subjects of nuclear resonance, nonlinear optics, the statistical properties of laser light, picosecond pulse measurements, and the multiphoton laser spectroscopy of atoms.

HARVEY J. BERGER is presently Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of ARIAD Pharmaceuticals and a specialist in cardiovascular and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Berger is the author of more than 200 contributions to scientific literature. He is a former Executive Vice President and Medical Director and Research and Development chief of Centocor, Inc., a biotechnology firm. Dr. Berger is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Previously, he was Professor of Radiology and Medicine and a Division Director at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta. Dr. Berger is a founding member of the University Technology Transfer Consortium, a multidisciplinary group established to facilitate commercial development of inventions originating in Delaware Valley academic institutions.

C. FRED BERGSTEN is Director of the Institute for International Economics, a position he held since the institute's creation in 1981. From 1980 to 1981 he functioned as Under Secretary for Monetary Affairs; from 1977 to 1981 he was Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs; and from 1969 to 1971 he served as assistant for International Economic Affairs on the Senior Staff of the National Security Council. Dr. Bergsten has been a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He has written 18 books and numerous articles on international economic issues.

WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN is Executive Director of Physics Research at AT&T Bell Laboratories. His responsibilities include the direction of research in condensed matter physics and optoelectronic devices. Among the other positions he has held at Bell Labs were chief of the Physical Research Laboratory, the Chemical Physics Research Laboratory, and Infrared Physics and Electronics Research. Prior to his current position, he was Vice President of Research at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. He has served on a number of national committees, including chairmanship of the National Academy of Sciences Physics Survey and its Solid-State Sciences Committee. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1984.

DENNIS CHAMOT is Executive Assistant to the President, Department of Professional Employees of the AFL-CIO. He was Assistant to the Executive Secretary, Council of AFL-CIO Unions for Professional Employees beginning in 1974, became Assistant Director of the AFL-CIO's Department for Professional Employees in 1977 and its Associate Director in 1984. He has been a member of numerous study panels including congres-



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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance subjects of nuclear resonance, nonlinear optics, the statistical properties of laser light, picosecond pulse measurements, and the multiphoton laser spectroscopy of atoms. HARVEY J. BERGER is presently Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of ARIAD Pharmaceuticals and a specialist in cardiovascular and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Berger is the author of more than 200 contributions to scientific literature. He is a former Executive Vice President and Medical Director and Research and Development chief of Centocor, Inc., a biotechnology firm. Dr. Berger is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Previously, he was Professor of Radiology and Medicine and a Division Director at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta. Dr. Berger is a founding member of the University Technology Transfer Consortium, a multidisciplinary group established to facilitate commercial development of inventions originating in Delaware Valley academic institutions. C. FRED BERGSTEN is Director of the Institute for International Economics, a position he held since the institute's creation in 1981. From 1980 to 1981 he functioned as Under Secretary for Monetary Affairs; from 1977 to 1981 he was Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs; and from 1969 to 1971 he served as assistant for International Economic Affairs on the Senior Staff of the National Security Council. Dr. Bergsten has been a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He has written 18 books and numerous articles on international economic issues. WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN is Executive Director of Physics Research at AT&T Bell Laboratories. His responsibilities include the direction of research in condensed matter physics and optoelectronic devices. Among the other positions he has held at Bell Labs were chief of the Physical Research Laboratory, the Chemical Physics Research Laboratory, and Infrared Physics and Electronics Research. Prior to his current position, he was Vice President of Research at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. He has served on a number of national committees, including chairmanship of the National Academy of Sciences Physics Survey and its Solid-State Sciences Committee. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1984. DENNIS CHAMOT is Executive Assistant to the President, Department of Professional Employees of the AFL-CIO. He was Assistant to the Executive Secretary, Council of AFL-CIO Unions for Professional Employees beginning in 1974, became Assistant Director of the AFL-CIO's Department for Professional Employees in 1977 and its Associate Director in 1984. He has been a member of numerous study panels including congres-

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance sional studies of workplace automation and the National Research Council's Committee on Computer-Aided Manufacturing. He also served as chairman of the National Science Foundation's Informal Science Education Oversight Committee. Dr. Chamot was employed by E.I. DuPont de Nemours as a research chemist from 1969 to 1973. RICHARD N. COOPER is Maurits B. Boas Professor of International Economics at Harvard University, where he has lectured since 1981. Professor Cooper previously served as Provost and Professor of International Economics at Yale University. From 1977 to 1981 he was Under Secretary for Economic Affairs in the U.S. Department of State, from 1965 to 1966 Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Monetary Affairs, and from 1961 to 1963 Senior Staff Economist for President Kennedy's Council on Economic Advisors. Professor Cooper is presently Chairman, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston; Director and Advisory Committee Chairman, Institute for International Economics. He is the author of numerous books on economic policy. JOHN M. DEUTCH is Institute Professor of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He previously served as Provost of MIT from 1985 to 1991, as Dean of the MIT School of Science from 1982 to 1985, and as head of the Department of Chemistry from 1976 to 1977. Between 1977 and 1980, Dr. Deutch served as the Energy Department's Director of the Office of Energy Research, Acting Assistant Secretary for Energy Technology, and lastly as department Under Secretary. He was on the President's Commission on Strategic Forces from 1983 to 1984 and the President's Nuclear Safety Oversight Committee from 1980 to 1981. He has acted as a consultant to the Bureau of the Budget, member of the Defense Science Board, and chairman of the National Science Foundation's Advisory Panel for Chemistry. KENNETH FLAMM is a Senior Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program of the Brookings Institution. Dr. Flamm's research is concerned with international trade and investment patterns in high-technology products. His most recent book examined the impacts of technological change, internationalization, and deregulation on the structure of the computer and communications industries. Previous works analyzed the industrial history of the international computer industry and assessed the impact of government policy on the development of computer technology in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan. He is currently working on a comparison of the use and diffusion of robotics in U.S. and Japanese manufacturing and a study of the economic impact of the U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Trade Arrangement. Dr. Flamm received his Ph.D. in economics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance EDWARD A. FRIEMAN is the director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Vice Chancellor of Marine Science for the University of California at San Diego (UCSD). Prior to his appointment at Scripps, Dr. Frieman was executive vice president for Science Applications International Corporation, as well as an adjunct professor of physics at UCSD. He was professor of astrophysical sciences and deputy director of the Plasma Physics Laboratory at Princeton University, where he served for 25 years. Among his current appointments is membership on the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, the Secretary of Defense Task Force on Anti-Submarine Warfare, and the California Council on Science and Technology. A former member of the President's Science Advisory Group, Dr. Frieman has also served as Director of Energy Research at the U.S. Department of Energy from 1979 to 1981, and as vice chairman of the White House Science Council from 1981 to 1988. PAUL W. MACAVOY is Williams Brothers Professor of Management Studies at the Yale School of Organization and Management. From 1983 to 1991, he was Dean of the William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration at the University of Rochester. Professor MacAvoy is the author of 15 books on the economics of regulation, industrial organization, and energy policy. He was Frederick W. Beinecke Professor of Economics at Yale University; Milton Steinbach Professor at the Yale School of Organization and Management; and Henry Luce Professor of Public Policy at MIT. During the Ford administration, Professor MacAvoy was a member of the President's Council of Economic Advisors and Co-Chairman of the President's Task Force on Regulatory Reform. During the Johnson administration he served as a staff member on the Council of Economic Advisors and was a member of the Task Force on the Antitrust Laws. He is presently Director and Chairman of the Audit Committee at AMAX Corp., a Director and member of the Audit and Finance Committees at Combustion Engineering Corp., and a Director of American Cyanamid Company. DAVID C. MOWERY is Associate Professor of Business and Public Policy in the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley. From 1987 to 1988 he served as the Study Director for the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering Panel on Technology and Employment. In 1988, he served in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative as a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow. Dr. Mowery's research deals with the economics of technological innovation and the impact of public policies on innovation. He has been a consultant to various federal agencies and industrial firms. WILLIAM J. PERRY is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Technology Strategies and Alliances (formerly H&Q Technology Partners,

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Inc). Prior to forming this company, he was an Executive Vice President of Hambrecht & Quist, Inc., an investment banking firm specializing in high-technology companies. Dr. Perry is a former Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering. He is currently a director of FMC Corporation and a number of private companies, and prior to governmental service was Director of Sylvania/General Telephone's Electronic Defense Laboratories. A trustee of MITRE Corporation and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, he also serves on a number of U.S. government advisory committees, including the Defense Science Board. HENRY B. SCHACHT is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Cummins Engine Company, Inc. He has also held positions in Irwin Management Company, the American Brake Shoe Company, and the U.S. Navy. In addition to his present responsibilities at Cummins Engine, Mr. Schacht serves as a director for AT&T; CBS, Inc.; and the Chase Manhattan Corporation. He is trustee of the Ford Foundation, the Yale Corporation, the Brookings Institution, the Committee for Economic Development, and the Business Enterprise Trust. Mr. Schacht is a member of the Business Council, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Harvard Business School Associates, and the Conference Board. HUBERT J. P. SCHOEMAKER is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Centocor, Inc. Dr. Schoemaker joined Corning Medical, a division of Corning Glass Works in 1976. At Corning he was responsible for both the technical and the business aspects of the company's medical diagnostic business. Dr. Schoemaker left Corning in 1980 to become a cofounder of Centocor, Inc., a biotechnology company that develops products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and of cardiovascular, infectious, and immune-related diseases. Centocor also performs research and development of monoclonal antibodies. A member of the National Research Council's Committee on Japan, he is a director of Repligen Corporation as well as a family-owned business in his native Holland. PROFESSIONAL STAFF JOHN S. WILSON, Study Director, also serves as Senior Staff Officer to the Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy. Prior to joining the academy, Mr. Wilson held positions with the World Bank and the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, as well as serving as Assistant to the President at the Committee for Economic Development in Washington D.C. He was also involved in the work of two presidential commissions that addressed U.S. technology policy objectives—the President's Commission on Setting a National Agenda for the 1980s and the President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness. Mr. Wilson is a graduate of Colum-

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance bia University's School of International and Public Affairs (M.I.A.) and Wooster College (B.A.). EDWARD P. MOSER, Staff Assistant (1991), previously staffed the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy study on national security export controls. Before joining the academy staff, he worked for the U.S. Senate and the defense trade staff of the Electronic Industries Association. From 1985 to 1988 he was a publications supervisor at Computer Corporation of America. Formerly a software technical writer at Data General, he is author of numerous articles on political and technological matters. Mr. Moser received his M.A. in International Affairs from George Washington University.

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The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance APPENDIX E Collaborative R&D: Selected Examples University-Industry Cooperative R&D. The traditional focus of R&D cooperation between academia and industry has centered on basic research. Industry views universities as important sources of basic scientific research and technical information that complement in-house R&D capabilities. Universities can gain important insight into industry R&D efforts and financial support for ongoing research through joint R&D efforts. Both parties have the potential to benefit from corporate involvement in support of student training. Joint university-industry projects expose students in science and engineering programs to industrial research and development. These ventures may also offer firms the opportunity both to recruit future employees and to make use of on-campus consulting expertise. Although university-industry collaboration may provide benefits to both parties, there are potential difficulties with this type of R&D cooperation, including problems associated with balancing university basic research objectives with proprietary R&D work for individual firms. Examples of university-industrial cooperation are the industry-university cooperative research centers of the National Science Foundation (NSF). More than 50 universities now have cooperative research centers that emphasize fundamental engineering and scientific research with industrial applications. Most funding comes from fees assessed industry members. State governments, federal laboratories, and nonprofit organizations also participate in the centers. Another NSF program is that of the Engineering Re-