared detection, 199 fructose from glucose, 100 FTIR, 19~199 smog analysis with, 202 fumigant, 207 ethylene dibromide, 207 function, biological, struc- ture and, 14~147, 149

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INDEX fungicides, 30-31 licorice and, 177 natural, 177 furanose ring, puckering of, 145 fusion, nuclear, 48, 59, 60, 61 G G2 factor, 25-26 gallium arsenide, 68, 69 garbage, energy from, 55 gas natural, 48, 53 world production, 105 gas chromatography, 19~195, 200 mass spectrometry and, 183 gasoline, 55 combustion of, 52 hazards of use, 203 lead-free, 51 from methanol, 60 from syn gas, 54 gastric acid, 79 genes, 95 Q-globin, 147-148 intron spacers in, 147-148 RNA splicing, 147-148 sequencing, 95 synthesis of, 95,97, 141 genetic code, 93-94, 94-95, 140 genetic engineering, 95, 96-98, 107 biomass and, 56 cleavage, 33 greenhouse effect and, 56 nitrogen fixation, 32 genetic matenal, 144 145 geochemistry, 55, 58, 157-158 NMR in, 183 geologic dating, MS and, 184 gibberellic acid, 25 glaciers, meteorites and, 157 glass, conducting, 73 glaucoma, 81 ,B-globin, gene for, 147-148 glucose, 100 chemicals from, 101 235 glycinoclepin A, 26 glycol from syn gas, 60 gold bricks, catalysis and, 35 clusters, 40 grain parasites, 22 graphite conductivity of, 72 laser vaporization, 135 greenhouse effect, 15-16,19, 52, 56 groundwater, contamination of, 16 growth disrupter, 30 growth hormones, 2~26 brassinolide, 136 cytokinin, 25 GA, 25 plant, 136 growth inhibitors, 24 growth regulators, 26628 insects, 26-27 plants, 24-26 guanine, 93, 95 H hazard thresholds, 19 hazardous wastes incineration of, 19 radioactive, 18 health, 77-90 heart attacks, 82, 90 caffeine, 82 cholesterol and, 91 dopamine, 82 theophylline, 82 timolol, 82 heart disease, 80 83 helium, 61 heme proteins, electron transfer, 148-149 hemin, 45 hemoglobin, 45, 130, 142, 147 sickle cell, NMR and, 180 hemophilia, 141 herbicides, 30, 34 2,4-D, 25 TCP, toxicity of, 213 herpes, acyclovir and, 80 heterogeneous catalysis, 36, 37-39, 51, 151-152 hexane, 51 high-pressure liquid chroma- tography, 19S-196 high temperature materials, 73 superconductors, 71, 72, 150 histamine, 79 Hodgkin's disease, recovery from, 86 homogeneous catalysis, 36, 39~8 hormones, 77-78, 87~8, 94 growth, 24, 136 insect, 26-27 juvenile, 27 maturation, 88 molting, 2~27 plant, 24-26, 136 sex, 24 host-parasite recognition, 22 hydrocarbons from coal, 153 hydroelectric power, 60 hydrogen, 61 in biomass, 55 bonding, DNA structure and, 93 in coal, 54 photoproduction of, 42 in shale oil, 55 in syn gas, 54 hydrogen bonds in DNA, 93-94 energy of, 140 hydroxyecdysone(20-), 26-27 hypercholesterolemia, 81-82, 91 hypertension, 76, 81, 90, 129 immune system, 86-87 immunological diseases, im~?ort of strategic elements, 162-163 indium antimonide, 69 indole acetic acid, 2~2S indomethacin, 78 major discussions; definitions

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236 industrial accidents Bhopal, 215-217 Rhine River spills, 213 Seveso, 213-214 industry auto, 106 chemical, 36, 10~105, 10~1 13 employment of chemists, 224 renewal of, 10~107 research investment, 22~225 inflammatory diseases, 86-87 infrared light, 202 from chemical lasers, 168 from an FEL, 176 rotamer conversion by, 199 infrared spectroscopy, 161, 197-200 atmospheric pollution analysis by, 199 computers in, 19~199 Fourier Transform, 198 mass spectrometry plus, 161 microscopy, 200 pollution detection by, 160 smog analysis by, 9, 202 74 surface studies by, 193 nhibin, 88 inhibitors, enzyme, 76, 77-78 inorganic chemistry, 129-131 inorganic macromolecules, 135 inorganic solids, NMR of structures, 181, 189 national well-being and, 191-200 insulin, 98, 99 synthesis of, 141 integrated circuits, photore- sists and, 111 intercalation, 72 conductivity and, 72 interferon, synthesis of, 141 interleukin-3, automated syn- thesis, 102 intermolecular vibrational redistribution, 116 internal rotation calculation of, 172 ethane, 172 ferrocene, 172 interstellar molecules, 123 intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR), 120, 121 intron spacers, 147-148 . . lOC .lIle atom recombination, rate of, 156 electrolyte, 47 -lithium battery, 47 ionic solid conductors, 72, iridium catalysts, 40, 50, 51 iron catalysis by, 54 catalysts for nitrogen fixa- tion, 152 -sulfur compounds, 41 iron hexachloride, 130 iron pentacarbonyl, 130 isolation of bioreactive mole- cules, 33-34 insect antifeedants, 27-28 control, 23 isotope separatio growth regulators, 26-27 lasers and, 171 hormones, 26-27 multiphoton excitation, pheromones, 28-29 insecticides, 26-28 photodegradable, 34 instrumentation chemical reactions and, 169-176 molecular complexity and, 178-189 123 isotopic composition, solar system, 165 isotopic tracers, biosynthesis and, 139-140 IVR (see intramolecular vi- brational redistribu- tion) major discussions; definitions INDEX J juvenile hormones, 27 anti-, 27 JH-III, 27 methoprene, 27 K kerogen in shale oil, 55 Keshan disease, selenium and, 8 ketones, in photodegradable plastics, 4 Kevlar~, 62 structural properties of, 62, 6S, 67 kinetics, chemical, 52, 117 knock, engine, 50 krypton lasers, 17~171 L laser display devices, 68 lasers, 169-172 applications, 171-172, 176 atmospheric analysis by, 9 chemical, 121, 16S, 169 coherence of, 169 dye-, 17~171 electrically dnven, 169 excimer, 170 fast reactions and, 156, 171 flashlight, 168 free-electron laser, 175-176 frequency accuracy, 170 magnetic resonance and, 199 molecular energy move- ment and, 116 multiphoton excitation, 123 optical spectroscopy and, 160 photosynthesis and, 57 picosecond spectroscopy, 118 population inversions and, 169, 171 pulse duration, 170, 171 pumping of, 169 research areas, 171

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INDEX selective detection by, 160, 161 selective excitation by, 123-125, 135 spectroscopy and, 176 stimulated emission and, 169 structure of, 170 in synthesis, 73, 135 tunable, 135, 170, 171 Uncertainty Principle and, 170 vacuum UV light, 176 vibrational deactivation and, 171 vision study with, 142 LCDs (see liquid crystal dis- plays) Adopt, 41, 83, 128 NMR of, 180 lead poisoning, 90 lead-free gasoline, 51 leafcutter ants, 177 LEED (see low-energy elec- tron diffraction) left-handed DNA, 145-146 legislation, chemical industry and, 104, 106, 113 legumes, nitrogen fixation by, 32 leucine enkephalins, 83 leukemia, 143 leukotrienes, biosynthesis of, 129 levitation, superconducting magnets and, 150 library, preservation, 222 licorice, fungicide properties, 177 lidar, air analysis by, 9 life expectancy, U.S., 209 lifetimes excited states, lasers and, 171 ligand bonding activation and, 130 transition metals, 130 ligation enzymes, 96 light activated pesticides, 148 237 benzophenone emission, 119 diffraction of, 186 photosynthesis and, 56 reactions and, 13~135 lignin, 101 lignite, 48 lipstick, 149 liquid crystal displays, 66, 75 liquid crystals, 66, 74 ferroelectricity, 74 optical activity, 74 structural polymers arid, 67 liquids laser study of, 156 magnetic, 103 reaction rates in, 155-156 lithium-iodine battery, 47 lithium niobate, 68 loco weed, 161 low-energy electron diffrac- tion, 51, 192 lubrication, 194 magnetic liquids and, 103 Lucite~, 65 lumber, U.S. production, 64 M macromolecular electronics, 74 macromolecules, 141-148 inorganic, 135 mass spectrometry and, 184 separation by FFF, 197 magic angle spinning, NMR and, 181 magnetic fields mass spectrometry and, 183 nuclear moments and, 17~179 superconductors and, 71, 150, 17~180 magnetic liquids, 103 magnetic materials, 114 magnetite, magnetic liquids and, 103 malaria, DDT and, 6, 203, 217-218 malignant cells, 84~S manganese catalysts, 39 marijuana, mass spectromet- nc analysis, 184 marine mining, 113 mass spectrometry (MS), 22, 160-161, 182-185 bioactive molecules, 34 computers in, 185 cost, 185 Resorption techniques, 184 dioxins in coal by, 184 FAD, 183 fragmentation patterns, 183 GC combination, 183 high molecular weights, 183-184 high resolution, 183 instrumentation, 200 magnetic deflection and, 183 MS/MS, 161, 184, 189 tandem, 161, 184, 189 time of flight, 183 materials for, 63-76 aerospace, 73, 75 artificial organs, 99, 101 communication, 73 energy use, 61 medical use, 90 structural use, 74 transportation, 75 materials science, 63 matrix isolation, 125, 131, 160 rotamer conversion, 199 maturation hormones, 88 . . . medicine biotechnology and, 98-100 nuclear, 165-166 mercury, toxicity of, 208 messenger RNA, 95, 148 metals, 75 carbonyls, 40-41 catalysis, 38 clusters, 40-41,45,46 metathesis, 40 major discussions; definitions

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238 meteorites/meteors, 157 NMR and, 181 methane, 49, 52, 53, 55, 60 -air flame, 52 from glucose, 101 from syn gas, 54 methanol, 53, 60 acetic acid from, 35 from syn gas, 53, 54 methoprene, 27 methotrexate, 143 NAOPH complex, 144 X-ray study, 144 methyl isocyanate (MIC), 215-216 pesticides from, 216 methylene, 135 micelles, 49 microbe, 99 microelectronic devices, 110-112 mirror-image molecules, 128 (see also chirality) mirror-image structures, 41 mode-selective excitation, 124-125 molecular beams, 121-122, 174 molecular dynamics, 117-126 computers and, 173-174 molecular graphics, 188 molecular-scale computers, 112-113 molecular sieves, 51 catalysis by, 38 molecular structures, 117 computer graphics and, 188 molecular topology, 127-128, 135 molting hormones, 2~27 molybdenum catalysts, 23, 32, 39, 40, 54 monensin, 137-138, 140 morphine, 83, 139 mRNA, 95, 148 MS/MS, 161, 184, 189 multiphoton excitation, 123-124 major discussions; definitions INDEX isotope separation by, 12~124 multiple photon excitation, 123-124 muscle contraction, 77, 94 mutagenesis, 14~147 mutagens, 84 Ames test for, 84 myaloma serum, 159 N NADH, 144 nanoseconds, 170, 171 natural fungicides, 177 natural gas, 49-SO, 53 (see also methane) natural products biosynthesis, 139-140 synthesis of, 137-139 nematic phases, 66 nematode control, 26 neodymium, laser detection of, 162 neurotransmitters, 77, 83 neutron diffraction, 188-189 nickel catalysis by, 39, 54, 5S in enzymes, 55 import dependence, 163 in oil, 52 niobium nitride, supercon- ductor, 150 nitric acid acid rain, 13-1S formation of, 14-15 in smog, 9, 202 nitric oxide, 1~11, 51 formation of, ozone depletion and, 10 nitrogen, catalytic activation of, 40 nitrogen dioxide, 1~11, 51 nitrogen fixation, 26, 31-32 activation energy for, 152 bacterial, 32 homogeneous catalysis and, 40 iron catalyst for, 152 legumes and, 32 nitrogenase and, 32 organometallics and, 130 nitrogen oxides acid rain and, 13 from gasoline combustion, 203 global budget, 15 ozone depletion and, 1~11 nitrosamines, 161 nitrous oxide, bacterial pro- duction, 11 NMR (see nuclear magnetic resonance) NO (see nitric oxide) N2O (see nitrous oxide) NO2 (see nitrogen dioxide) Nobel Prizes chemiluminescence, 121 DDT, 218 molecular beams, 122, 174 nuclear fission, 163 oligonucleotide synthesis, 102 organic synthesis, 133 plutonium discovery, 163 X-rays, 189 norepinephrine, 79, 81 nuclear chemistry, 163-166 medicine and, 165-166 nuclear energy, 58-59, 60 nuclear fission, 48, 58, 60, 163 nuclear fuel, 163 nuclear fusion, 48, 59, 60 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 22, 57, 178-182, 189 adamantane, 181 biosynthesis and, 139-140 cytochrome c, 181 energy levels, 179 Founer Transform (FT NMR), 180 imaging, medical, 181-182 inorganic solids, 189 in vivo studies, 182 L-dopa, 180 magic angle spinning, 181 medical applications, 182, 189

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INDEX multiple quantum, 189 natural fungicides and, 177 nuclear applications of, 166 shale oil, 181 sickle-cell anemia, 180 solid-state, 180-181 solution, 179-180 superconducting magnets in, lS0, 179 two-dimensional, 181, 189 zero-field, 189 nuclear magnets, energy in field, 179 nuclear spins, 178 nuclear winter, 11, 16 nucleic acids, 94, 141-148 nucleotides, 93, 95 nylon, catalytic production of, 39 o O3 (see ozone) oceans, food from, 33 octane, 50 octane number, 50, 51 oil, 50, 52 recovery, 50 refining, 49-50 world production, 105 Oklo natural reactor, 18, 165 oleic acid, surfactant proper- ties, 103 oligonucleotide synthesis, 95-96, 102, 141, 147, 199 oligonucleotide synthe- sizer, 199 oglionucleotides, synthetic, 141, 147 oncogenes, 85, 90 optical activity, 74 optical fibers, 68 optical properties of solids, 155 optical spectroscopy, 15~160, 200 lasers and, 160 optical switches, 68 organic chemistry, 126-129 239 biological molecules, 137-149 boranes in, 135 physical, 127 selenium in, 135 synthesis, 127-129, 131-133 organic conductors, 68-71 organic solids, 74 organometallic chemistry, 129, 133 Orion@, 65 ovulation, stimulation of, 87 oxidation-reduction in photo- synthesis, 5~57 ozone atmospheric, 160 depletion, 1~11 infrared detection of, 199 reactions of, 1~11 spray can propellants and, 210 stratospheric, 10-13, 210 p pacemakers, 47 batteries for, 47 pain relievers, 78 aspirin, 78 enkephalins, 83 indomethane, 78 morphine, 83 palladium catalysts, 50 palytoxin, 13~139 PAN (see peroxyacetylni- trate) paper alkaline reserve, 222 deterioration of, 222 Paracelsus, 205, 219 parasitic weeds, 22 para-xylene, 39 Parkinson's disease, 41, 83 adamantadine and, 132 fedora and, 128 NMR and, 180 PCBs, 161 peat, 48, 60 penicillin, 80, 90, 100, 139 peptide bonds in proteins, 95 peptide synthesis, solid sup- ports and, 127 perfume synthesis, 132 perovskite, superconductors, 71, 150 peroxyacetylnitrate, 202 pesticides, 29-31, 34 detection of, 193 in the environment, 18, 21~21 1 light-activated, 148 MIC and, 216 natural, 211 petroleum, 48-52 chemical feedstocks, 52, 53, 105 from coal, 53 combustion of, 52 depletion of, 105 refining, 49-50 from tar sands, 55 Ph.D. in chemistry, 225-228 employment, 224 financial support of, 227-228 pheromones, 28-29, 34, 126, 159 boll weevil, 28 cockroach, 29 silkworm, 28 phosgene toxicity, 205 phosphorescence, 118 photocatalysis, 3~37, 42 hydrogen production by, 42 photochemistry, 32, 5~58, 1 1~1 19 atmospheric, 202 infrared-induced, 122-125, 199 lasers and, 170 organic synthesis and, 134-135 photodegradable plastics, 4 photoelectrochemistry, 57-58 photography, 109-110 photoimaging, 10~110 photolithography, 111 photoresists, 111 photosynthesis, 1, 32, 34, 5~57, 61 ~jor discussions; definitions

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240 artificial, 32 blocker, 30 photovoltaic cells, 60 polyacetylene, 7~71 phthalocyanines, 70 physics Ph.D.s employment of, 224 number of, 227 physisorption, 153 picosecond, 170, 171 spectroscopy, 118 piezoelectric polymers, 73 pipercide, 30 plant growth hormone, 136 brassinolide, 136 plant growth regulators, 2~26 plant hormones, 2~26, 136 plasma deposition, 73, 74 plasma Resorption, MS and, 18~184 plasma etching, 112 plasmid, 97 plastics, 63-68 (see also polymers) autos and, 106, 109 engineering, 10~109, 113 photodegradable, 4 U.S. production of, 36, 64 platinum, 50, 51, 162 catalysts, 35, 40, 50, 51 cisplatin, 190 import dependence, 162, 163 Plexiglass, 65 plutonium, 58, 163 poisons, 206, 219 pollution acid rain, 52 combustion and, 52, 55 detection and, 7-10 photodegradable plastics, 4 radioactive wastes, 5~59 smog, 202 water, 16-18 polyacetylene conductivity, 68, 70, 71 photovoltaic cells, 7~71 polyacrylonitrile, 65 major discussions; definitions INDEX polyesters, 36, 62 production of, 36 from syn gas, 45, 54 polyethylene, 62, 64, 66 photodegradable, 4 structural properties, 66 polyisoprene, 62 polymer age, 62 polymers, 63-68, 74 "advanced," 75 alloys, 109 biodegradable, 4 blends, 109 block, 67-68 conducting, 74 electroactive, 74 enzyme models, 135 Kevlar@, 62, 65, 67 liquid crystals and, 66-67 photodegradable, 4 piezoelectric, 73 production of, 36, 62, 64, 65 structural, 62,65-66 structural properties, 65-66 TTF, 69-70, 71 polymethylmethacrylate, 65 poly(para~phenylene tereph- thalamide (see Kevlar@) polypeptides, 95, 9~99 polypropylene, 62, 65 polypyrrole, 70 polysaccharides, 75 polystyrene, 62, 65 photodegradable, 4 polyvinyl acetate, 62, 65 polyvinyl chloride, 62, 65 polyvinylidine chloride, 65 population inversion, lasers and, 168, 169, 171 population, world, 23 environmental pollution and, 5 growth of, 5 PPB, parts per billion, 9, 202 precocenes, 27 prednisone, 133 pressure optical properties and, 155 reaction rates and, 127, 128 pro-carcinogens, 84 procaryotes, 148 process, chemical, 36-46 propane, 50, 51, 53 propellane, 134 propylene, 53 proteins, 92, 94-96, 101, 102, 141-143 functions, 94 gel pattern, 159 heme, 14~149 neutron di~raction and, 189 peptide bonds, 95 sequencer, 199 structure, dynamic, 142-143 synthesis, automated, 102 3-D shapes, 141-142 pulse duration, lasers and, 170, 171 purines, 145 pyrimidines, 145 Q quantum chemistry computational, 135 reaction surfaces and, 125-126 quantum mechanics, com- puters and, 172, 176 quasicrystals, 135 quinidine, arrhythmia and, 82 quinine synthesis, 133 radioactive wastes, 18, 58-59 Raman, surface-enhanced, 43 rapture of the depths, 205 rate constants, atmospheric chemistry and, 12 reaction pathways, 126-135 reaction rate mode selectivity and, 125 pressure and, 127

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INDEX reaction surfaces, calculation of, 125-126 reactions, fast, 11~119, 156 receptors, 78-79 recombinant DNA, 92, 96-98 biosynthesis by, 141 nitrogen fixation and, 32 technology, 96-99 recovery, oil, 49 refining, oil, 49-50, 51 redoing, catalytic, 50 regioselectivity, 132 renin, 141 reproduction, 92 research in chemistry industrial, 224 National Laboratories, 226, 228 Universities, 226, 228 restriction enzymes, 96 reversed phase chromatogra- phy, 195, 196 rhenium, 51 rhodium catalysts, 35, 39, 40, 51, 54 acetic acid on, 35 carbon monoxide, 154 ethylene on, 155 rhodopsin, vision and, 142 riboflavin, 89 ribonucleic acid (`see RNA) rickets, vitamin D, 89 risk, 203-220 acceptable, 209-210 assessment, 6, 205-208, 220 chemical, 19 comparable, 210-211, 220 involuntary, 209 management, 208-211 perception of, 220 zero, 7, 8, 218 RNA, 9~95 gene structure and, 148 messenger, 95, 148 splicing of, 148 rotamer interconversion, in- frared-induced, 199 rotation, molecular, 124,125 solvent cage, 156 241 rubber Seveso, dioxin and, 5, synthetic, 36, 62, 64 21~214 ruthenium catalysts, 54 sewage, energy from, 55 SF6 isotope separation, 124 shale oil, 48, 55 two-dimensional NMR of, 181 sickle-cell anemia, NMR and, 180 silane, 73 silicon amorphous, 69, 73 integrated circuits, 11~111 for transistors, 1 silicon carbide, 74 silicon nitride, 73, 74 silly putty, 75 silver halides, photography and, 109-110 SIMS (see secondary ion mass spectrometry) singlet states, 118 smectic phases, 66 smog, 52 formaldehyde in, =9 infrared study of, 199, 202 legislation and, 106 nitric acid in, 9 photochemical, 202 smoking, 90 snake venom, hypertension and, 76 SO2 (see sulfur dioxide) soap, 61 solar energy, 48, 56-58, 60 S safety, 105 salmonella, Ames test and, 84 Sarah, 65 Schroedinger's equation computers and, 172, 173 quantum mechanics and, 125 scintillation counter, 199 secondary ion mass spec- trometry, 192, 193, 194 selective excitation, 124-125, 135 chemical reactions and, 12~125 selective pathways, organic synthesis and, 131-133 selenium, 205, 208 Keshan disease and, 8 organic synthesis and, 135 toxicity of, 8 self-organizing polymers, 67-68 semiconductors, 69 chemical vapor deposition and, 42~3 electrocatalysis and, 42~3 epitaxial growth, 73 fabrication, 11~1 12 photocatalysis and, 42 in photoelectrochemistry, 57-58 plasma deposition, 73 surface growth, 191 semisynthesis, 79 separations chemistry, 162-163 distillation, 50 nuclear fuels, 58 sciences, sequencing, 95 sesbanimide, structure of, 188, 189 hydrogen production by, 42 inorganic atoms and, 130 lasers in research, 171 organic photovoltaics and, 71 sol-gel, ceramics from, 108 solids electronic properties, 155 optical properties, 155 surface chemistry on, 151-155 surface structures, 152-153 major discussions; definitions

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242 solid-state synthesis, 102 salvation, liquids and, 156 solvent cage, reactions in, 156 soot, 5, 16 carcinogen content, 5 space exploration, 16~165 spectroscopy infrared, 160-163,197-200 optical, lS9-160 spin quantum numbers, 178 splicing, 148 Star Wars, chemical lasers and, 168 state-to-state chemistry, 121-122 steel structural properties, 66 U.S. production, 64 stereochemistry absolute, 128 relative, 128 stereoisomers biological activity, 137-138 monensin, 137-138 palytoxin, 138-139 synthesis of, 137-138 stereoselectivity, 132 catalysis and, 36, 41-42, 45 stimulated emission, 169 stone age, 62 strained rings, 134 strategic materials, 162-163 stratosphere, ozone deple- tion in, 19 by chlorofluoromethanes, 11 by nitrogen oxides, 10 by nuclear explosions, 11 by supersonic planes, 11 Striga asiatica, 22 strigol, 25 structural polymers, 62 auto mileage and, 109 liquid crystals and, 67 strength-to-weight proper- ties, 65-66 structure dihydrofolate reductase, 143 major discussions; definitions INDEX function and, 14~147 macromolecules, 141-148 proteins, sulfonamides, 79 sulfur and acid rain, 39, 52 in coal, 54, 60 natural gas, 53 in petroleum, 52 in shale oil, 55, 60 sulfur dioxide acid rain and, 14, 39 sulfur nitride, poly, 71 sunlight, photosynthesis and, 32 superconducting magnets, 179 NMR and, 179 superconductivity pressure and, 155 superconductors, 71-72, lSO Cheverel phases, 71 high-temperature, 71, 72, 150 magnets from, 71, 150 niobium nitride, 150 perovskites, 71, lSO sulfur nitride, 71 TTF, 71 supercritical liquids, chroma- tography and, 19~197 supersonic jets cold molecules and, 116, 160 van der Waals molecules from cooling by, 131 surface analysis, 193-194 catalysis, 35, 5~52 chemistry, 35, 37, 50-52, 151-155, 166 composition, 152-153 enhanced harmonic gener- ation, 43 enhanced Raman, 43 kinks, 50, S1 reactions, 15~155 structure, 152-153 terraces, SO, S1 vibrations, 154 surface analysis, 193-194 depth profiling, 194 surface science instrumenta- tion, 191-193 Auger spectroscopy, 192, 194 depth analysis, 194 EEL spectroscopy, 192 infrared spectroscopy, 192, 193 LEED spectroscopy, 51, 192 SIMS, 192, 193, 194 surface composition, 193, 194 thermal Resorption, 192 X-rays, 200 surfactants, 49 magnetic liquids and, 103 synchrotron EXAFS, 175 light sources, 174-175,176 syn gas, 54, 60, 153 ethylene glycol from, 60 methane from, 54 methanol from, 54 synthesis, 137-141 DNA, 14~141 natural products, 137-139 oligonucleotides, 9S-96, 102 protein, 102 synthesis, organic, 127-129, 131-133 borohydrides, 133 chiral, 128, 129, 135 cycloaddition, 132 photochemical, 13~135 selenium and, 135 T tar sands, 48, 55 TCNQ polymer, 69-70 technetium, 165 Teflon~, 65 terephthalic acid production, 39 tetrahedrane, 134 theophylline, 82 theoretical calculation

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INDEX reaction surfaces and, 125-126 stereoselective reactions, 135 thermal desolation from sur- faces, 192 thermodynamics, chemical, 117 thermospheric chemistry, 19 thienamycin, catalytic syn- thesis, 132 thiophene, catalyst poison, 154 thixotrophy, 65 thorium oxide catalysts, 54 thrombin, blood clotting, 142 thymine, 93, 95 time of flight MS, 183 timolol, 81, 82 titanium, manufacture of, 130 toluene, chemical spill of, 211-212 topology, molecular, 127-128, 135 toothpaste, 90 toxic substances, detection of, 7-10 toxicity, 204-205, 207 acute, 205 aflatoxin, 209~210 animal tests, 206-207 benzene, 205 body weight and, 20~207 carbon monoxide, 7, 208 chronic, 205 dose-time relation, 208 ethylene dibromide, 207 formaldehyde, 210 LD50, 206 mercury, 208 methylisocyanate (MIC), 215-216 pesticides, 211 phosgene, 205 selenium, 7-8, 208 species dependence, 207-208 threshold, 7 trichloroethylene (TCE), 206-207, 210 243 vinyl chloride, 205-206 trade balance, 36 chemical industry, 104 merchandise, 104 transistors from silicon, 1 transition metals, ligand bonding to, 130 translational energy, 107 triadimefon, 30 triblock polymers, 67~8 trichloroethylene (TCE), 20~207, 210 trichlorophenol (TCP) dioxin impurity in, 213 herbicide, 213 trigonelline G2 factor, 25-26 tnmethoprim bacteriocide, 143 triostin-A, binding to DNA, 187 triplet states, 118 tropospheric chemistry, 19 TTF polymers, 69-70, 71 tumors aminopterin, 143 inhibition of, 143 methotrexate and 143 NMR imaging of, 182 survival rate, 86 tungsten silicide, 73-74 tunichromes, 34 two-dimensional NMR, 181, 189 U ulcers, 129 cimetidine and, 79 ultimate carcinogens, 84 ultraviolet light, ozone layer and, 10, 11 Uncertainty Principle, 118, 170 uracil, 95 uran~um isotope separation, 123-124 ores of, 163 purification, 163 urbanization, environmental pollution and, 5 V vaccines, 98 vacuum UV light, lasers and, 176 vanadium in oil, 52 van der Waals molecules, 131 vapor deposition, semicon- ductors and, 42~3 vasodilators, 82 verapamil, arrhythmia, 82 vibration, molecular, 124 vibrational deactivation, la- sers and, 171 vibrational energy move- ment, 116 vibrational excitation chemical lasers and, 168 multiphoton, 12~125 vibrational frequencies, bond strengths and, 197-198 vibrational spectra environmental pollutants and, 160 surfaces, 154 vibrational spectroscopy atmospheric chemistry and, 199 atmospheric pollution and 199 Fourier Transform and, 199 surface studies and, 192, 193 vignettes Ant That Doesn't Like Licorice, 177 Beauty Is Only Skin Deep, 35 Cisplatin The Strong, Silent Type, 190 Investigating Smog Soup, 202 Jack and the Soybean Stalk, 136 Libraries into Space, 222 Laser Flashlight, 168 Lithium-Powered Heart, 47 major discussions; definitions

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244 Magnetic FluidsAttrac- tive Possibilities, 103 No Deposit, No Return, No Problem, 4 Pac-Man for Cholesterol, 91 Rx Snake Bite, 76 Something for Nothing, 150 Stone Age, Iron Age, Polymer Age, 62 Time It Takes to Wag a Tail, 116 Whipping a Wicked Weed, 22 vinyl chloride, toxicity, 205-206 vinylidene chloride, piezo- electric behavior, 73 vlSlon rhodopsin and, 142 vitamin A and, 8~90 vitamins, 88-90 A, 89-90 B2, 89 Bl2, 89, 130, 133 C, 88, 127 D, 89 D3, laser synthesis, 13S K, 89 major discussions; definitions INDEX W warburganal, 28 wastes hazardous, I9 radioactive, 19 water pollution and, 1~18 water clean, 16-18, 19 waste, purification of, 17-18 wells, TCE contamination, 20~207, 210 wax, 50 weed control, 25, 30, 34 weed parasites, 22 whiskers, ceramic, 66 whole-body imaging, NMR and, 182 witchweed, 25 work function, 194 world population, 23 environmental pollution and, 5 growth of, 5 world production, gas and oil, 105 X X-rays, 185-188 brassinolide structure, 136 diffraction of, 186 dihydrofolate reductase, 143-144 drug binding to DNA, 187 methotrexate and NADPH, 144 sensitivity, 187, 188 sesbanimide structure, 187,188 surface studies by, 200 vitamin By, 89 wavelengths of, 186 xenogistic compounds, 22 A yeast, fermentation and, 100 yellow rain, 161 z Z-D N A, 146-147 zeatin, trans-, 25 zeolite catalysts, 46 zero risk, 7,8,218 zinc, U.S. production of, 64 . . . . . zlrcomum c loxlue, oxygen sensor, 72 Zytel V.T. 4~, 109