• blood of patients is infective for mosquitoes 3 to 5 days after onset of illness

TREATMENT

  • supportive only

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • a live viral vaccine prepared from chick embryos is safe and highly effective (more than 95 percent of those vaccinated will have immune response within 7 to 10 days; immunity lasts at least 10 years)

  • mosquito control

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • lack of effective mosquito control

  • lack of widespread vaccination

  • urbanization in the tropics

  • increased air travel

EMERGENT PROTOZOANS, HELMINTHS, AND FUNGI

Anisakis

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Anisakiasis, herring worm disease, cod worm disease

  • severe epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, fever

  • obstruction, ulceration, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract are possible

DIAGNOSIS

  • recognition of the 2 to 3 cm. larva invading the oropharynx

  • visualization of larvae through gastroscopic examination

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • larval nematodes of the Anisakidae family, common parasites of marine mammals and fish

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • ingestion of larvae in raw or undercooked fish, squid, or octopus (larvae are colorless, tightly coiled, and not easily seen in fish flesh)

  • not transmitted directly from person to person



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