in discovering and identifying newly emerged microbes, he was a member of the teams that found and characterized Lassa virus, the rabies-related viruses, Lyme disease, and, most recently, the virus that causes Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. The Yale Arbovirus research unit, which he directs, is the World Health Organization Centre for Arbovirus Research and Reference. This center is responsible for supplying diagnostic reference reagents internationally. Dr. Shope is past president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.

BARRY R. BLOOM, Ph.D., is an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Weinstock Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. He received his B.A. degree and an honorary Sc.D. degree from Amherst College, and his Ph.D. from Rockefeller University. He has served as a consultant to the White House on international health, as president of the American Association of Experimental Biology. Dr. Bloom is chairman of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee to the United Nations Development Program/World Bank/World Health Organization (WHO) Special Program for Vaccine Development. Dr. Bloom also serves on the Board on Science and Technology for International Development of the National Research Council and on the National Vaccine Advisory Board. He is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine.

ROBERT L. BUCHANAN, Ph.D., is research leader of the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service's Eastern Regional Research Center, where he conducts and coordinates research on controlling the transmission of human diseases in foods. He received his Ph.D. in food science from Rutgers University, which was followed by postdoctoral studies in mycotoxicology at the University of Georgia. Prior to joining USDA, he was an associate professor at Drexel University. Dr. Buchanan has served on the National Advisory Committee for Microbiological Criteria for Foods and the International Commission for Microbiological Specifications for Foods. He is a member of the American Academy of Microbiology.

JOHN R. DAVID, M.D. is professor and chairman of the Department of Tropical Public Health at Harvard School of Public Health and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. David received his M.D. from the University of Chicago and is board certified in internal medicine. His research focuses on cellular immunology, especially on the function of migration inhibitory factor (MIF), the first lymphokine, which he co-discovered;

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