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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States
one of two general categories of lymphocytes (white blood cells) involved in the humoral immune response. When help is provided by T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens.
refers to the presence of bacteria in the blood.
an active portion of an antibiotic (e.g., a penicillin or cephalosporin) that is part of the chemical structure of the antibiotic and that can be neutralized by a beta-lactamase produced by certain microorganisms (e.g., some staphylococci).
an enzyme that neutralizes the affect of an antibiotic containing beta-lactam.
level of containment required for safe handling of the most contagious pathogenic microbes.
a family of small viruses; includes vesicular exanthem and seal plague viruses.
a class of antibiotic.
cellular immunity, cell-mediated immunity
a type of immune response in which subpopulations of T-cells (helper T-cells and killer T-cells) cooperate to destroy cells in the body that bear foreign antigens, such as bacteria.
a class of antibiotic.
of or pertaining to a group of genetically identical organisms derived from a single parent or a DNA population derived from a single DNA molecule by replication in a bacterial or eucaryotic host cell.
refers to the inability of an organism, particularly staphylococci, to produce an enzyme that, in concert with a blood plasma cofactor, catalyzes the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen.
the order of nucleotide bases in a nucleic acid that specifies the production of a particular product, such as a protein. A change in the coding sequence (e.g., as a result of a mutation) can result in a change in the product.
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane or chlorophenothane, a pesticide.
a mutation that results from the deletion of one or more amino acids present in the genetic material of the organism undergoing the mutation.
as used in this report, refers to a situation in which infection has elicited signs and symptoms in the infected individual; the infection has become clinically apparent.