DIAGNOSIS

  • identification of the organism in patient's feces or in wound secretions

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Aeromonas hydrophila, A. veronii (biovariant sobria), A. caviae

  • other species of Aeromonas (A. jandaei, A. trota, A. schubertii, and A. veronii biovariant veronii) have also been associated with human disease

  • the natural habitats of Aeromonas bacteria are water and soil

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • ingestion of contaminated water

  • entry of organism through a break in the skin

DISTRIBUTION

  • presence of organism in clinical specimens has been documented in the Americas, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe

  • distribution is worldwide

INCUBATION PERIOD

  • undefined; probably 12 hours to several days

  • organism may persist for weeks to months in gastrointestinal tract

TREATMENT

  • antibiotics: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the quinolones, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines

  • organisms tend to be resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • proper treatment of drinking water and monitoring of well water

  • predisposed individuals should avoid aquatic environments

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • predisposition (e.g., immunosuppression)

  • improved technology for detection and differentiation

  • increased awareness

Borrelia burgdorferi

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Lyme disease

  • distinctive skin lesion (erythema migrans) at site of tick bite that



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