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BERNARD D. LOUGHLIN 191 7-1988 BY HAROLD A. WHEELER BERNARD DUNLEVY LOUGHLIN retired vice-president, technol- ogy, of Hazeltine Corporation, died of a heart attack on Decem- ber 25, 198S, at the age of seventy-one. His career with that company spanned forty-nine years, from 1939 to 1988. Barney (as he was known to his family and friends) was born in NewYork Cit,v on May 19,1917, and lived in New Jersey during his college years. He earned a B.E.E. in 1939 and an E.E. (professional degree) in 1945, both from Cooper Union, and a M.S.E.E. in 1946 from Stevens Institute of Technology. In 1943 he married Dorothy Turner, and they had three children, David, John, and Mary Ellen. Barneywas steered into the field of radio by his uncle, Charles A. Weingardner, a Cooper Union graduate who was working at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City. While in high school, he became active as a "ham" with operator's license dated in 1933 and amateur station licenseW3EAL, laterW2GQX. Using a short-wave CW transmitter, he was qualified in the Amateur Radio Relay League network. Working at home while attending Cooper Union, he made a small television receiver to pick up the experimental signals from the RCA transmitter on the Empire State Building in New York city. Then he conceived and constructed what he called a "vector response indicator." On a frequency sweep on a small cathode- ray tube, he displayed the amplitude and phase response of a 185 -

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186 MEMORIAL TRIBUTES band-pass amplifier. This subject he presented in the 1939 annual student paper contest hosted by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at Cooper Union. He won first prize. This concept developed into the phase-curve tracer that later be- came his first major project after joining Hazeltine. After his graduation in 1939, Barney Loughlin applied for employment at the new Hazeltine laboratory in Little Neck, Long Island, New York. He was interviewed by Dan Harnett (chief engineer), Les Curtis, and me. (When Dan sent him in to talk with me, he said, Don t let him get away. ~ Barney also was favorably impressed and accepted our offer of employment before he left that day. His first major assignment was to design and build the phase- curve tracer forIVcircuits, based on his previouswork at home. On a large cathode-ray tube, he displayed the phase angle of response over a frequency band on a horizontal frequency sweep. That was test equipment that was needed but was not available anywhere. It required a rack containing many vacuum tubes (sixty-seven) . Prominent engineers from the major labora- tories came to see demonstrations of its operation. Itwas present- ed at the 1940 Rochester Fall Meeting of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) and Radio Manufacturers Association, and published in the Proceedings of IRE for March 1941. Subsequently it became the subject of Barney Loughlin s first patent (of the one hundred and twenty U.S. patents issued to him over his career). Before Pearl Harbor in 1941, he worked on several projects of interest to the military. During World War II, he worked on the U.S. Navy program of Interrogation Friend-or-Foe, an adjunct to radar for which Hazeltine had the prime contract. From 1946 to 1948 Loughlin was a member of the Hazeltine research team working on FM receivers and TV receivers (monochrome). The years 1949 to 1951 saw the intensive activity on color television that brought international fame to the Hazeltine group. The group was headed byArt Loughren (IRE fellow 1944, president 1956~. In addition to Loughlin, other readers were Bill Bailey (fellow 1954) and Charlie Hirsch (fellow 1951~. They assembled equipment for demonstrating the problems and

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BERNARD D. LOUGHLIN 187 optical behavior peculiar to a color television system (transmit- ter and receiver) . They educated the industry and the regulating agencies to enable a prompt decision on the essentials of the present color television service. Their contributions were recog- nized by writers and their principal competitor, RCA, which collaborated in adopting the standards. In addition to the facilities for demonstrations, Hazeltine contributed three major concepts of innovation, two of which were adopted in the U.S. standards. The third became practical after further advances in technology, so it also was adopted in the later color TV standards in Europe. Barney Loughlin was individually responsible for these three concepts. They required an education in the behavior of the human eye toward colors, followecl by circuit inventions for their practice in transmitters and receivers. They were used with RCA tubes (three tubes with mirrors in the transmitter en cl the three- gun picture tune In tne receivers. These three concepts are difficult to describe in a few words, but they are identified by simple names: "Shunted Monochrome, " U.S. Patent 2,774,072, December 11, 1956; "Constant Lumi- nance," U.S. Patent 2,773,929, December 11,1956; and "Color- Phase Alternation," U.S. Patent 2,943,142, June 2S, 1960. Unfor- tunately, these were not patented in Japan because the company clid not anticipate that the Japanese would produce many TV receivers. Japan did pay royalties on U.S. patents for receivers imported to the United States.) The royalties on these patents were a substantial fraction of the company's income during the years before they expired (December 11, 1973) and even after- ward on prior usage and foreign patents. A by-product of the experience with color TV was the Color Film Analyzer (CFA). From a color-film negative, it displayed instantly the positive that would be obtained by processing in accordance with a formula described by a set of numbers seen on dials. This avoided a laborious trial-and-error process. Devel- oped by Loughlin, Bill Bailey, and Charlie Page, in response to a conversation with an engineer at Pathe, a breadboard model, U.S. Patent 2,976,34S, March 21,1961, was delivered to Pathe in 1957, described in the journal of the Society of Motion Picture

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188 MEMORIAL TRIBUTES and Television Engineers (SMPTE) in January 1958. It achieved universal use in the film industry. (When China was opened to U.S. commerce, China's first order includecl three CFAs.) In April ~ 970 in Hollywood, itwas recognized by an AcademyAward to Hazeltine Corporation. A shift in the orientation of research in the company in 1957 influenced Loughlin to "retire at forty" and engage in consulting work for a few years. In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Hazeltine and head the research operations. From 1969 to 1974, Loughlin served as chairman of the Broadcast Television Systems (BTS) Committee of the Electron- ic Industries Association (EIA) . This group comprised outstand- ing engineers with experience in broadcast networks, receiver manufacturing, and television systems. In addressing practical programs, they perceived the need for a feature they called a Vertical Interval Reference Signal. This was shortly standardized, and Loughlin was accorded much of the credit for this result. In the last clecade of his employment, from 1977 to 1987, Loughlin devoted much effort to the development of "AM Stereo," which so far has not realized its potential as a service. It was brought to the company by Leonard Kahn, an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) fellow and Lough- lin's neighbor on Long Island. It was distinguished from other proposals by the designation IS (Independent-sideband) AM Stereo System. The two separate sidebands within the AM chan- ne] were used to excite the separate speakers of a stereo audio system. The result was rather impressive, with transmission limited to the standard AM channel bandwidth. The future of this system remains to be seen. The last major effort of Barney Loughlin, before final retire- ment in l9SS at age seventy-one, was the writing of a monumen- tal, largely autobiographical, story of his life and the contempo- rary activities of Hazeltine Corporation. Centered on the inten- sive developments relating to color television, he named the story, Hazeltine's Colo~fulDays. My friend and colleague, Barney Loughlin, has been one of the most brilliant engineers and delightful companions of my acquaintance.

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BERNARD D. LOUGHLIN 189 In adclition to his many U.S. and foreign patents, the following principal honors and awards give some measure of the recogni- tion accorded to his contributions in the field of color television. In 1952 he received from the IRE the Vladimir K. Zworykin Award, and in 1955 he became an IRE fellow. In 1957 he received an aware! from the IRE's Professional Group on Broadcast and Television Receivers. In 1965 he earned from the National Association of Manufacturers the Modern Pioneer Award. In 1967 Barney was electecl a member of the National Academy of Engineering "for research and development of television sys- tems." In 1968 he became a member of Tan Beta Pi, Cooper Union. In 1970 he received the Gano Dunn Meclal, Cooper Union, and in 1972 Barney was honored with the Consumer Electronics Award, IEEE. In 1973 he was recognized with an International Television Symposium Citation, and in 1977 Bar- ney received a special commendation award, SMPTE. In 1978 he was given the Engineering EmmyAwarcl, BTS/EIA, en cl in 1981 he received the Armstrong Mecial, Radio Club of America, "for his pioneering contributions to Color TV."