INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • human parvovirus B19, a single-stranded DNA virus

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • most commonly, contact with infectious respiratory secretions

  • also transmitted transplacentally and via blood and blood products

DISTRIBUTION

  • worldwide; common in children

INCUBATION PERIOD AND COMMUNICABILITY

  • 4 to 20 days to development of rash

  • probably not communicable after onset of rash; immunosuppressed persons with chronic infection may be communicable up to years after onset

TREATMENT

  • supportive only

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • isolation not practical in community at large

  • hospitalized patients with transient aplastic crisis should be isolated

  • hand washing after patient contact

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • a pervasive virus that has only recently drawn increased attention

  • as a hematogenous infection, it may increase in importance in immunosuppressed persons and as a threat to the blood supply

Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV), Types 1 and 2

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL); chronic progressive myelopathy; tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP)

  • lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphomatous meningitis

  • cutaneous lesions (generalized erythroderma, papules, nodules, plaques, and maculopapular rashes)

    fever and abdominal symptoms may occur

  • arthritis is frequently reported

  • disease ranges from subacute to rapidly lethal (median survival for ATLL is 8 months)



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