DIAGNOSIS

  • isolation of virus from blood

  • serologic studies (ELISA, etc.)

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • dengue viruses, serotypes 1-4 (all four types can cause dengue hemorrhagic fever)

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • bite of an infective Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito

  • not directly transmitted from person to person

    Distribution

  • epidemic and endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, the Americas, Asia, Oceania, and Australia

  • widespread in the Caribbean basin

INCUBATION PERIOD AND COMMUNICABILITY

  • 3 to 14 days, average 7 to 10 days

  • while disease is not transmitted from person to person, patients can be infective for mosquitoes from the day before to the end of the febrile period (5 to 7 days)

TREATMENT

  • supportive only

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • control of mosquitoes

  • vaccine is not yet available

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • lack of effective mosquito control

  • increased urbanization in the tropics

  • increased air travel

Filoviruses (Marburg, Ebola)

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

  • sudden onset of fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, followed by sore throat, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and rash



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