Index

A

Abandoned lands

degraded pasturelands, 224, 225

incentives for rehabilitation of, 16, 181–183

Acacia spp., 97, 115

Açai (Euterpe oleracea), 330

Achiote (Bixa orellana), 183

Acioa baterii, 96, 98

Africa

agroforestry systems, 82

cattle pastureland, 86–87

deforestation, 35–38, 41, 160

forest cover, 36

humid tropical area, 23

income per capita, 41

shifting cultivation in, 41

soils, 23, 27, 53, 54, 57

see also individual countries

Afzelia bella, 96

Agricultural productivity

biological constraints on, 57–58

climate and, 52–53

deforestation and, 375–376

hydrological cycle changes and, 48

pests and, 57–58, 155–157

soils and, 1–2, 53–57

sources of growth, 364–367

Agriculture

advancement of frontiers, 5–6, 41–42, 44, 45, 77, 163, 223, 645

carbon losses from, 223

and deforestation, 44, 45, 61, 223, 367, 406–408, 510, 645

demand for land, 406–408

and economic development, 241–242

extension programs, 85, 187–188

green revolution, 71–72

and greenhouse gas emissions, 48–49, 223–224

monocultural systems, 8, 59–60, 75, 101–102

nutrient cycling in, 56, 60

permanent, 49, 223–224

pesticide use, 60, 70

and pollution, 60

research needs, 62–64, 600–601

slash-and-burn, see Shifting

cultivation

subsistence farming, 54



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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Index A Abandoned lands degraded pasturelands, 224, 225 incentives for rehabilitation of, 16, 181–183 Acacia spp., 97, 115 Açai (Euterpe oleracea), 330 Achiote (Bixa orellana), 183 Acioa baterii, 96, 98 Africa agroforestry systems, 82 cattle pastureland, 86–87 deforestation, 35–38, 41, 160 forest cover, 36 humid tropical area, 23 income per capita, 41 shifting cultivation in, 41 soils, 23, 27, 53, 54, 57 see also individual countries Afzelia bella, 96 Agricultural productivity biological constraints on, 57–58 climate and, 52–53 deforestation and, 375–376 hydrological cycle changes and, 48 pests and, 57–58, 155–157 soils and, 1–2, 53–57 sources of growth, 364–367 Agriculture advancement of frontiers, 5–6, 41–42, 44, 45, 77, 163, 223, 645 carbon losses from, 223 and deforestation, 44, 45, 61, 223, 367, 406–408, 510, 645 demand for land, 406–408 and economic development, 241–242 extension programs, 85, 187–188 green revolution, 71–72 and greenhouse gas emissions, 48–49, 223–224 monocultural systems, 8, 59–60, 75, 101–102 nutrient cycling in, 56, 60 permanent, 49, 223–224 pesticide use, 60, 70 and pollution, 60 research needs, 62–64, 600–601 slash-and-burn, see Shifting cultivation subsistence farming, 54

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS see also Amazonian agriculture; Cropping systems; Intensive cropping systems ; Shifting cultivation; Sustainable agriculture Agrisilviculture, 93, 94, 97 Agrisilvopastoral systems, 94, 95 Agroecology, 63–64, 124, 139 Agroforestry systems, 7, 179 advantages and disadvantages, 9, 11, 13, 98–99, 140–141, 142, 143, 332 arrangement of trees, crops, and livestock, 97–98, 148 boundary planting of trees and hedges, 94 combinations, 328–329 defined, 92 ecological benefits of, 29, 92, 97, 99, 103, 380, 524–525 and greenhouse gases, 250–251, 523 improved, 95–98 inputs, 11, 142, 332 intercropping in, 94, 100–101 labor-intensive, 16, 181 livestock in, 332–333 mixed tree, 106, 329–330 principles, 92 regeneration time for trees, 94 research priorities, 76, 99–100, 333, 523–524 rotational, 94 semiextractive, 330 shifting cultivation with, 80–81, 94 successful use of, 94–95, 330–331 suitability of, 68 sustainability, 95, 100, 330–331 traditional types, 93–95 tree and woody shrub species recommended for, 96–97, 330–331, 524–525 Village Forest Project, 187 see also Alley cropping; other individual systems Agropastoral systems features and benefits, 9, 13, 83–84, 140–141, 143 land suitable for, 68 livestock and crops used in, 82–83 research needs, 83, 84–85, 91–92 Alchornea cordifolia, 96, 97, 98 Alley cropping arrangement of trees and crops, 94, 97, 380 ecological/environmental benefits of, 380–382, 525 economics of, 99, 381–382 livestock in, 381 and soil fertility, 99, 100, 158, 575–576 sustainability in, 575–576 tree species used for, 98, 524–525 see also Contour hedgerow systems Amazon Basin agroforestry, 95, 328–333 deforestation rates, 164, 280–286 extractive reserves, 135, 136 fires, 121, 123, 285 forest regeneration on grasslands, 120, 123 Grande Carajas project, 191 logging in, 283 macroecological units, 269–270 market potential for products from, 183 natural forest management, 130 soils, 54, 55 timber production, 283 see also individual countries Amazonian agriculture basis for sustainability analysis of, 265–266 cattle raising, 44, 85, 88, 316–326 chronology of, 268, 271, 272–273 continuous cropping, 70 domestication of nontimber forest extraction products, 292 economics of, 271–280 environmental bottlenecks to, 290–291 expansion potential of present land use systems, 339–342 extraction of nontimber forest products, 279–280, 296–297, 306–308 on floodplains, 271–272, 277–278, 293, 314–316, 322–324 future scenario, 336–339

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS knowledge base for, 291–292, 295 land use systems and their sustainabilities, 296–333 main areas of development, 277 in official colonization areas, 279 pastureland degradation, 90 perennial crop, 293–294, 326–328 physical and economic aspects of development, 271–276 shifting cultivation, 12, 246, 271, 273–274, 276, 283, 311–314 timber extraction, 308–311 Animal production, 294; see also Cattle raising; Livestock production Annona spp., 103, 330, 331 Anogeissus leiocarpa, 353 Anthonotha macrophylla, 96, 98 Apiculture, 94 Aquaculture, 94, 294 Asia agropastoral systems, 82, 83 cattle pastureland, 86 deforestation, 35–38 forest cover, 36 humid tropical area, 23 income per capita, 41 soils, 23, 27, 53, 54, 55 see also individual countries Asian Development Bank, 161, 582, 583 Australia, 23, 130 Avocado (Persea spp.), 104, 330 B Bamboo cultivation, 106 Banana (Musa spp.), 101, 110–111, 330, 331 Bangladesh, 86, 177 Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra), 330, 333 Barbasco (Lonchocarpus spp.), 104 Beans, 82, 83, 151 Bété (Mansonia altissima), 352 Bioclimes classifications, 152, 293 forested, in tropical zone, 28 Biogeographical diversity, 399–400 Biological diversity agricultural practices and, 57, 60, 72 comparison of land use systems, 140 conservation of, 105, 106, 110, 155, 170–171, 470–471 conversion of forests and, 46, 47–48 deforestation and, 48, 375 enrichment planting and, 136 on extractive reserves, 135 in fallows, 81 genetic, 30–31, 57, 72, 171 in home gardens, 107 losses, 46, 47–48, 60, 72, 113 in managed areas, 126, 526 in mixed tree systems, 105–106, 110 in protected areas and buffer zones, 71, 75, 135, 525–526 research priorities, 30 in secondary forests, 81 species, 30, 136 sustainable management, 525–526 in tree crop plantations, 113, 450–451, 470–471 of tropical moist forests, 29, 30–31, 450–451 Biomass burning, carbon from, 220, 232–233 climate and, 153 greenhouse gas emissions from, 234, 237 losses from forests, 37, 127, 136, 230, 231 maintenance of, 152–153, 155 net primary production by tree species, 97 nutrient availability in, 56, 155, 157 in regenerating forests, 120–121, 123, 140–141 in tree plantations, 115, 116, 153, 157, 229 Biophysical factors comparison in land use systems, 139–140, 142 and deforestation, 242 documentation needs, 13, 150–152 land use spatial patterns and, 147, 242

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Biosphere reserves, 133, 135, 511 Black pepper production, 272, 274, 330, 331, 333 Brachiaria spp., 89, 333 Brazil, 71 agricultural development, 70, 268–280 agroindustrial technology, 294–295 aquaculture, 294 basis for sustainability analysis of Amazonian agriculture, 265–266 biotic pressure, 287 cattle raising, 44, 85, 88, 162, 164, 250, 272, 274, 278, 294, 316–326 climate, 286–287 colonization areas, 44, 189, 274, 279 deforestation, 37, 38, 44, 160, 162, 164, 280–286 environment, 267–268 extractive reserves, 134, 135, 136, 149, 271 food and fiber crops, annual, 293 forest exploration, 293 forest product extraction areas, 279–280 frontier expansion areas, 278–279 greenhouse gas emissions, 232 humid tropics, 266–268 indigenous people, 162 infrastructure building, 44 institutional capacity for research, 336 land use intensity, research, and technology, 333–336 land use systems and their sustainabilities, 296–333 macroecologic units, 268–270 macrolimitations for sustainable agricultural development, 286–290 managed forest system, 108, 149 natural resources, 293 Pará, 276 pastures, 90, 294 perennial crops, 293–294 policies encouraging unsustainable land use, 162–163 political conditions, 289–290 sociocultural issues, 288–289 soils, 27, 54, 55, 287–288 tax incentive policies, 274 technology diffusion and utilization, 295–296 várzea floodplains, 271–272, 277–278, 314–316, 322–324 see also Amazonian agriculture Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), 136, 183, 274, 330, 331, 332 Breadfruit tree (Artocarpus spp.), 104 Breadnut tree (Brosimum spp.), 104 Buffer zones, 525–526 Bush fallow systems, 382 Byrsonima spp., 103 C Cacao (Theobroma spp.), 104, 151, 274 in agroforestry systems, 330, 331 plantations, 100–101, 113, 114 Calliandra calothyrsus, 96, 97, 98 Cameroon, 38, 130 Carbon accounting models, 238–241 agriculture-related losses, 223–226 from biomass burning, 232–233 cycle, 30, 48, 49, 102–103, 115, 126–127, 153 flux from land use changes, 216–217, 221–222, 239, 242–249 logging-related losses, 230, 231 models of flux, 242–249 sinks, tropical systems as, 30, 140, 142, 227, 233–234, 251–252 in soils, 220, 221 taxes, 172 in vegetation, 220, 221 Carbon dioxide emissions deforestation and, 245, 284 forest role in balance of, 523 and global warming, 48, 102, 219 sources, 48, 49, 190, 216–217, 224, 230, 232–234 sustainable land use and, 102–103, 190, 224 Carbon monoxide, flux from land use changes, 234, 237–238 Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), 116 Carica spp., 103

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Cashew, 332 Cassava (Manihot esculenta), 82, 95, 134, 151, 157, 330 Cassia spp., 96, 98, 576 Cattle raising, 85 African pastureland, 86–87 agropastoral systems, 82–83 Asian pastureland, 86 attributes of, 140–141, 143–144 in contour hedgerow systems, 578–579 and deforestation, 68, 86, 369, 506–507 development policies and, 88 ecological damage from, 9, 88 on forestland converted to pastureland, 68, 88, 162, 164, 224, 316–320 greenhouse gas emissions from, 48, 237 and land degradation, 89, 224 Latin American pastureland, 87–88 low-intensity grazing, 54 on native grasslands, 320–326 research, 88, 320 socioeconomic importance, 87–88 sustainability of, 9, 68, 91–92, 316–320 tax policies and, 88 see also Livestock production Cattle ranching, see Cattle raising Celtis spp., 352 Central America cattle raising, 88 soils, 27, 55 see also individual countries Centro Agronómico de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), 185, 524 Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), 71 Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT), 76 Cereal crops, 75, 98, 576 Chicle, 135 Chiles (Capsicum spp.), 108 Chlorofluorocarbons, 219 Cinnamon, 104 Climate and agricultural productivity, 52–53 interactions of forests and atmosphere, 30, 48–49 and land use systems, 151 and sustainable agriculture, 286–287 see also Global warming Cnestis ferruginea, 98 Coca (Erythroxylum coca), 104 Coconut (Cocos nucifera), 104, 106, 113, 330, 331, 332 Coffee, 80, 104, 105, 156, 330 Colombia, 38, 88, 107–108, 129, 162–163, 232 Colonization and resettlement projects, 6, 88, 169, 176, 189, 507–508; see also Transmigration Commodities markets for, 183–184 price supports, 165 research needs on, 158 Compound farms, 94 Conservation tillage, 382 Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) , 76, 88 Contour hedgerow systems bunding, 574–575 cash crop production in, 578 cattle production in, 578–579 grass strips, 576 intercropping with noncompetitive species, 576–577 Leucaena, 76, 99, 572–573 natural vegetative strips, 577–578 other species, 573 and soil conservation, 99, 381 see also Alley cropping Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE), 187 Coppicing, 81, 96 Costa Rica, 37, 104, 169, 184, 185, 225 Côte d'Ivoire, 352–354 agriculture, 44, 360–367, 372–373, 375–385, 388–389 agroforestry, 380–382 biodiversity, 375 cattle grazing, 369 climate and microclimate, 352, 353–354, 374–375

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS conservation tillage, 382 credit access, 384–385 deforestation, 37, 38, 44, 45, 164, 367–377, 387–389 economy, domestic, 359–360 export crops, 360–362 fiscal policies, 384 food crops, 362–364 forest resources, 38, 44, 355–359 fuelwood, 368 government policies affecting land use, 164, 372–373, 382–385, 388–389 greenhouse gas emissions, 232 land tenure regimes, 370–372, 383–384 logging, 45, 164, 368 markets, 384–385 mulches and cover crops, 379–380 natural forest management, 130 organic matter for soils, 379 population, 45, 354–355 price policies, 384–385 shifting cultivation, 45, 370 sources of agricultural growth, 364–367 technological interventions, 377–382, 388 timber production, 352–353, 376–377 vegetation, 352–353 Cotton (Gossypium spp.), 108 Credit access for small-scale farmers, 16, 165, 175, 177, 384–385 and land tenure, 175 subsidized, 165 Cropland biomass losses from burning, 233 carbon flux from changes in area of, 218 degradation of, 225 Cropping systems continuous cropping, 70 intercropping with noncompetitive species, 83, 94, 100–101, 114, 151, 229, 576–577 labor-intensive mixed systems, 68 low-input, 81–82, 148, 228 mixed, 13, 143, 151, 158 relay systems, 83 rotations, 83, 158 upland, 68 see also Alley cropping; Intensive cropping systems ; Perennial crop agriculture Crops genetic diversity of, 30–31, 57, 171 grain, 56 losses to pests, 155–156 short rotation, 110–111 see also individual crops Cuba, monocultural agriculture, 60 Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), 330, 331, 333 D Dams, 169, 237 Debt-for-nature swaps, 172 Deforestation and agricultural productivity, 375–376 agriculture and, 44, 45, 61, 223, 241–242, 280–286, 367, 406–408, 510, 645 Amazonian, 280–286 and biodiversity, 48, 375 carbon releases from, 219–220, 232, 239, 284 cattle grazing and, 68, 86, 369, 506–507 causes, 40–41, 68, 138, 221, 223, 367–373, 506–511 and climate and microclimate, 238, 374–375 colonization projects and, 507–508 debt burden of developing countries and, 50 definition of, 5, 33, 35, 499–502 development assistance policies and, 51 economic development and, 241–242 environmental impacts, 284–286, 374–377 estimates of, 36, 502–506, 562–563 extent, 23, 37, 154, 280–281, 451–456

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS and extractive reserves, 137 from fires, 236, 415, 508–509 food consumption and, 244 fuelwood extraction and, 6, 44, 368, 645–646 and greenhouse gases, 48–49, 232, 235, 237, 238, 245 historical patterns, 45 land tenure regimes, 42, 370–372, 509 logging and, 5–6, 44, 68, 368, 408–410, 457–458, 646–647 of mangrove swamps, 45 models, 242–249 national security and, 509 political corruption and, 167 population pressure and, 45, 406–408, 647–649 process, 68, 565–568 projections, 239–240, 473–475 public policies and, 163, 164–167, 181, 284, 388–389 rates, 5, 35–39, 161, 164, 220, 243, 281–284, 405–406, 523, 563–565 reduction strategies, 61, 76 reversal of, 37 road building and other engineering works and, 511 scenarios, 242–249, 387–389, 609–612 shifting cultivation and, 226, 173–174, 370, 409–411 and soil degradation, 38–39, 56–57 of steep slopes, 45 sustainable agriculture and, 160 technology options, 388 timber exploitation and, 510, 568–569 and timber production potential, 376–377 transmigration and, 160, 411–413 tree crop development and, 68, 413–415 tree ownership and, 509 underlying causes, 369–373, 569 Deforested lands, reclamation of degraded pasture on, 90 Degraded lands area of, 225 carbon loss from, 225, 231 credit access and rehabilitation of, 177 cropland, 225 incentives for improvement of, 16, 180–181 rehabilitation projects, 179–180 restoration potential, 3 tree crop plantations on, 110–111, 115 Desmodium sp., 95 Developing countries compensation for conservation, 15, 172 debt burden, 41, 43, 50, 164 harvest losses to pests, 155–156 property rights in, 166–167 see also individual countries Development assistance policies and cattle raising, 88 conservation linked to, 172 coordination of donor imperatives, 14–15, 165–166, 607–609 energy sources, 190–191 and forest conversion, 14, 42, 51, 88, 161 impact assessments of infrastructure projects, 169 incentives for land improvement and rehabilitation, 180–183 land tenure provisions, 176 local participation in planning, 178–180 negative impacts of, 164 and sustainable agriculture, 51 Dialium guineense, 98 Digitaria decumbens, 89 Drought livestock resistance to, 87 rainfall distribution and, 52 Durian (Durio zibethinus), 104, 105, 106 Dutch Development Corporation, 161 E Economic development agricultural practices and, 241–242, 249–250

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS and deforestation, 241 diversification by farmers and, 3–4 gross national product, per capita, 24–26 and land use changes, 241–242 tree crop plantations and, 111–113, 329–330 see also Socioeconomic factors Economics of alley cropping, 99, 381–382 of Amazonian agriculture, 248, 271–276 attributes of land use systems, 141, 142–143, 248 benefits of tropical forests, 523 of biodiversity conservation, 171 of forest conversion, 7, 50–51, 164–166 of forestry, 402–405 of home gardens, 105 of livestock production, 84, 86 of logging, 77 of mixed tree systems, 105, 109, 140–141, 329–330 of timber production, 45, 402–403 of tree crop plantations, 141, 142–143, 461–463 of wood-based industries, 402–403 Ecuador, 88, 95 Education and training programs, 17, 85, 186–187, 188 Energy alternative sources, and land use, 190–191 greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, 216–217 Erythrina spp., 96, 97, 98 Eucalyptus spp., 115, 191, 333 Extractive reserves, 134–137, 149, 171, 176, 279–280 F Fertilizer use, 55–56, 380 greenhouse gas emissions from, 48, 237 in intensive cropping systems, 70, 75 manure, 84, 381 negative environmental effects of, 75 on tree crop plantations, 113 Ficus spp., 103 Finnish International Development Agency, 161 Fires carbon monoxide emissions from, 237–238 deforestation from, 236, 237, 415, 508–509 ecology and management, 591 environmental impacts of, 285–286 forest conversion and risk of, 48, 285 and forest regeneration, 121, 123 greenhouse gas emissions from, 236–237, 285 logging and, 126 and nitrogen in soils, 237 Flemingia spp., 96, 98 Floodplain agriculture, 151 Amazonian, 277–278, 314–316, 322–324 agroforestry, 330 intensive cropping systems, 70 research needs, 316 sustainability of, 45, 315–316 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) agroforestry program, 179 Forest Resources Assessment 1990 Project, 23, 35 forest policy review, 161 soil classification, 152 Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 165–166 Food production, sustainable, 522–523 Forest conversion agricultural expansion and, 41–42 and biodiversity losses, 46, 47–48 carbon losses from, 22, 224 causes of, 5–6, 39–44, 138 climatic effects, 48–49 defined, 5, 33 development assistance policies and, 14, 42, 51, 88, 161 displacement of indigenous people, 7, 50 economics of, 7, 50–51, 164–166 environmental consequences, 7, 46–49, 50

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS extent of, 39, 42 and fire risk, 48 government policies contributing to, 162–168 to grasslands, 86, 121 and greenhouse gas concentrations, 48–49, 102–103, 218, 224 historical patterns of, 44–45 hydrological effects of, 46, 48 infrastructure development and, 42 number of farmers engaged in, 42 to pastureland, 6, 68, 85, 88, 162, 164, 224, 316–320 to plantations, 113, 128 policies contributing to, 42–43, 164 rates, 35, 44, 45 research needs on, 46 social consequences, 7, 49–51 and soil degradation, 46, 50 sustainable agriculture and, 160 transformation processes, 68 see also Deforestation Forest degradation defined, 5, 35 causes, 40–41, 168–169 and greenhouse gases, 23, 231 rates, 37 Forest gardens, 107; see also Home gardens ; Mixed tree systems Forest products, nontimber examples of, 31–32 domestication of, 292 extraction of, 135, 296–297, 306–308 markets for, 135, 183–184 research needs, 308 see also Commodities Forest regeneration acceleration techniques, 10, 121–125 attributes of, 140–141 biomass and nutrient recovery, 120–121, 123, 140–141 constraints on, 131 ecological benefits of, 10, 29, 30, 140–141 extent of, 39 fires and, 121, 123 in grass-dominated fields, 120, 121, 123 improvement thinning and, 130 natural forest management and, 127, 128, 129, 130 pioneer species, 121 processes, 126 purposes, 118 rates, 118–119, 127–128, 130 seedling and sprout establishment, 119–120 shifting cultivation and, 81, 120–121 species appropriate for, 123 Forest reserves, 133–137, 288, 354–355, 371, 417, 419, 420, 431, 436, 450, 456–457, 497, 505, 514, 528, 534, 637, 638; see also Buffer zones; Extractive reserves; Protected areas Forestlands, designated, 397–398, 418–419 Forestry/forest management, 637–639 community-based, 593–595, 607–608 economic importance of, 402–405 enrichment planting, 596 indigenous communities' role and rights, 592–593 labor-based timber extraction, 595–596 mixed tree systems, past and present, 102–106 patches/groves, 103 plantation, 10, 115–118, 140–141, 143–144, 229 policy review, 161–168 research and development, 109–110, 602 shifting cultivation and, 424–425 small-scale, 46 social forestry programs, 179–180, 251 sustainable, 69 sustained-yield, 595 see also Agroforestry; Natural forest management Forests of humid tropics appraisals of resources, 35 bioclimes in tropical zone, 5, 28 biological diversity, 29, 30–31, 450–451 boundary stabilization, intensive cropping systems and, 77 climatic interactions, 30, 48–49

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS closed, 37–38 commercial areas, 635–637 conservation, 108–110, 419–420 defined, 23 ecological benefits, 29–33, 523 economic benefits, 523 exploration, 293 extents, 23, 34, 35, 36, 244 fires, 48, 415, 508–509 formations, 5, 28–29, 448, 450 managed, 29, 80–81, 103, 125, 127 modified, 11, 13, 132–133, 140–141, 143, 230, 484–485, 516 nutrient cycling, 32 patches, 103, 108 permanent, 456–457 production, 398–399 product extraction areas, 279–280; see also Extractive reserves; Forest products, nontimber ; Timber and timber products protected areas, 11, 108, 133–134, 140–141, 144, 511, 637 soils, 32, 56–57 stabilization of hydrological systems, 32–33 transformation, 35 types, 23, 560–562, 626 valuation of, 163 water availability and quality, 33 see also Forest regeneration; Forest reserves ; Secondary forests Fruit tree species, 104 Fuelwood, 368 decay rates, 231 demand and harvesting, and deforestation, 6, 44, 191, 368, 645–646 greenhouse gas emissions from, 237 from leguminous trees, 95 plantations, 191 research needs, 191 G Gabon, 38, 130 Gardens multistory, 82 see also Forest gardens; Home gardens Ghana, 130 Gliricidia sepium, 87, 96, 98, 576 Global Environmental Monitoring System, 154 Global warming biomass and, 153 deforestation and, 235, 238, 374–375 effects of, 48, 216 forest-atmosphere interactions and, 30 and land use, 48–49, 102–103, 216–219, 252 temperature increase rates, 48 see also Climate; Greenhouse gases Grameen Bank, 177 Grasses in agroforestry systems, 333 effects on forest regeneration, 120, 121, 123 Grasslands area of, 233 biomass losses from burning, 233 cattle raising on, 320–326 converted forestlands, 86, 121 fallow improvement systems, 587–589 fires, 121 floodplains, 322–324 greenhouse gas emissions from, 237 home gardens on degraded hillsides, 107 knowledge base on, 294 land tenure, 586–587 low-forage-value, 86 poorly drained, 324–326 reforestation efforts, 589–591 savannah, 86, 324–326, 321–322 well-drained, 321–322 Graviola (Annona muricata), 330, 331 Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, 48–49, 223–224 agroforestry and, 250–251 atmospheric concentrations, 48 conversion of forests and, 48–49, 102–103 from deforestation, 48–49, 232, 235, 237, 238

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS estimated flux from land use changes, 216, 231–238 future impacts, 48–49, 238–249 global emissions from, 235 land use changes responsible for, 219–231 from pasturelands, 225 radiative effect of, 49, 238 reduction through sustainable land use policies and, 189–190 sources, 216 see also individual gases Gross national product, per capita, 24–26 Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), 183, 274 Guatemala, 135, 169 Guava (Psidium spp.), 104, 106 H Harungana madagascariensis, 98 Hedgerow systems species appropriate for, 98 see also Contour hedgerow systems Home gardens, 7, 94 Bari system, 107–108 biodiversity in, 107 components of, 101, 106 conservation of species in, 106 on degraded hillsides, 107 economic advantages of, 105 fruit production, 104 pekarangan, 106, 107 pest management in, 101 production and nutrition value of, 107 Honduras, 169 Humid tropics climate, 5, 22–23, 28, 52–53 conditions and characteristics, 5, 21–22 land ownership, 45 population, 23, 40–41, 45 vegetation, 5, 23, 28–29 see also Forests of the humid tropics ; Soils of the humid tropics Hydrological systems and agricultural productivity, 48 forest conversion effects on, 46, 48 stabilization by forests, 32–33 Hyparrhenia rufa, 89, 120 I Imperata cylindrica, 86, 120, 121, 123, 182 India, 38, 86, 130 Indigenous people Amuesha-Campa communities, 169 Bora Indians, 104, 108 Cabecar Indians, 104 collaborative research with, 14–15 displacement by infrastructure development, 169 effects of forest conversion on, 7, 50 food crops of, 58 forest management role and rights, 592–593 Guaymi Indians, 104 involvement in land use planning, 150 knowledge of land use systems, 13–14, 144–145 land tenure for, 166, 174–175, 599–600 Maya, 132, 516–519 mixed tree systems, 101–102 modification of forests, 132–133 property rights of, 166–167 resource management by, 129, 134, 162–163, 515–519 secondary forest use, 123 Surui people, 162 Yanomani, 176 Indonesia agriculture, 45, 157, 395–396, 406–408, 425–426, 429–431 alley cropping in, 576 assessment of forest loss, 433–438 biogeographical diversity, 399–400 cattle raising in, 86 commodity price supports, 165 conservation of forest ecosystems, 419–420 deforestation history and causes, 38, 45, 164, 165, 167, 405–415, 431–433

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Monocultural systems, 8, 59–60, 75, 101–102, 330–331, 333 Mound systems, 7, 71 Mulches and cover crops, 87, 114, 158, 379–380, 381 Multipurpose woodlots, 94 Myanmar, 38, 130, 232 N National Council of Rubber Tappers, 135 National policies enabling environment for sustainable agriculture, 15–16, 174–180 encouraging unsustainable land use, 162–163 infrastructure development, 164 land tenure, 166, 174–177 and livestock production, 88 mission of resource management agencies, 169–170 negative effects of, 163, 242 reforms, 163, 166–167 review needs and process, 163–166 tax incentives and credits, 88 National resource management agencies, 169–170 National security, and deforestation, 509 Natural forest management, 149 benefits and costs of, 11, 126–127, 140–141 and carbon cycling, 126–127, 140 Celos Management System, 130 constraints on, 125–126, 131–132 and forest regeneration, 127, 128, 129, 130 Malayan Uniform System, 127–128 Modified Selection System, 130 purpose of, 125 research and development, 130 selection systems, 129–131 Selective Logging System, 130 Selective Management System, 130 strip shelterwood systems, 128–129 sustainability of, 127, 131–132 Tropical Shelterwood System, 128 uniform shelterwood systems, 127–128 Necromass, 233–234 Nepal, 71, 75, 86 New York Zoological Society, 187 Niangon (Tarrietia utilis), 352 Nigeria, 37, 130 Nitrous oxide contribution to greenhouse effect, 219, 234 flux from land use changes, 237 sources, 48, 49, 234 Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), education and training role , 17, 186–187 No-till systems, 185, 382 Nuclea latifolia, 98 Nutmeg, 105 Nutrient cycling in agropastoral systems, 83–84 in alley cropping, 381 comparison of land use systems, 140, 142 in forests, 32 integrated management of, 157–158 land use and, 157–158 in monocultural systems, 60 and productivity, 154, 157–158 in regenerating forests, 120–121, 123, 140–141 research on, 88 in shifting agriculture, 77–78 in soils, 55–56 in tree plantations; 116, 140, 142 O Oil palm production, 11, 113, 114, 128, 274, 330, 332 Orange (Citrus aurantium), 106 Orchards, 101, 108 P Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM), 114 Panama, 104 Panicum maximum, 89 Papaya (Carica papaya), 106, 330

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP), 94 Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum), 333 Paspalum spp., 120 Passion fruit, 330, 331 Pastureland African, 86–87 area of, 233 Asian, 86 biomass losses from burning, 233 cattle, 86–88 degradation, 89, 90, 224, 225 forest conversion to, 6, 68, 85, 88, 162, 164, 224, 316–320 grass-legume mixture, 88 and greenhouse gases, 224–225, 237 knowledge about, 294 Latin American, 87–90, 294 nutrient cycling on, 88, 225 productivity, 225 reclamation of degraded pasture on deforested lands, 73, 90 technology for sustainability, 91–92 weed invasion, 89 Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), 104, 183, 330 Perennial crop agriculture land tenure and, 582 progress in, 293–294 research needs, 328 sustainability of, 68, 326–328 Perennial tree crop plantations, 110–115, 582 Peru alley cropping in, 576 cattle raising, 88 deforestation, 38, 61, 88 indigenous people, 104, 108, 129 intensive cropping systems, 70 mixed tree systems, 104, 108 natural forest management in, 129 overexploitation of forest products, 136 Pichis-Palcazu Project, 169 soil management practices, 61 Pest management and agricultural productivity, 57–58, 155–157, 287 comparison of land use systems, 140 with cropping systems, 83 in home gardens, 101 integrated, 157 intensive cropping and, 70, 75 land use and, 155–157 Pesticide use, 60, 70, 156 Philippines, 71 agriculture, 44, 556–557, 559–560, 570–584, 600–601 agroforestry systems, 94–95 community-based resource management, 179–180, 591–595, 598–599, 607–608 contour hedgerow systems, 571–579 dam projects, 169 deforestation, 38, 44, 164, 167, 560–569, 609–612 diversification into mixed farming systems, 583–584 fallow improvement systems, 587–589 fire ecology and management, 591 foreign aid to, 608–609 forest management, 130, 179–180, 592–596, 602, 607–608 forest types, 560–562 fuelwood use, 44 grasslands and brushlands, 584–592 indigenous communities' role and rights, 176, 592–593, 599–600 institutional changes, 606 land tenure, 166, 176, 586–587, 597–600 land use, 552–554 livestock production, 601–602 logging, 44, 607 migration to uplands, 557–558 nutrients for soils, 580–582 perennial crops, 582 permanently farmed sloping lands, 570–584 phosphorus sources for soils, 581–582 physical environment, 551–552 political corruption in, 167 population growth and pressures, 86, 554–555, 597–598 reduced-tillage systems, 579–580 reforestation efforts, 589–591

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS research needs, 602–606 resettlement policies and programs, 189 rice production in lowlands, 559 shifting agriculture, 86 Sloping Agricultural Land Technology Program, 76 sustainable land use approaches in uplands, 569–612 technology development and dissemination, 600–606 timber concessions, 568–569 timber pricing reform, 607 tree crops, 582–583 upland ecosystem, state of, 551–560 Pineapple (Ananas spp.), 107, 110, 330, 331 Pinus spp., 115, 116, 332 Plantains (Musa spp.), 82, 101, 107 Plantation agriculture components of, 110–111 crop characteristics, 10, 112 and economic development, 111–113 public management of, 112 sustainable management methods, 114 see also Tree crop plantations Plantation forestry, 10, 115–118, 140–141, 143–144, 229 Policies, see Development assistance policies; National policies Political and social stability, and land use, 167, 188–189 Population and agriculture, 59 in countries with tropical moist forests, 24–26, 40 and deforestation, 45, 406–408, 647–649 growth rates, 41 issues in tropics, 40–41 and land tenure, 597–598 and land use policies, 103, 189, 241 and shifting cultivation, 78–79, 103, 148 Poverty alleviation programs, 76, 145 debt burden of developing countries, 41 plantation agriculture and, 111 and sustainable land use, 40 Private voluntary organizations, 186 Property rights, 166–167 Protected areas attributes, 144 biodiversity management in, 170–171, 525–526 extractive reserves, 134–137, 171 forest patches, 103, 108 forestry projects, 187 Kibale Forest Reserve, 187 land area, 133, 511 mechanisms for protection, 11, 133, 511 size and configuration of, 133, 150 social and ecological pressures on, 133–134 Puerto Rico, 225 Q Quercus spp., 103 R Rainfall, and soil loss, 32–33 Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), 106 Rattan, 136 Recommendations biodiversity conservation, 170–171 biomass maintenance, 152–153 design and selection of land uses, 146–150 enabling environment for sustainable agriculture, 15–16, 174–180 equitable distribution of conservation costs, 15, 172, 190 goals of, 159–160 incentives for land improvement, 16, 180–183 infrastructure development, 16, 168–169, 177–178 land titling and land tenure reforms, 174–177

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS local participation in development planning, 178–180 mission of national resource management agencies, 169–170 NGO role, 17, 186–187 policy reviews, 14–15, 161–167 see also Research needs and approaches Reforestation and carbon flux, 103, 240 contract programs, 589–591 extent of, 39 on grasslands, 589–591 projects, 422–424 Regenerating forests, see Forest regeneration Regreening programs, 422–424 Research needs and programs agriculture, 62–64, 291–292, 600–601 agroforestry, 99–100, 333, 523–524 agropastoral systems, 84–85, 91–92 biodiversity, 171 climate change related to land use changes, 102, 252 commodity-specific, 62–63, 158 documentation of land use system, 13, 150–152 extension programs, 85, 187–188 extractive reserves, 135–136, 137 floodplain agriculture, 316 forest conversion, 46 forest reserves, 133, 135–136, 171 forestry, 109–110, 602 institutional capacity for fulfilling, 84–85, 336 integrated approach, 62–64 intensive cropping systems, 71–72, 75–77 international partnerships, 16–17, 185, 605–606 land attributes, 150 livestock production, 87, 320, 601–602 methodology development, 184–185, 602–605 mixed tree systems, 102, 109–110 monitoring systems and methodologies, 14, 153–154 natural forest management, 130 NGO role, 17, 186–187 nontimber resource extraction, 308 perennial crop agriculture, 114–115, 293 preservation of indigenous knowledge, 13–14, 144–145 progress in, 295 shifting agriculture, 312 social science, 76 soil-plant-animal grazing trial, 88 soils, 100 taxonomy of forest species, 30 timber extraction, 311 traditional land use systems, 63, 99, 144–145 tree crop plantations, 114–115, 118 Rice plant hopper, 157 Rice production, 86, 107 agropastoral systems, 82, 83 greenhouse gas emissions from, 48, 224, 234, 237 intensive cultivation, 73, 75 knowledge base on, 293 and land ownership, 59 lowland, 73, 75, 82, 83, 559 monoculture, 75 in shifting agriculture, 82 soils used for, 57 sustainability of, 223–224 terraces, 74 wet paddy agriculture, 7, 70–71, 223–224, 429–431 Rubber, 11, 111, 113, 114, 128, 135, 136, 274, 280, 330, 331, 332 Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, 114 Rwanda, agroforestry systems, 94, 95 S Sahel, soils, 54 Samanea saman, 98 Samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon), 352 Sapodilla tree (Achras zapota), 135 Secondary forests area of, 39, 123 benefits, 10, 30, 118, 119, 140–141, 144 biological diversity in, 81

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS carbon cycling, 30, 49, 103, 228, 231 characteristics, 29, 124 clearance for low-input cropping, 82 defined, 122 fires, 121 growth rates, 182 in situ experimental research, 520–521 and shifting cultivation, 123 sustainable use of, 10, 61, 123–125, 330, 331 tree species in, 123 Sedimentation, 46–47, 169 Shifting cultivation, 45 agricultural programs affecting, 425–426 agroforestry and, 94, 100, 101, 103 agropastoral systems, 83, 88 attributes of, 140–141 and biomass maintenance, 153 carbon losses from, 225–226, 246, 247 categories of, 41–42, 77 defined, 77 and deforestation, 41, 173–174, 226, 370, 409–411 encroaching cultivation, 228–229 fallow period, 9, 78–80 and forest regeneration, 81, 120–121 forestry programs affecting, 424–425 and greenhouse gases, 225–229 land ownership and, 175 low-input cropping, 81–82 managed fallows and forests, 80–81, 101 multiple cropping arrangements, 79–80 and nutrient cycling, 77–78, 79 population pressures and, 78–79, 103, 148 rationalization of, 424–428 research needs, 314 short-rotation, 8, 9, 86, 173–174, 226–228 slash-and-mulch, 77–78 social welfare program for isolated societies, 427 soil management practices, 79 soils used for, 54, 55, 81, 86 stabilization guidelines, 9, 79–80 sustainability of, 78, 225–226, 227–228, 313–314 traditional, long-rotation, 7–8, 9, 41, 59, 68, 78, 94, 140–141, 143, 225–226 transmigration and, 9, 41–42, 59, 426–428 Shorea spp., 127 Silviculture, 125, 127, 131 Silvopastoral systems, 68, 93–94, 229, 332–333 Social forestry programs, 179–180, 251 Sociocultural conditions, and sustainable agriculture, 288–289 Socioeconomic factors comparison of systems, 141–143 conversion of forests, 49–51 documentation needs, 13, 152 in infrastructure building, 169 in land use changes, 241–242 models, 242–249 monitoring, 153–154 spatial patterns of land use and, 147 and sustainability of land use, 249 Soil conservation in agrisilvopastoral systems, 95 agroforestry and, 380, 381 comparison of land use systems, 140, 143 in contour hedgerow systems, 99, 381 intensive cultivation and, 76 methods, 113 organic matter management, 79, 114 and productivity, 154–155 tree crop plantations and, 114, 467–468 Soil degradation agricultural inputs and, 75 alley cropping and, 99 conversion of forests and, 46, 50 deforestation and, 38–39, 56–57 logging and, 126 monitoring, 14, 153 pastureland, 89

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS reversal of, 3 shifting cultivation and, 79 from tree crop plantations, 113 Soils of the humid tropics and agricultural productivity, 1–2, 53–57, 575–576 Alfisols, 99, 100 aluminum toxicity, 55, 57, 575–576 calcium content, 56, 57, 99 carbon content, 220, 221, 224, 226, 233–234 characteristics, 23, 27–28 classifications, 152, 293 data availability on, 14, 153 deforestation effects on, 56–57 Entisols, 27, 57 forest, 32, 56–57 geographic distribution, by order, suborder, or type, 23, 27, 53–55 greenhouse gas emissions from, 234, 237 Inceptisols, 27, 57 for intensive cropping, 54, 55, 57, 70 iron compounds, 57 laterite formation, 54–55 magnesium content, 56, 99 misconceptions about, 54–56 Mollisols, 55 nitrogen content, 56, 89, 99, 237, 576 nutrient cycling, 23 55–56, organic matter content, 23, 55, 99, 116, 225, 379, 576 Oxisols, 23, 27, 54, 55–56, 70, 249 pH, 99 phosphorus content, 56, 57, 89, 99, 576 potassium content, 57, 99 research needs, 100 and sustainable agriculture, 53–57, 287–288 Ultisols, 23, 27, 55–57, 70, 249, 576 South America soils, 23, 53, 54 see also Latin America; individual countries Southeast Asia forest harvest intervals, 166 forest regeneration on grasslands, 120, 121, 123 range of land use systems, 152 social forestry programs, 179–180 see also individual countries Spondias spp., 103 Sri Lanka, 107, 112 Star apple (Pouteria caimito), 104 Steeply sloping areas, see Uplands/ steeply sloping areas Subsidies, and adoption of technology, 90 Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), 107, 110 Suriname, 125, 130 Sustainable agriculture agroforestry and, 380–382 in agropastoral systems, 84–85 basis for, 64–65 benefits of, 61–62, 160 biological constraints on, 57–58 biotic pressure and, 287 and carbon releases, 247 characteristics of, 22 climate and, 286–287 conservation tillage, 382 constraints on agricultural productivity, 52–58 credit access for small-scale farmers, 177 defined, 66 design and management considerations, 145–146 development assistance policies and, 51 diversification and, 3–4 enabling environment for, 174–180 environmental bottlenecks to, 290–291 external factors in, 250 fertilizer use in, 380 and greenhouse gas emissions, 189–190 incentives and opportunities for, 180–188 infrastructure investments and, 177–178 institutional and policy changes, 84–85

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS intensification in, 72–73 interventions, 377–385 labor-intensive mixed cropping systems, 68 land tenure reforms and, 59, 174–177 local decision making and, 178–180, 591–592 markets for products, 183–184 mixed farming systems, 583–584 mulches and cover crops, 379–380 nutrient sources, 560–562 organic matter for soils, 379 pathways to, 58–62, 69 perennial crops, 68, 582 phosphorus sources, 581–582 political considerations, 289–290 practices associated with, 60–61 reduced-tillage systems, 579–580 research, development, and knowledge transfer, 184–188 sociocultural conditions and, 288–289 soils and, 53–57, 287–288 supporting, 173–188 technological interventions and, 377–382 traditional methods, 58–59 transition to, 61 see also Agricultural productivity; Contour hedgerow systems Sustainable resource management barriers to, 1–2 characteristics of, 2 chinampa technology, 520 definition of, 511–513 demonstration projects, 533–534 determinants of, 138 education in, 532–533 employment opportunities and, 50 global requirement for, 4–5 by Huastec Maya, 518–519 implementation of, 534–536 by Lacandon Maya, 518 by lowland Maya, 516–518 Plan Puebla, 519–520 policy issues, 527–529 practices in Mexican humid tropics, 513–515 research needs, 529–532 secondary forests, 520–521 secondary problems, 536–537 traditional approaches, 515–519 Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), 107 Swietenia spp., 115, 116 T Tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis), 333 Tax incentives and credits, 88, 164, 172 Tea plantations, 112 Technology agroindustrial, 294–295 and deforestation, 388 diffusion and utilization, 90, 295–296, 600–606 interventions, 377–382, 388 local decision making on, 178–180 for reclamation of pastureland, 90, 91–92 and resource degradation, 9, 75 success factors, 148 and sustainable agriculture, 143, 377–382 Tectona spp., 115 Terrace systems, 7, 71, 74, 114, 147, 148 Thailand, 71, 86, 108, 232 Tillage practices, 158 Timber and timber products concessions, 167 economic importance of, 45, 402–403 exploitation of, and deforestation, 164, 376–377, 510, 568–569 extraction of, 39, 129, 308–311, 595–596; see also Logging; Natural forest management harvest intervals, 166 industrial roundwood production, 639 labor-based timber extraction, 595–596 potential, 376–377 pricing reform, 165, 167, 607 species important for, 352 research needs, 311

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS sustainability of extraction, 310–311 Trade reforms, 172 Transmigration and deforestation, 160, 411–413 and intensive cropping, 9, 75 and shifting cultivation, 9, 41–42, 59, 426–428 sustainable agriculture and, 160 Tree crop plantations, 136 age factors, 116 and biodiversity, 113, 450–451, 470–471 biomass production in, 115, 116, 153, 229 common characteristics, 115, 140–141, 142–143 and deforestation, 68, 413–415 ecologic benefits of, 29, 115–116, 140, 142, 143–144 and economic development, 11, 113, 329–330 economic feasibility of, 141, 142–143, 461–463 environmental effects, 103, 113–114, 466–471 farm forestry, 582–583 and greenhouse gases, 229 inputs, 114 intercropping on, 229 investments for sustainability, 114–115 land area, 115 management, 117–118 mixed, 107 monocultures, 101–102, 229 nutrient cycling in, 116, 140, 142, 157, 229 perennial, 6, 10, 11, 107, 110–115, 140–141, 142–144, 157, 582 policies affecting expansion of, 463–466 productivity, 115–116 prospects for, 471–473 research and development, 114–115, 118 with secondary crops, 75 small-scale production, 101–102 and soil conservation, 467–468 species used in, 115, 117–118 sustainability of land use for, 10, 68, 110, 229, 459–461 uses, 115, 116, 117, 191 and water systems protection, 468–470 Trees agroforestry species, 96–98, 330–331 alley cropping species, 524–525 biomass production, by species, 97 coppicing, 81, 96 for forest regeneration, 123 fruit, in humid tropics, 104 leguminous/nitrogen fixing, 95, 79, 96, 98 marketable species, 125–126, 333, 352 with negative effects on soils, 98–99 plantation species, 115, 116–117 from stem cuttings, 98 Trinidad, 130 Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 165–166, 521–522 Tropical moist deciduous forests, extent of, 35 Tropical rain forests, extent of, 35 Tropical zone, forested bioclimesin, 28 Trypanosomiasis, 86–87 Tsetse fly control, 86, 87 U Uapaca togoensis, 353 Uganda, 130, 187 United Nations Development Program, 166 Environment Program, 154 Uplands/steeply sloping areas deforestation of, 45 intensive cropping systems on, 72–73, 76 land use patterns on, 151, 249 livestock integration into farming in, 381, 601–602 no-tillage agriculture on, 185 soil conservation on, 76 terracing on, 148 Urban population, 24–26 Urucu, 330, 332

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS U.S. Agency for International Development, 187 Uvillia (Pourouma cecropifolia), 104 V Vanilla, 104 Venezuela, 38, 120–121, 160, 225 W Water availability and quality, forest conditions and, 33 conservation, 140 control systems for intensive agriculture, 71 management, land use and, 158 pollution, 75 systems, protection of, 468–470 Waterborne diseases, 33, 75 Watersheds, protective role of forests, 32–33 Weather, storm mitigation by forests, 33 Weed suppression, 287, 380 West Africa soils, 54 tree crop plantations, 114 Wetlands, cultivation of, 75, 237 Women, land tenure, 176 Wood-based industries economic importance of, 402–403 primary, 402 secondary, 402–403 World Bank, 161, 166, 169, 172 World Resources Institute, 166 X Xate (Chamaedorea spp.), 135 Y Yam (Dioscorea trifida), 82, 107 Z Zaire advancement of agricultural frontiers, 645 agriculture, 156, 652–653 climate, 627 deforestation, 38, 641–649 extension service, 653 extractive reserves, 149 forest management, 130, 149, 637–639, 652–653, 656 forest resource distribution, 635–637 forest types, 626 fuelwood demand and harvesting, 191, 645–646 funding for sustainable management, 656 human resources development, 653–655 industrial roundwood production, 639 institutional arrangements and possible reforms, 649–652 land tenure, 627, 634, 656 logging, 640–641, 646–647 macroeconomic setting, 634–635 natural resources, 625 population, 627, 634, 647–649 research agenda, 652–653 society and culture, 627, 634 sustainable management suggestions, 652–656 tax policies and investment procedures, 639–641

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON AGRICULTURE Policy and Resources Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992), 296 pp., ISBN 0-309-04682-3. Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992), 320 pp., ISBN 0-309-04528-2. Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991), 244 pp., ISBN 0-309-04034-5. Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 198 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991), 448 pp., ISBN 0-309-04578-9. Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991), 164 pp., ISBN 0-309-04540-1. Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9. Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03987-8; ISBN 0-309-03985-1 (pbk). Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3. Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk). Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X. Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5. Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3. Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9; Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4. Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X. Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X. Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8. More information, other titles (before 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418 USA, 202/334-3313 (information only); 800/624-6242 (orders only); 202/334-2451 (fax).

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Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the HUMID TROPICS RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Energy Alcohol Fuels: Options for Developing Countries (1983), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-04160-0. Producer Gas: Another Fuel for Motor Transport (1983), 112 pp., ISBN 0-309-04161-9. The Diffusion of Biomass Energy Technologies in Developing Countries (1984), 120 pp., ISBN 0-309-04253-4. Technology Options Priorities in Biotechnology Research for International Development: Proceedings of a Workshop (1982), 261 pp., ISBN 0-309-04256-9. Fisheries Technologies for Developing Countries (1987), 167 pp., ISBN 0-309-04260-7. Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992), 199 pp., ISBN 0-309-04685-8. Plants Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop (1983), 81 pp., ISBN 0-309-04171-6. Jojoba: New Crop for Arid Lands (1985), 102 pp., ISBN 0-309-04251-8. Quality-Protein Maize (1988), 130 pp., ISBN 0-309-04262-3. Triticale: A Promising Addition to the World's Cereal Grains (1988), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-04263-1. Lost Crops of the Incas (1989), 415 pp., ISBN 0-309-04264-X. Saline Agriculture: Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries (1989), 150 pp., ISBN 0-309-04266-6. Innovations in Tropical Forestry Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias for the Humid Tropics (1983), 63 pp., ISBN 0-309-04165-1. Calliandra: A Versatile Small Tree for the Humid Tropics (1983), 56 pp., ISBN 0-309-04166-X. Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites (1983), 118 pp., ISBN 0-309-04167-8. Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics (1984), 2d ed., 100 pp., ISBN 0-309-04250-X. Neem: A Tree that Could Help the World (1992), 149 pp., ISBN 0-309-04686-6. Managing Tropical Animal Resources Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea (1983), 36 pp., ISBN 0-309-04168-6. Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics (1983), 60 pp., ISBN 0-309-04169-4. Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future (1983), 133 pp., ISBN 0-309-04170-8. Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future (1990), 449 pp., ISBN 0-309-04265-8. Resource Management Environmental Change in the West African Sahel (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-04173-2. Agroforestry in the West African Sahel (1984), 86 pp., ISBN 0-309-04174-0. Conserving Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for Development Agencies (1992), 127 pp., ISBN 0-309-04683-1. Additional titles and ordering information are available from the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Publications and Information Services (FO-2060), Office of International Affairs, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418 USA, 202/334-2688.