INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Chikungunya virus, a single-stranded RNA virus

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • bite of an infective Aedes mosquito

  • not directly transmitted from person to person

DISTRIBUTION

  • primarily Africa, South Asia, and the Philippines

INCUBATION PERIOD

  • 3 to 12 days

TREATMENT

  • supportive only

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • mosquito control in endemic areas

  • a live, attenuated vaccine is being tested

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • unknown

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

  • abrupt onset of fever, headache, chills, photophobia, myalgia, and abdominal pain

  • nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be present; rash is common

  • infection to death ratio is estimated at 25:1

  • in pregnant women, infection is severe and often results in death

DIAGNOSIS

  • isolation of the virus from cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or other tissues

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Crimean-Congo virus, an RNA virus



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