Page 429

References

Ackman, R.J. 1968. The flame ionization detector: Further comments on molecular breakdown and fundamental group response. J. Gas Chromatogr. 6:497—501.

Adams, R.M., S.A. Hamilton, and B.A. McCarl. 1985. An assessment of the economic effects of ozone on U.S. agriculture. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 35:938—943.

Adams, R.M., J.D. Glyer, S.L. Johnson, and B.A. McCarl. 1989. A re-assessment of the economic effects of ozone on U.S. agriculture. J. Air Waste Manage. 39:960—968.

Adams, R.P. 1989. Identification of Essential Oils by Ion Trap Mass Spectroscopy. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. 302 pp.

AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory). 1985. Atmospheric composition. Pp. 21-1 in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A.S. Jursa, ed. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, United States Air Force.

Aimedieu, P. 1983. Ozone profile intercomparison based on simultaneous observations between 20 and 40 kin. Planet. Space Sci. 31:801—807.

Akimoto, H., K. Takagi, and F. Sakamaki. 1987. Photoenhancement of the nitrous acid formation in the surface reaction of nitrogen dioxide and water vapor: Extra radical source in smog chamber experiments. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 19:539—551.

Albritton, D.L., S.C. Liu, and D. Kley. 1984. Global Nitrate Deposition from Lightning. Proceedings of the Conference on the Environmental Impact of



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 429
Page 429 References Ackman, R.J. 1968. The flame ionization detector: Further comments on molecular breakdown and fundamental group response. J. Gas Chromatogr. 6:497—501. Adams, R.M., S.A. Hamilton, and B.A. McCarl. 1985. An assessment of the economic effects of ozone on U.S. agriculture. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 35:938—943. Adams, R.M., J.D. Glyer, S.L. Johnson, and B.A. McCarl. 1989. A re-assessment of the economic effects of ozone on U.S. agriculture. J. Air Waste Manage. 39:960—968. Adams, R.P. 1989. Identification of Essential Oils by Ion Trap Mass Spectroscopy. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, Inc. 302 pp. AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory). 1985. Atmospheric composition. Pp. 21-1 in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A.S. Jursa, ed. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, United States Air Force. Aimedieu, P. 1983. Ozone profile intercomparison based on simultaneous observations between 20 and 40 kin. Planet. Space Sci. 31:801—807. Akimoto, H., K. Takagi, and F. Sakamaki. 1987. Photoenhancement of the nitrous acid formation in the surface reaction of nitrogen dioxide and water vapor: Extra radical source in smog chamber experiments. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 19:539—551. Albritton, D.L., S.C. Liu, and D. Kley. 1984. Global Nitrate Deposition from Lightning. Proceedings of the Conference on the Environmental Impact of

OCR for page 429
Page 430 Natural Emissions, Research Triangle Park. Air Pollution Control Association, Pittsburgh, Penn. Alson, A. 1988. The Emission Characteristics of Methanol and Compressed Natural Gas in Light Vehicles. Paper 88-99.3. Presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the American Pollution Control Association, Dallas, Texas, June 19-24. Altshuller, A.P. 1986. The role of nitrogen oxides in nonurban ozone formation in the planetary boundary layer over N America, W Europe and adjacent areas of ocean. Atmos. Environ. 20:245—268. Altshuller, A.P. 1988. Some characteristics of ozone formation in the urban plume of St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Atmos. Environ. 22:499—510. Altshuller, A.P. 1989. Nonmethane organic compound to nitrogen oxide ratios and organic composition in cities and rural areas. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 39:936—943. Altshuller, A.P., and J.J. Bufalini. 1971. Photochemical aspects of air pollution: A review. Environ. Sci. Technol. 5:39—64. Ames, J., T.C. Myers, L.E. Reid, D.C. Whitney, S.H. Golding, S.R. Hayes, and S.D. Reynolds. 1985. Airshed Model Operations Manuals, Vol. I, User's Manual; Vol. II, Systems Manual. EPA-600/8-85/007a,b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atmospheric Sciences. Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, N.C. April. Amiro, B.D., T.J. Gillespie, and G.W. Thurtell. 1984. Injury response of phaseolus vulgaris to ozone flux density. Atmos. Environ. 18:1207—1215. Anderson, I.C., and J.S. Levine. 1987. Simultaneous field measurements of biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide. J. Geophys. Res. 92:965—976. Anderson, I.C., J.S. Levine, M.A. Poth, and J.P. Riggan. 1988. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface bio-mass burning. J. Geophys. Res. 93:3893—3898. Anderson, L., J. Lanning, J., C. Machevec, and R. Meglen, R. 1989. The Effects of Colorado's Mandated High Oxygen Fuels Program on Amospheric Pollution in Denver. Paper 89-124.4. Presented at the 82nd Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association, Anaheim, Calif., June 25-30. Andreae, M.O., E.V. Browell, M. Garstang, G.L. Gregory, R.C. Harriss, G.F. Hill, D.J. Jacob, M.C. Pereira, G.W. Sasche, A.W. Setzer, P.L. Silva Dias, R.W. Talbot, A.L. Torres, and S.C. Wofsy. 1988. Biomass burning emissions and associated haze layers over Amazonia. J. Geophys. Res. 93:1509—1527. Aneja, V.P., C.S. Claiborn, Z. Li, and A. Murthy. 1990. Exceedances of the national ambient air quality standard for ozone occurring at a "pristine"

OCR for page 429
Page 431 area site. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 40:217—20. Angell, J.K., and J. Korshover. 1983. Global variations in total ozone and layer-mean ozone: An update through 1981. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor. 22:16-11—1627. Anthes, R.A., and T.T. Warner. 1978. Development of hydrodynamic models suitable for air pollution and other mesometeorological studies. Mon. Wea. Rev. 106:1045—1078. API (American Petroleum Institute). 1989. Detailed Analysis of Ozone State Implementation Plans in Seven Areas Selected for Retrospective Evaluation of Reasons for State Implementation Plan Failure, Vol. I, Executive Summary. No. 3708/89. Report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute by Pacific Environmental Services, Inc., Reston, Va., and Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, Calif. December. Appel, B.R., Y. Tokiwa, J. Hsu, E.L. Kothny, and E. Hahn. 1985. Visibility as related to atmospheric aerosol constituents. Atmos. Environ. 19:1525—1534. Arey, J., R. Atkinson, B. Zielinska, and P.A. McElroy. 1989. Diurnal concentrations of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroarenes during a photochemical air pollution episode in Glendora, California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 23:321—327. Arey, J., R. Atkinson, and S.M. Aschmann. 1990. Product study of the gas-phase reactions of monoterpenes with the OH radical in the presence of NOx. J. Geophys. Res. 15:18539—18546. Armerding, W., A. Herbert, T. Schindler, M. Spiekermann, and F.J. Comes. 1990. In-situ measurements of tropospheric OH radicals: A challenge for the experimentalist. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 94:776—781. Arnts, R.R., and B.W. Gay, Jr. 1979. Photochemistry of Some Naturally Emitted Hydrocarbons. EPA/600/3-79-081. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Sciences Research Laboratories, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Arnts, R.R., and S.A. Meeks. 1981. Biogenic hydrocarbon contribution to the ambient air of selected areas. Atmos. Environ. 15:1643—1651. Ashbaugh, L.L., B.E. Croes, E.M. Fujita, and D.R. Lawson. 1990. Emission Characteristics of California's 1989 Random Roadside Survey. Paper presented at the 13th North American Motor Vehicle Emission Control Conference, Tampa, Fla., December 11-14. Ashmore, M.R. 1984. Effects of ozone on vegetation in the United Kingdom. Pp. 92—104 in Proceedings of an International Workshop on the Evaluation and Assessment of the Effects of Photochemical Oxidants on Human Health, Agricultural Crops, Forestry, Materials and Visibility, P. Grennfelt, ed. Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), Goteborg, Sweden.

OCR for page 429
Page 432 Atkinson, R. 1988. Atmospheric transformations of automotive emissions. Pp. 99—132 in Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health, A.Y. Watson, R.R. Bates, and D. Kennedy, eds. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Atkinson, R. 1989. Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 1:1—246. Atkinson, R. 1990a. Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of organic compounds: A review. Atmos. Environ. 24A:1—41. Atkinson, R. 1990b. Tropospheric reactions of the haloalkyl radicals formed from hydroxyl radical reaction with a series of alternative fluorocarbons. Pp. 163—205 in Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone: 1989, Vol. II. Report No. 20. World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. 469 pp. Atkinson, R. 1991. Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of the NO3 radical with organic compounds. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 20:-459—507. Atkinson, R., and W.P.L. Carter. 1984. Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of ozone with organic compounds under atmospheric conditions. Chem. Rev. 84:437—470. Atkinson, R. and A.C. Lloyd. 1984. Evaluation of kinetic and mechanistic data for modeling of photochemical smog. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 13:315—444. Atkinson, R., A.M. Winer, and J.N. Pitts, Jr. 1986. Estimation of night-time N2O5 c concentrations from ambient NO2 and NO3 radical concentrations and the role of N2O5 in night-time chemistry. Atmos. Environ. 20:331—339. Atkinson, R., S.M. Aschmann, and J.N. Pitts, Jr. 1988. Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of the NO3 radical with a series of organic compounds at 296 ± 2 K. J. Phys. Chem. 92:3454—3457. Atkinson, R., D.L. Baulch, R.A. Cox, R.F. Hampson, Jr., J.A. Kerr, and J. Troe. 1989a. Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry:. Supplement III. IUPAC Subcommittee on Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 18:881—1097. Atkinson, R., S.M. Aschmann, J. Arey, and W.P.L. Carter. 1989b. Formation of ring-retaining products from the OH radical-initiated reactions of benzene and toluene. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 21:801—827. Atkinson, R., S.M. Aschmann, E.C. Tuazon, J. Arey, and B. Zielinska. 1989c. Formation of 3-methylfuran from the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals

OCR for page 429
Page 433       with isoprene and the rate constant for its reaction with the OH radical. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 21:593—604. Atkinson, R., S.M. Aschmann, and J. Arey. 1990a. Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH and NO3 radicals and O3 with sabinene and camphene at 296 ± 2 K. Atmos. Environ. 24A:2647—2654. Atkinson, R., D. Hasegawa, and S.M. Aschmann. 1990b. Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of O3 with a series of monoterpenes and related compounds at 296 ± 2 K. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 22:871—887. Atkinson, R., E.C. Tuazon, and J. Arey. 1990c. Reactions of napthalene in N2O3,-NO3-NO2-air mixtures. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. In press. Attmannspacher, W., and H.U. Dütsch. 1981. 2nd International ozone sonde intercomparison at the Observatory Hohenpeissenberg. Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienstes, 157, 1. April 5-20, 1978. Atwater, M.A. 1984. Influence of Meteorology on High Ozone Concentrations. Air Pollution Control Association International Specialty Conference on Evaluation of the Scientific Basis for Ozone/Oxidants Standard, Houston, Texas, November 27-30. Austin, T., R.G. Dulla, G. S. Rubenstein, and C.S. Weaver. 1989. Potential Emissions and Air Quality Effects of Alternative Fuels, Final Report. Report No. SR89-03-04. Sierra Research Inc., Sacramento, Calif. March. Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. 1991. Air Quality Modeling Results for Reformulated Gasoline in Year 2005/2010. Technical Bulletin No. 3. Coordinating Research Council, Inc., Atlanta, Ga. May. Ayers, G.P., and R.W. Gillett. 1988. Isoprene emissions from vegetation and hydrocarbon emissions from bush fires in tropical Australia. J. Atmos. Chem. 7:177—190. Ayers, G.P., and R.W. Gillett. 1990. Tropospheric chemical composition: Overview of experimental methods in measurement. Rev. Geophys. 28: 297—314. Bachmann, J. 1988. Potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on air quality. Pp. 348—349 in Preparing for Climate Change, the Proceedings of First North American Conference on Climate Change: A Cooperative Approach, J.C. Topping, Jr., ed. Rockville, Md.: Government Institutes, Inc. Balentine, H., C. Beskid, L. Edwards, R. Klausmeier, and S. Langevin. 1985. An Analysis of Chemistry Mechanisms and Photochemical Dispersion Models for Use in Simulating Methanol Photochemistry. EPA/460/3-85-008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Control Technology Division, Ann Arbor, Mich. Balkanski, Y.J., and D.J. Jacob. 1990. Transport of continental air to the

OCR for page 429
Page 434 subantarctic Indian Ocean. Tellus 42B:62—75. Barnes, R.A., A.R. Bandy, and A.L. Torres. 1985. Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde accuracy and precision. J. Geophys. Res. 90:-7881—7887. Barnes, I., V. Bastian, K.H. Becker, and Z. Tong. 1990. Kinetics and products of the reactions of NO3 with monoalkenes, dialkenes, and monoterpenes. J. Phys. Chem. 94:2413—2419. Bauer, E. 1982. Natural and Anthropogenic Sources of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) for the Troposphere. Institute for Defense Analysis Paper P-1619, FAA Technical Report No. FAA-EE-82-7. Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. Baugues, K. 1986. A Review of NMOC, NOx and NMOC/NOx Ratios Measured in 1984 and 1985. EPA-450/4-86-015. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Septembe. Bechtold, R. and J.B. Pullman. 1980. Driving Cycle Economy, Emissions, and Photochemical reactivity using Alcohol Fuels and Gasoline. SAE Technical Paper Series No. 800260. Warrendale, Penn.: Society of Automotive Engineers. Beck, M.B. 1987. Water quality modeling: A review of the analysis of uncertainty. Water Resources Research (WRERAQ) 23(8):1393—1442. Bennett, J.H. 1979. Foliar exchange of gases. Pp. 10-1—10-29 in Methodology for the Assessment of Air Pollution Effects on Vegetation: A Handbook, W.W. Heck, S.V. Krupa, and S.N. Linzon, eds. Air Pollution Control Association, Pittsburgh, Penn. Berglund, R.L., A.C. Dittenhoefer, H.M. Ellis, B.J. Watts, and J.L. Hansen. 1988. Evaluation of the stringency of alternative forms of a national ambient air quality standard for ozone. Pp. 343—369 in The Scientific and Technical Issues Facing Post-1987 Ozone Control Strategies, G.T. Wolff, J.L. Hanisch, and K. Schere, eds. Pittsburgh: Air and Waste Management Association. Bernabo, J.C. 1989. The relationship of global climate change to other air quality issues. Pp. 224—228 in Coping with Climate Change, the Proceedings of the Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change: A Cooperative Approach, J.C. Topping, Jr., ed. Climate Institute, Washington, D.C. Betterton, E.A., and M.R. Hoffmann. 1988. Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:1415—1418. Bicak, C. 1978. Plant Response to Variable Ozone Regimes of Constant Dosage, M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Plant Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 115pp.

OCR for page 429
Page 435 Bidleman, T.F. 1988. Atmospheric processes: Wet and dry deposition of organic compounds are controlled by their vapor-particle partitioning. Env. Sci. Technol. 22:361—367. Bishop, G.A., and D.H. Stedman. 1990. On-road carbon monoxide emission measurement comparisons for the 1988-1989 Colorado oxy-fuels program. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24:843—847. Bishop, G.A., J.R. Starkey, A. Ihlenfeldt, W.J. Williams, and D.H. Stedman. 1989. IR long-path photometry: A remote sensing tool for automobile emissions. Anal. Chem. 61:671A—677A. Black, F.M. 1989. Motor vehicles as sources of compounds important to tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Pp. 85—109 in Atmospheric Ozone Research and its Policy Implications, Proceedings of the 3rd US-Dutch International Symposium, T. Schneider, S.D. Lee, G.J.R. Wolters, and L.D. Grant, eds. Studies in Environmental Science 35. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Black, F. 1991. An overview of the technical implications of methanol and ethanol as highway motor vehicle fuels. Topical Technical (TOPTEC) Symposium on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels. Society of Automotive Engineers, Dearborn, Mich., August 28-29. Black, F.M., and L.E. High. 1980. Passenger Car Hydrocarbon Emissions Speciation. EPA/600/2-80-085. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Sciences Rsearch Laboratories, Research Triangle Park, N.C. May. Blanchard, C.L., P.M. Roth, and G.Z. Whitten. 1991. The Influence of NOx and VOC Emissions on Ozone Concentrations in Rural Environments. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif. May. Boekhaus, K.L., J.M. DeJovine, K.J. McHugh, D.A. Paulsen, L.A. Rapp, J.S. Segal, B.K. Sullivan, and D.J. Townsend. 1991. Reformulated Gasoline for California: EC-Premium Emission Control Gasoline and Beyond. SAE Technical Paper Series No. 911628. Warrendale, Penn.: Society of Automotive Engineers. August. Bojkov, R.D. 1986. Surface ozone during the second haft of the nineteenth century. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor. 25:343—352. Bojkov, R.D. 1988. Ozone changes at the surface and in the free troposphere. Pp. 83-96 in Tropospheric Ozone: Regional and Global Scale Interactions, I.S.A. Isaksen, ed. NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 227. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co. Bollinger, M.J., C.J. Hahn, D.D. Parrish, P.C. Murphy, D.L. Albritton, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1984. NOx measurements in clean continental air and analysis of the contributing meteorology. J. Geophys. Res. 89:9623—9631. Bonamassa, F., and H. Wong-Woo. 1966. Exhaust Hydrocarbon Composition

OCR for page 429
Page 436 of 1966 California Cars. Paper presented before the Division of Water, Air and Waste Chemistry, 152nd Annual Meeting, American Chemical Society, New York. September 11-16. Boruki, W.J., and W. Chameides. 1984. Lightning: Estimates of the energy dissipation and nitrogen fixation. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 22:363—372. Bottenheim, J.W., A.G. Gallant, and K.A. Brice. 1986. Measurement of NO species and O3 at 82ºN latitude. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13:113—117. Bowne, N.E., P.M. Roth, S.D. Reynolds, C.L. Blanchard, and D.L. Shearer. 1990. Lake Michigan Ozone Study: Conceptual Design Plan. ENSR Consulting Engineering, Glastonbury, Conn. Brewer, D.A., T.R. Augustsson, and J.S. Levine. 1983. The photochemistry of anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons in the troposphere. J. Geo-phys. Res. 88:6683—6695. Brorström-Lundé, E., and G. Lövblad. 1991. Deposition of soot-related hydrocarbons during long-range transport of pollution to Sweden. Atmos. Environ. 25A:207—215. Brost, R.A. 1988. The sensitivity to input parameters of atmospheric concentrations simulated by a regional chemical model. J. Geophys. Res. 93:2371—2387. Brost, R.A., and M. Heimann. 1991. The effect of the global background on a synoptic-scale simulation of tracer concentration. J. Geophys. Res. 96D:-15415—15425. Brühl, C. and P. J. Crutzen. 1989. On the disproportionate role of tropospheric ozone as a filter against solar UV-B radiation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 16:703—706. Bufalini, J.J. and M.C. Dodge. 1983. Ozone forming potential of light saturated hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17:308—311. Bufalini, J.J., T.A. Walter, and M.M. Bufalini. 1977. Contamination effects on ozone formation in smog chambers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11:1181—1185. Buhr, M.P., D.D. Parrish, R.B. Norton, F.C. Fehsenfeld, R.E. Sievers, and J.M. Roberts. 1990. Contribution of organic nitrates to the total reactive nitrogen budget at a rural eastern U.S. Site. J. Geophys. Res. 95:9809—9816. Burns, V.R., J.D. Benson, A.M. Hochhauser, W.J. Koehl, W.M. Kreucher, and R.M. Reuter. 1991. Description of Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. SAE Technical Paper Series No. 912320. Warrendale, Penn.: Society of Automotive Engineers. October. Cadle, S.H., D.P. Chock, J.M. Heuss, and P.R. Monson. 1976. Results of the General Motors Sulfate Dispersion Experiment. General Motors Research Publication GMR-2107. General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren,

OCR for page 429
Page 437 Mich. 140pp. Campbell, M.J., J.C. Farmer, C.A. Fitzner, M.N. Henry, J.C. Shepard, R.J. Hardy, J.F. Hopper, and V. Muralidhar. 1986. Radiocarbon tracer measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations. J. Atmos. Chem. 4:413—427. Cantrell, C.A., and D.H. Stedman. 1982. A possible technique for the measurement of atmospheric peroxy radicals. Geophys. Res. Lett. 9:846—849. Cantrell, C.A., D.H. Stedman, and G.J. Wendel. 1984. Measurement of atmospheric peroxy radicals by chemical amplification. Anal. Chem. 56:-1496-1502. Cantrell, C.A., R.E. Shetter, A.H. McDaniel, J.A. Davidson, J.G. Calvert, D.D. Parrish, M. Buhr, F.C. Fehsenfeld, M. Trainer. 1988. Chain oxidation of NO as a measure of ambient peroxy radical content at an eastern U.S. site. Session A21A-05, EOS 69:1056. CARB (California Air Resources Board). 1986. Methodology to Calculate Emission Factors for On-Road Motor Vehicles. Technical Support Section, Emissions Inventory Branch, Motor Vehicle Emissions and Projections Section, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, Calif., November, 1986. CARB (California Air Resources Board). 1989a. Definition of a Low-emission Motor Vehicle in Compliance with the Mandates of Health and Safety Code Section 39037.5. (Assembly Bill 234, Leonard, 1987). State of California Air Resources Board, Mobile Source Division, 9529 Telstar Ave., E1 Monte, Calif., May. CARB (California Air Resources Board). 1989b. Methodology to Calculate Emissions Factors for On-road Motor Vehicles. Technical Support Division, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, Calif. CARB (California Air Resources Board). 1990. Proposed Regulations for Low-Emission Vehicles and Clean Fuels. Staff Report and Technical Support Document. State of California Air Resources board, Sacramento, Calif., August 13. Cardelino, C.A., and W.L. Chameides. 1990. Natural hydrocarbons, urbanization, and urban ozone. J. Geophys. Res. 95:13971—3979. Carroll, M.A., B.A. Ridley, D.D. Montzka, G. Hübler, J.G. Walega, R.B. Norton, B.J. Huebert, C.J. Hahn, and J.T. Merrill. Measurements of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide during MLOPEX. J. Geophys. Res., in press. Carmichael, G.R., L.K. Peters, and T. Kitada. 1986. A second generation model for regional-scale transport/chemistry/deposition. Atmos. Environ. 20:173—18. Carter, W.P.L. 1989. Ozone Reactivity Analysis of Emissions from Motor Vehicles. Draft report prepared for the Western Liquid Gas Association.

OCR for page 429
Page 438 Carter, W.P.L. 1990a. A detailed mechanism for the gas-phase atmospheric reactions of organic compounds. Atmos. Environ. 24A:481—518. Carter, W.P.L. 1990b. Ozone Reactivity Analysis of Emissions from Motor Vehicles. Report, University of California, Riverside, Calif. Carter, W.P.L. 1991. Development of Ozone Reactivity Scales for Volatile Organic Compounds. EPA 600/3-91-050. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. August. Carter, W.P.L., and R. Atkinson. 1987. An experimental study of incremental hydrocarbon reactivity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 21:670—679. Carter, W.P.L., and R. Atkinson. 1988. Development and implementation of an up to date photochemical mechanism for use on airshed modeling. Final report, California Air Resource Board Contract A5-122-52. Sacramento, Calif. October. Carter, W.P.L. and R. Atkinson. 1989a. Alkyl nitrate formation from the atmospheric photooxidation of alkanes: A revised estimation method. J. Atmos. Chem. 8:165—173. Carter, W.P.L. and R. Atkinson. 1989b. Computer modeling study of incremental hydrocarbon reactivity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 23—880. Carter, W.P.L., and F.W. Lurmann. 1991. Evaluation of a detailed gas-phase atmospheric reaction mechanism using environmental chamber data. At-mos. Environ. 25:2771—2806. Carter, W.P.L., R. Atkinson, A.M. Winer, and J.N. Pitts, Jr. 1982a. Experimental investigation of chamber-dependent radical sources. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 14:1071—1103. Carter, W.P.L., A.M. Winer, and J.N. Pitts, Jr. 1982b. Effects of kinetic mechanisms and hydrocarbon composition on oxidant-precursor relationships predicted by the EKMA Isopleth Technique. Atmos. Environ. 16:-113—120. Carter, W.P.L., F.W. Lurmann, R. Atkinson, and A.C. Lloyd. 1986a. Development and Testing of a Surrogate Species Chemical Reaction Mechanism. EPA/600/3-86-031. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 690 pp. Carter, W.P.L., R. Atkinson, W.D. Long, L.N. Parker, and M.C. Dodd. 1986b. Effects of Methanol Fuel Substitution on Multi-day Air Pollution Episodes. Final Report. Contract No. A3-125-32. California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, Calif. Chameides, W.L. 1984. The photochemistry of a remote marine stratiform cloud. J. Geophys. Res. 89:4739—4755. Chameides, W.L. 1986. Possible role of NO3 in the nighttime chemistry of a cloud. J. Geophys. Res. 91:5331—5337. Chameides, W.L, and J. Rogers, 1988. Atmospheric Photochemical Oxidants:

OCR for page 429
Page 439 A Southern Perspective. Summary of a workshop held in Atlanta, Ga., June 27-29. Chameides, W.L., R.W. Lindsay, J. Richardson, and C.S. Kiang. 1988. The role of biogenic hydrocarbons in urban photochemical smog: Atlanta as a case study. Science 241:1473—1475. Chan, C.Y., T.M. Hard, A.A. Mehrabzadeh, L.A. George, and R.J. O'Brien. 1990. Third-generation FAGE Instrument for Tropospheric Hydroxyl radical measurement. J. Geophys. Res. 95:18569—18576. Chang, T. and Rudy, S.J. 1989. Urban air quality impact of methanol-fueled vehicles compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Paper presented at the Johns Hopkins University Conference on Methanol as a Fuel Choice: An Assessment. Washington, D.C., December 4-5. Chang, T.Y., and S.J. Rudy, S.J. 1990. Ozone-forming Potential of Organic Emissions from Alternative-fueled Vehicles. Paper 90-96.3. Presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Penn., June 24-29. Chang, J.S., R.A. Brost, I.S.A. Isaksen, S. Madronich, P. Middleton, W.R. Stockwell, and C.J. Walcek. 1987. A three-dimensional Eulerian acid deposition model: Physical concepts and formulation. J. Geophys. Res. 92:14681—14700. Chang, T.Y., S.J. Rudy, G. Kuntasal, and R.A. Gorse, Jr. 1989. Impact of methanol vehicles on ozone air quality. Atmos. Environ. 23:1629—1644. Charlson, R.J., J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C.B. Leovy, S.G. Warren. 1991. Perturbation of the northern hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Tellus 43AB:152—163. Chatfield, R., and H. Harrison. 1977. Tropospheric ozone 2. Variations along a meridianal band. J. Geophys. Res. 82:5969—5976. Chatfield, R., and P.J. Crutzen. 1984. Sulfur dioxide in remote oceanic air: Cloud transport of reactive precursors. J. Geophys. Res. 89(D5):7111—7132. Chen, W.Y. 1989. Estimate of dynamical predictability from NMC DERF Experiments. Mon. Wea. Rev. 117:1227—1236. Ching, J.K.S., and A.J. Alkezweeny. 1986. Tracer study of vertical exchange by cumulus clouds. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor. 25:1702—1711. Ching, J.K.S., S.T. Shipley, and E.V. Browell. 1988. Evidence for cloud venting of named layer ozone and aerosols. Atmos. Environ. 22:225—242. Chock, D.P. 1988. A need for a more robust ozone air quality standard. Paper 88-121.5 in Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air Pollution Control Association, Dallas, Texas, June 19-24. Chock, D.P. 1991. Issues regarding the ozone air quality standards. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41:148—152.

OCR for page 429
Page 480 WATR-26. 160th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Chicago, Illinois. September 14-18. Stephens, E.R., and F.R. Burleson. 1967. Analysis of the atmosphere for light hydrocarbons. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 17:147—153. Stephens, E.R., and F.R. Burleson. 1969. Distribution of light hydrocarbons in ambient air. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 19:929—936. Stephens, R.D., and S.H. Cadle. 1991. Remote sensing measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from on-road vehicles. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41:39—46. Stockwell, W.R. 1986. A homogeneous gas phase mechanism for use in a regional acid deposition model. Atmos. Environ. 20:1615—1632. Stockwell, W.R. 1988. The RADM-II gas-phase chemical mechanism, interim report. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Stockwell, W.R., P. Middleton, and J.S. Chang. 1990. The RADM2 chemical mechanism for regional air quality modeling. J. Geophys. Res. 95D:16343—16367. Stoeckenius, T. 1989. Comparison of Techniques for Adjusting Ozone Exceedances to Account for Variations in Meteorological Conditions. Paper 89-35.2. Presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association, Anaheim, Calif., June 25-30. Stoeckenius, T. 1990. Adjustment of Ozone Trends for Meteorological Variation. Presented at the Air and Waste Management Specialty Conference, Tropospheric Ozone and the Environment, Los Angeles, Calif., March. Stolarski, R.S., P. Bloomfield, R.D. McPeters, and J.R. Herman. 1991. Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 18:1015—1018. Strutt, R.J. 1918. Ultraviolet transparency of the lower atmosphere and its relative poverty in ozone. Proc. Roy. Soc. A94:260—268. Svensson, R., E. Ljungstrom, and O. Lindqvist. 1987. Kinetics of the reaction between nitrogen dioxide and water vapour. Atmos. Environ. 21:1529—1539. Sze, N.D. 1977. Anthropogenic CO emissions: Implications for the atmospheric CO-OH-CH4 cycle. Science 195:673—675. Talbot, R.W., K.M. Beecher, R.C. Harriss, and W.R. Cofer, II. 1988. Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a midlatitude temperate site. J. Geophys. Res. 93:1638—1652. Talbot, R.W., A.S. Vijgen, and R.C. Harriss. 1990. Measuring tropospheric nitric acid: Problems and prospects for nylon filter and mist chamber techniques. J. Geophys. Res. 95:7553—7561.

OCR for page 429
Page 481 Tanner, R.L., A.H. Miguel, J.B. de Andrade, J.S. Gaffney, and G.E. Streit. 1988. Atmospheric chemistry of aldehydes: Enhanced peroxyacetyl nitrate formation from ethanol-fueled vehicular emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:1026—1034. Tesche, T.W. 1983. Photochemical dispersion modeling: Review of model concepts and applications studies. Environ. Int. 9:465—490. Tesche, T.W. 1987. Photochemical Modeling of 1984 SCCCAMP Oxidant Episodes: Protocol for Model Selection, Adaptation, and Performance Evaluation. Report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Radian Corporation, Sacramento, Calif. Tesche, T.W. 1988. Accuracy of ozone air quality models. J. Environ. Eng. 114:739—752. Tesche, T.W., and D.E. McNally. 1989. A Three-Dimensional Photochemical Aerosol Model for Episodic and Long-Term Simulation: Formulation and Initial Application in the Los Angeles Basin. Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium on Atmospheric Modeling, Miami Beach, Fla., September 10-15. Tesche, T.W., and D. McNally. 1990. Photochemical modeling of two 1984 SCCCAMP ozone episodes. J. Appl. Meteor. 30:745—763. Tesche, T.W., C. Seigneur, L.E. Reid, P.M. Roth, and W.R. Oliver. 1981. The Sensitivity of Complex Photochemical Model Estimates to Detail in Input Information. EPA 450/4-81-031A. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Tesche, T.W., D.E. McNally and J.G. Wilkinson. 1988a. Airshed Modeling of San Francisco Bay Region: Evaluation of Ozone Impact of Proposed Crockett Cogeneration Facility under Four Different Meteorological Scenarios. Radian Corporation Report to California Energy Commission, Sacramento, Calif. Tesche, T.W., J.G. Wilkinson, D.E. McNally, R. Kapahi, and W.R. Oliver. 1988b. Photochemical Modeling of Two SCCCAMP 1984 Oxidant Episodes. Vol. II: Modeling Procedures and Evaluation Results. Report prepared by Radian Corporation for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, Calif., January. Tesche, T.W., D.E. McNally, and J.G. Wilkinson. 1988c. Importance of Boundary Layer Measurements for Urban Airshed Modeling. Paper 88-48.5. Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of Air Pollution Control Association, Dallas, Texas, June 19-24. Tesche, T.W., P. Georgopoulos, J.H. Seinfeld, G. Cass, F.L. Lurmann, and P.M. Roth. 1990. Improvement of Procedures for Evaluating

OCR for page 429
Page 482 Photochemical Models. Report prepared by Radian Corporation for the State of California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, Calif. Thompson, A.M., and R.J. Cicerone. 1986. Possible perturbations to atmospheric CO, CH4, and OH. J. Geophys. Res. 91:10853—10864. Thompson, A.M., R.W. Stewart, M.A. Owens, and J.A. Herwehe. 1989. Sensitivity of tropospheric oxidants to global chemical and climate change. Atmos. Environ. 23:519—532. Thompson, A.M., M.A. Huntley, and R.W. Stewart. 1990. Perturbations to tropospheric oxidants, 1985-2035. 1. Calculations of ozone and OH in chemically coherent regions. J. Geophys. Res. 95:9829—9844. Tiao, G.C., G.C. Reinsel, J.H. Pedrick, G.M. Allenby, C.L. Mateer, A.J. Miller, and J.J. DeLuisi. 1986. A statistical trend analysis of ozonesonde data. J. Geophys. Res. 91:13121—13136. Tilden, J.W., V. Costanza, G.J. McRae, and J.H. Seinfeld. 1981. Sensitivity analysis of chemically reacting systems. Pp. 69-91 in Modelling of Chemical Reaction Systems, Proceedings of an International Workshop, K.H. Ebert, P. Deuflhard, and W. Jãger, eds. Springer-Verlag Series in Chemical Physics 18. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Tingey, D.T. 1981. The effect of environmental factors on the emission of biogenic hydrocarbons from live oak and slash pine. Pp. 53—79 in Atmospheric Biogenic Hydrocarbons, Vol. I, J.J. Bufalini and R.R. Arnts, eels. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. Tingey, D.T., M. Manning, L.C. Grothaus, and W.F. Burns. 1979. The influence of light and temperature on isoprene emission rates from live oak. Physiol. Plant. 47:112—118. Tingey, D.T., M. Manning, L.C. Grothaus, and W.F. Burns. 1980. Influence of light and temperature on monoterpene emission rates from slash pine. Plant Physiol. 65:797—801. Tingey, D.T., W.E. Hogsett, and E.H. Lee. 1989. Analysis of crop loss for alternative ozone exposure indices. Pp 219-227 in Atmospheric Ozone Research and Its Policy Implications, Proceedings of the 3rd US-Dutch International Symposium, T. Schneider, S.D. Lee, G.J.R. Wolters, and L.D. Grant, eds. Studies in Environmental Science 35. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. Tonnaeijck, A.E.G. 1984. Effects of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone on some plant species. Pp. 118-127 in Proceedings of the International Workshop on an Evaluation and Assessment of the Effects of Photochemical Oxidants on Human Health, Agricultural Crops, Forestry, Materials and Visibility, P. Grennfelt, ed. Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), Goteborg, Sweden. Torres, A.L., and H. Buchan. 1988. Tropospheric nitric oxide measurements

OCR for page 429
Page 483 over the Amazon Basin. J. Geophys. Res. 93:1396—1406. Townsend, D. 1990. Roads to Alternative Transportation Fuels. Presented at Asilomar, California, July 12. Trainer, M., E.T. Williams, D.D. Parrish, M.P. Buhr, E.J. Allwine, H.H. Westberg, F.C. Fehsenfeld, and S.C. Liu. 1987. Models and observations of the impact of natural hydrocarbons on rural ozone. Nature 329:705—707. Tuazon, E.C., and R. Atkinson. 1989. A product study of the gas-phase reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with the OH radical in the presence of NOx. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 21:1141—1152. Tuazon, E.C., and R. Atkinson. 1990a. A product study of the gas-phase reaction of isoprene with the OH radical in the presence of NOx. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 22:1221—1236. Tuazon, E.C., and R. Atkinson. 1990b. A product study of the gas-phase reaction of methacrolein with the OH radical in the presence of NOx. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 22:591—602. Tuazon, E.C., W.P.L. Carter, and R. Atkinson. 1991. Thermal decomposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate and reactions of acetyl peroxy radicals with NO and NO2 over the temperature range 283-313 K. J. Phys. Chem. 95:2434—2437. Turman, B.N., and B.C. Edgar. 1982. Global lightning distributions at dawn and dusk. J. Geophys. Res. 87:1191—1206. Turpin, B.J., and J.J. Huntzicker. 1991. Secondary formation of organic aerosols in the Los Angeles basin: A descriptive analysis of organic and elemental carbon concentrations. Atmos. Environ. 25A:207—216. UCAR (University Cooperation for Atmospheric Research). 1986. Global Tropospheric Chemistry - Plans for the U.S. Research Effort. OIES Report 3. 110 pp. U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. 1989. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. S-1630, Report 101-228, Calendar No. 427. Washington, DC. December. Vaghjiani, G.L., and A.R. Ravishankara. 1991. New measurement of the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with methane. Nature 350:406—409. van den Dool, H.M., and S. Saha. 1990. Frequency dependence in forecast skill. Mon. Wea. Rev. 118:128—137. Vaughan, W.M. 1985. Transport of Pollutants in Plumes and PEPEs. EPA-600/3-85/033. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Venkatram, A., P.K. Karamchandani, and P.K. Misra. 1988. Testing a comprehensive acid deposition model. Atmos. Environ. 22:737—747. Viterito, A. 1989. Implications of urbanization for local and regional

OCR for page 429
Page 484       temperatures in the United States. Pp. 115-119 in Coping with Climate Change, Proceedings of the Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change: A Cooperative Approach, J.C. Topping, Jr., ed. Climate Institute, Washington, D.C. Volz, A., and D. Kley. 1988. Evaluation of the Montsouris series of ozone measurements in the nineteenth century. Nature 332:240—242. Volz, A., D. Mihelcic, P. Müsgen, H.W. Pätz, G. Pilwat, H. Geiss, and D. Kley. 1988. Ozone production in the Black Forest: Direct measurements of RO2, NOx and other relevant parameters. Pp. 293—302 in Tropospheric Ozone: Regional and Global Scale Interactions, I.S.A. Isaksen, ed. NATO ASI Series C, Vol. 227. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co. Vukovich, F.M., and J. Fishman. 1986. The climatology of summertime O3 and SO2 (1977-1981). Atmos. Environ. 20:2423—2433. Vukovich, F.M., W.D. Bach, Jr., B.W. Crissman, and W.J. King. 1977. On the relationship between high ozone in the rural surface layer and high pressure systems. Atmos. Environ. 11:967—983. Vukovich, F.M., J. Fishman, and E.V. Browell. 1985. The reservoir of ozone in the boundary layer of the eastern United States and its potential impact on the global tropospheric ozone budget. J. Geophy. Res. 90:5687—5698. Wackter, D.J., and P.V. Bayly. 1988. The effectiveness of emission controls on reducing ozone levels in Connecticut from 1976 through 1987. Pp. 398-415 in The Scientific and Technical Issues Facing Post-1987 Ozone Control Strategies, G.T. Wolff, J.L. Hanisch, and K. Schere, eds. Pittsburgh, Penn.: Air and Waste Management Association. Wagner, K.K. 1988. Photochemical Modeling for the South Coast Air Basin. Technical Support Division, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, Calif. Wagner, K.K., and A. Ranzieri. 1984. Model Performance Evaluations for Regional Photochemical Models in California. Paper 84-47.6. Presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, San Francisco, Calif., June 24-27. Wagner, K.K., and B.E. Croes. 1986. Evaluation of Predicted Hydrocarbons to Oxides of Nitrogen Ratios in Ozone Modeling for Emission Control Strategy Development. Proceedings of the 5th Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Wagner, K.K., and N.J. Wheeler. 1989. Variability of Photochemical Modeling Emission Sensitivity with Respect to Meteorology. Proceedings of the 6th Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Wakim, P.G. 1989. Temperature-adjusted Ozone Trends for Houston, New

OCR for page 429
Page 485       York, and Washington, 1981-1987. Paper 89-35.1. Presented at the 82nd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association, Anaheim, Calif., June 25-30. Wakim, P.G. 1990. 1981 to 1988 Ozone Trends Adjusted to Meteorological Conditions for 13 Metropolitan Areas. Paper 90-97.9. Presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Penn., June 24-29. Walker, H.M. 1985. Ten-year ozone trends in California and Texas. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 35:903—912. Wang, C.C., L.I. Davis, Jr., P.M. Selzer, and R. Munoz. 1981. Improved airborne measurements of OH in the atmosphere using the technique of laser-induced fluorescence. J. Geophys. Res. 86:1181—1186. Warneck, P. 1988. Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere. New York: Academic Press. 757 pp. Watson, R.T., M.J. Prather, and M.J. Kurylo. 1988. Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1988: An Assessment Report. NASA Reference Publication 1208. U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Space Science and Applications, Washington, D.C. August. 208pp. Went, F.W. 1960. Organic matter in the atmosphere and its possible relation to petroleum formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 46:212—221. Westberg, H. and B. Lamb. 1985. Ozone Production and Transport in the Atlanta, Georgia Region. EPA/600/3-85/013. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 244 pp. Whitby, R.A., and E.R. Altwicker. 1978. Acetylene in the atmosphere: Sources, representative ambient concentrations and ratios to other hydrocarbons. Atmos. Environ. 12:1289—1296. White, W.H., and P.T. Roberts. 1977. On the nature and origins of visibility-reducing aerosols in the Los Angeles air basin. Atmos. Environ. 11:803—812. White, W.H., J.A. Anderson, D.L. Blumenthal, R.B. Husar, N.V. Gillani, J.D. Husar, and W.E. Wilson, Jr. 1976. Formation and transport of secondary air pollutants: Ozone and aerosols in the St. Louis urban plume. Science 194:187-189. Whitten, G.Z., and H. Hogo. 1983. Impact of Methanol on Smog: A Preliminary Estimate. SAI Publication No. 83044, Systems Applications, Inc., San Rafael, Calif. Whitten, G.Z., and M.W. Gery. 1986. Development of the CBM-X Mechanisms for Urban and Regional AQSMs. EPA-600/3-86-012. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Mobile Sources, Ann Arbor, Mich.

OCR for page 429
Page 486 Whitten, G.Z., N. Yonkow, and T.C. Myers. 1986. Photochemical Modeling of Methanol-use Scenarios in Philadelphia. EPA/460/3-86-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Control Technology Division, Ann Arbor, Mich. Williams, E.J., and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1991. Measurement of soil nitrogen oxide emissions at three North American ecosystems. J. Geophys. Res. 96:1033—1042. Williams, E.J., D.D. Parrish, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1987. Determination of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils: Results from a grassland site in Colorado, United States. J. Geophy. Res. 92:2173—2179. Williams, E.J., D.D. Parrish, M.P. Buhr, F.C. Fehsenfeld, and R. Fall. 1988. Measurement of soil NOx emissions in Central Pennsylvania. J. Geophys. Res. 93:9539—9546. Williams, R.L., F. Lipari, and R.A. Potter. 1989. Formaldehyde, Methanol, and Hydrocarbon Emissions from Methanol-Fueled Cars. Paper No. 89-124.3. Prepared for presentation at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association, Anaheim, Calif., June 25-30. Williams, E.J., A. Guenther, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1992a. An inventory of nitric oxide emissions from soils in the United States. J. Geophys. Res., submitted. Williams, E.J., D.D. Parrish, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1992b. An empirical representation of nitric oxide emissions from soil. J. Geophys. Res., submitted. Wilson, K.W., and G.J. Doyle. 1970. Investigation of photochemical reactivities of organic solvents. Final Report, SRI Project PSU-8029. SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif. Wilson, W.E., Jr., W.E. Schwartz, and G.W. Kinzer. 1972. Haze Formation: Its Nature and Origin. CRC-APRAC-CAPA-6-68-3. Coordinating Research Council, Air Pollution Advisory Committee, New York. Wilson, J.H. Jr., E.J. Laich, and F.L. Bunyard. 1990. Ozone Nonattainment-An Analysis of Proposed Legislation. Paper 90—93.5. Presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Penn., June 24-29. Winer, A.M. 1986. Air pollution chemistry. Pp. 133—154 in Handbook of Air Pollution Analysis, 2nd ed., R.M. Harrison and R. Perry, eds. London: Chapman and Hall. Winer, A.M., K.R. Darnall, R. Atkinson, and J.N. Pitts, Jr. 1979. Smog chamber study of the correlation of hydroxyl radical rate constants with ozone formation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 13:822—826. Winer, A.M., R. Atkinson, and J.N. Pitts, Jr. 1984. Gaseous nitrate radical:

OCR for page 429
Page 487 Possible nighttime atmospheric sink for biogenic organic compounds. Science 224:156—159. Winer, A.M., R. Atkinson, J. Arey, H.W. Biermann, W.P. Harger, E.C. Tuazon, and B. Zielinska. 1987. The Role of Nitrogenous Pollutants in the Formation of Atmospheric Mutagens and Acid Deposition. Final Report to California Air Resources Board, Contract No. A4-081-32. Statewide Air Pollution Research Center, University of California, Riverside, Calif. March. 348 pp. Winer, A.M., J. Arey, S.M. Aschmann, R. Atkinson, W.D. Long, L.C. Morrison, and D.M. Olszyk. 1989. Hydrocarbon Emissions from Vegetation Found in California's Central Valley. Final Report. Contract No. A732-155. California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, Calif. November. 456 pp. WMO (World Meteorological Organization). 1986. Atmospheric Ozone 1985. Atmospheric Ozone Assessment of Our Understanding of the Processes Controlling its Present Distribution and Change. Report No. 16, Vol. 1. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. WMO (World Meteorological Organization). 1988. Ozone Trends Panel Report. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 18, R.T. Watson, ed. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. WMO (United Nations Environment Program and World Meteorological Organization). 1990. Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone: 1989. Vol. I. World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 20. Geneva: Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. 486 pp. Wolff, G.T., and P.J. Lioy. 1978. An empirical model for forecasting maximum daily ozone levels in the northeastern U.S. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 28:1034—1038. Wolff, G.T., and P.J. Lioy. 1980. Development of an ozone river associated with synoptic scale episodes in the eastern United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 14:1257—1260. Wolff, G.T., P.J. Lioy, G.D. Wight, R.E. Meyers, and R.T. Cederwall. 1977. An investigation of long-range transport of ozone across the midwestern and eastern United States. Atmos. Environ. 11:797—802. Wolff, G.T., M.A. Ferman, N.A. Kelley, D.P. Stroup, and M.S. Ruthkosky. 1982. The relationships between the chemical composition of free particles and visibility in the Detroit metropolitan area. J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 32:1216—1220. Wolff, G.T., N.A. Kelly, and M.A. Ferman. 1982. Source regions for summertime ozone and haze episodes in the eastern United States. Water

OCR for page 429
Page 488 Air Soil Pollut. 18:65-81. Yamartino, R.J., J.S. Scire, S.R. Hanna, G.R. Carmichael, and Y.S. Chang. 1989. CALGRID: A Mesoscale Photochemical Grid Model: Model Formulation Document. Report A049-1, Sigma Research Corporation. Prepared for the State of California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, Calif. June. Yokouchi, Y., and Y. Ambe. 1985. Aerosols formed from the chemical reaction of monoterpenes and ozone. Atmos. Environ. 19:1271—1276. Zeldin, M.D., and W. Meisel. 1978. Use of Meteorological Data in Air Quality Trend Analysis. EPA-450/3-78-024. Technology Service Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif., March. 101 pp. Zeldin, M.D., J.C. Cassmassi, and M. Hoggan. 1990. Ozone Trends in the South Coast Air Basin: An Update. Paper presented at the Air and Waste Management Association Specialty Conference, Tropospheric Ozone and the Environment., Los Angeles, Calif., March. Air and Waste Management Transaction Series, Pittsburgh, Penn. Zellner, R., B. Fritz, and M. Preidel. 1985. A cw UV laser absorption study of the reactions of the hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical with NO2 and NO. Chem. Phys. Lett. 121:412—416. Zetzsch, C., R. Koch, M. Siese, F. Witte, and P. Devolder. 1990. Adduct formation of OH with benzene and toluene and reaction of the adducts with NO and NO2. Pp. 320—327 in the Proceedings of the 5th European Symposium on the Physio-Chemical Behavior of Atmospheric Pollutants. Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Co. Zimmerman, P.R. 1979. Determination of Emission Rates of Hydrocarbons from Indigenous Species of Vegetation in the Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida Area. Tampa Bay Area Photochemical Oxidant Study. EPA 904/9-77-028. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, Ga. Zika, R.G., and E.S. Saltzman. 1982. Interaction of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in water: Implications for analysis of H2O2 in air. Geophys. Res. Lett. 9:231—234. Zimmerman, P.R. 1981. Testing of hydrocarbon emissions from vegetation and methodology for compiling biogenic emission inventories. Pp. 15—33 in Atmospheric Biogenic Hydrocarbons, Vol. I, J. Bufalini and R. Arnts, eds. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. Zimmerman, P.R., W. Tax, M. Smith, J. Demmy, and R. Battye. 1988a. Anthropogenic Emissions Data for the 1985 NAPAP Inventory. EPA 600/7-88-022. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 295 pp. Zimmerman, P.R., J.P. Greenberg, and C.E. Westberg. 1988b. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes

OCR for page 429
Page 489 in the Amazon boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res. 93:1407—1416. Zishka, K.M., and P.J. Smith. 1980. The climatology of cyclones and anticyclones over North America and surrounding ocean environs for January and July, 1950-77. Mon. Wea.. Rev. 108:387—401. Zweidinger, R.B., J.E. Sigsby, Jr., S.B. Tejada, F.D. Stump, D.L. Dropkin, W.D. Ray, and J.W. Duncan. 1988. Detailed hydrocarbon and aldehyde mobile source emissions from roadway studies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:956—962.

OCR for page 429