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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 OTTO STRUVE August 12, 1897-April 6, 1963 BY KEVIN KRISCIUNAS ''WORK WAS THE MOTTO of the whole of life. In a letter [we find] the following passage: The Struves cannot live happily without unceasing work, since from the earliest youth we have been persuaded that it is the most useful and best seasoning of human life.''1 Easily counted as one of the prominent astronomers of his century, Struve left a standard that many sought to emulate but few achieved. The Struve I have just described is not the Otto Struve of this memoir, but his great-grandfather Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864). Yet the words apply equally well. The first of seven Struves in five generations to obtain a Ph.D. (or its equivalent) in astronomy,2 in 1839 Wilhelm Struve founded Pulkovo Observatory near St. Petersburg, which has played a major role in positional astronomy ever since. 3 Wilhelm was one of the first three astronomers to measure the trigonometric parallax of a star—the final proof of Copernicanism. He published 272 works4 and had eighteen children.5 Of the six Struves who pursued a career in astronomy,6 four won the prestigious Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society: great-grandfather Wilhelm in 1826, grandfather Otto Wilhelm in 1850, uncle Hermann in 1903, and our Otto in 1944. Such a level of recognition in astronomy

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 is unique, and the Struves must be counted with the Cassinis and Herschels as one of the most significant astronomical family dynasties. One might also note that Otto Struve's great-uncle Carl was the Russian ambassador to Japan from 1874 to 1882, then ambassador to the United States in the 1880s.7 His uncle Alfred was a noted geologist, and his uncle Wilhelm was president of the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia.8 EARLY YEARS Otto Struve was born on August 12, 1897, on his family's estate in Kharkov, in the Ukraine, where his father Ludwig was director of the Kharkov University Observatory. In the Bancroft library at the University of California, Berkeley, there are a few pictures relating to Struve's early years. One shows a corner of the house in which he was born, looking somewhat like Leo Tolstoy's house at Yasnaya Polyana. Another picture shows Otto's five-year-old brother in a sleigh hitched to a dog, with ten-year-old Otto and his seven-year-old sister standing behind. Yet another picture shows the three children, a nursemaid, the janitor, the son of the groundskeeper, and a cow. Otto grew up as the eldest child in an upper-class Russian family whose relatives had ably served the Tsar and Russian science. Great-grandfather Wilhelm had fled Altona (near Hamburg) to escape being drafted into Napoleon's army and settled in Dorpat (now Tartu) in Estonia. The Struve heritage was thus as a family of Baltic German origin that lived and worked in the Russian Empire.9 Otto was the first member of his family to attend Russian-speaking, not German-speaking, schools. His "first language" was equally German and Russian.10 At the time of the beginning of World War I, Otto graduated from the gymnasium in Kharkov and entered the univer-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 sity there to study mathematics and astronomy. In 1916 he interrupted his studies and enlisted in the Russian Imperial Army. He became an artillery officer and served on the Turkish front.11 After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918), which ended Russia's involvement in the war, Struve returned to the University of Kharkov, where he obtained his degree in 1919. Russia was in turmoil. The Tsar had abdicated in March 1917, the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October-November of that year, and the country was embroiled in a civil war. Struve enlisted in the White Russian Army of General Anton Denikin in June 1919, a move he later called "the most self-sacrificing act of my life."12 He adds: "I have no doubt that the time will come when the Russian people will recognize that patriotism was not the exclusive privilege of those who fought on the winning side." Struve was wounded in action in July 1919.13 It was presumably during his army years that he contracted diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, and rheumatic fever. Very little information concerning Struve's activity in the Russian Civil War has come down to us. Apparently, once his horse was shot under him, and on another occasion he got a bullet through his sleeve. 14 For a while he was part of a cavalry unit that "would jump up and gallop off at a moment's notice whenever there was rumour that Trotsky was in the neighborhood. But they did not capture the leader of the opposition."15 This is not the place to discuss the Russian Civil War, but Struve was very much part of the dynamic events of the two stages of evacuation ahead of the Bolsheviks.16 ,17 In March 1920 thousands of soldiers, women, and children were trying to get out of Novorossisk on the Black Sea. Roads to the port were blocked for miles. The route was

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 strewn with dead bodies, stripped naked and frozen. There were dead horses, mules, camels, abandoned guns, and vehicles. At the water's edge Cossacks shot their horses. Starving refugees tore the corpses apart for food. Struve was with a detachment of about 300 men. The families of several officers were with them. When it was learned that no women or children were to be allowed to board the ship, a ring of people was made, and the women donned men's uniforms. A commander of a White Army destroyer agreed to take 150 men. Otto Struve was to count off that half of the detachment and remain behind, but just then there was shell fire. The gangplank was unguarded and all 300 scrambled aboard. Seeing that the ship was listing, a British cruiser took on the 300 people and carried them to the Crimea. General Denikin, leader of the Whites, was replaced by the inspirational General P. N. Wrangel.18 But the Whites were on their last legs. Wrangel had commandeered enough ships and stockpiled sufficient fuel for the eventual evacuation from Russia altogether. In mid-November of 1920 a fleet of over 100 ships, carrying nearly 150,000 men, women, and children, left the Crimea for Turkey.19 The Russian officers, Struve included, were sent to Gallipoli, where they were cared for by relief agencies. Struve eventually obtained permission to go to Constantinople to look for work. During Struve's year and a half in Turkey, he ate at soup kitchens and worked at whatever jobs he could find. For some time he and other fellow Russian ex-officers worked as lumberjacks, sleeping six to a tent. One night during a severe thunderstorm, a tent nearby was hit by lightning and all of its occupants were killed. Enter fate. Edwin Frost, director of Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, had written to Struve. We read in Frost's autobiography that it was by mere chance that

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 his letter reached Struve. Struve was sitting on a park bench when another Russian ex-officer walked by. The other officer had opened the letter, hoping that it contained money. Instead, it was an offer of a job in America.20 Struve himself told this story many times, but under careful scrutiny the long arm of coincidence is much shorter. On December 25, 1920, the director of the Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory, Paul Guthnick, had written to Frost, relating the sad case of the Struve clan.21 Hermann Struve, Guthnick's predecessor, had died on August 12. Ludwig Struve, having fled the war-torn Ukraine, had died in Simferopol on November 4. The younger of Otto's sisters had drowned, and Otto's brother had died of tuberculosis. Otto's mother had a position at the University of Simferopol. Another sister was with the mother, but it was impossible for Otto to communicate with them.22 As Frost had been willing to try to obtain a position for Ludwig or Otto previously,23 could Frost try again for the young Otto? Thus asked Guthnick. On January 27, 1921, Frost wrote back to Guthnick to say he would do his best. There began months of sometimes daily activity on Frost's part to get Otto Struve to the United States. The famous job offer letter was sent by Frost on March 2, 1921,24 and received by Otto Struve on April 27.25 But Otto had already known that his situation was likely to change, as he had been in contact with Guthnick and his Aunt Eva in Berlin. On March 11, 1921, Struve wrote to Frost (in German) that he had heard of the job offer from Guthnick.26 On April 12, Struve wrote a curious letter to Frost in English words but with entirely German syntax, in which he thanked Frost again in advance for the job offer.27 Struve took the letter to the YMCA to make sure it said what he thought it did. There he met a man named Areson,

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 who came from southern Wisconsin, knew Yerkes Observatory, and also knew Frost. It is interesting to note what Frost said to others to strengthen the case for Otto Struve to enter the United States. To the president of the University of Chicago he wrote, "[Otto] is the son of the late professor of astronomy at Kharkov, and grandson and great-grandson of the two greatest astronomers of Russia, Otto and Wilhelm Struve. I am perfectly willing to take him on his lineage."28 We regard Otto Struve as a first-class spectroscopist and astrophysicist. But in the letter of March 11, 1921, he says this to Frost: I feel it is my duty to confess openly that I am only marginally familiar with the area of astronomical spectral analysis and that I practically have never worked in that area. Should this prove to be no hindrance to my appointment at Chicago [for the position of assistant for stellar spectroscopy], I would gladly answer your call. Thus, Struve's training in astrophysics was almost entirely at the University of Chicago. It took all spring and summer to arrange for Struve's visa and passage to the United States. He arrived in New York on October 7, 1921. 29 Three days later he arrived in Williams Bay,30 wearing not the tattered Russian officer's uniform he had had on the ship, but an outfit he had bought at a flea market in New York, consisting of orange shoes, purple trousers, and a green jacket. 15,31 YERKES YEARS Struve was to spend the next twenty-nine years associated with Yerkes Observatory. He obtained his Ph.D. in December 1923 from the University of Chicago, with a dissertation on short-period spectroscopic binaries, and subsequently became instructor (1924), assistant professor (1927),

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 and associate professor (1930), and on July 1, 1932, he succeeded Frost as director. Struve became an American citizen in 1927.13 Otto's mother came by ship to the United States in early 1925. As Frost tells it: When I realized that her steamer would be crossing the line of totality of the eclipse of January 24, 1925, I prepared quite an elaborate document appointing her commissioner on the high seas of the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago. I forwarded this to the chief officials of the steamship company in Hamburg and received from the commodore of the fleet the assurance that Madame Struve would have every opportunity to observe the eclipse. At the critical moment, with due ceremony, the captain escorted her to the bridge in spite of the fact that there was a snowstorm at the time.32 There is no account of the elder of Otto's sisters, who had been with Madame Struve in Simferopol. Presumably, she died between 1921 and 1925.33 Otto Struve married Mary Martha Lanning in May 1925. According to Chandrasekhar, it was her second marriage.34 For three years prior to this, Mary had worked as a secretary at Yerkes. (Thus, she knew about observatory business.) "When [Mary] and Otto were first married they had such romantic feelings about their lives at Yerkes.... They skated on Lake Geneva in the wintertime while Otto sang Russian songs, very romantic songs to her."35 At one point Otto and Mary almost adopted a four-year-old boy, but apparently Mary then decided against it. In the 1950s Struve lamented that the biggest disappointment in his life was not to have had a child (one would presume a son) to whom to pass on the Struve legacy. 36 It is difficult to guess how the dynamics of Otto's marriage affected his scientific endeavors. Apparently, Mary enjoyed the status of being the wife of a famous observa-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 tory director, and she would go to McDonald Observatory with Otto for months at a time, where she would help him with his data reduction tasks by copying down numbers that Otto called out while his eye was glued to a microscope eyepiece as part of reducing spectra.37 Otto, Mary, and Madame Struve (Otto's mother) formed a triumvirate. They lived together essentially the entire thirty-eight years of Otto and Mary's marriage. Both Otto's wife and mother survived him, but only by a few years.38 Otto Struve's first published paper, in Russian, concerned "Aid to Russian Scientists."39 In the aftermath of the Russian Civil War, many people in Russia were starving. Frost, Struve, and George van Biesbroeck served as the Committee for Relief to Russian Astronomers.40 Packages of food and clothing were sent to Russian astronomers in many cities. The funds came from astronomers and their families all across the United States. Struve's scientific publications begin in 1923. The previous autumn the American Astronomical Society had met at Yerkes Observatory. Struve presented a paper on the spectroscopic binary 13y Ursae Minoris, and the two-page abstract was published in Popular Astronomy. Struve's publication list grew at an average rate of twenty-two items per year, reaching a total of at least 907 items.41 This places him near the top of astronomical productivity,42 as measured by the total number of published items. (Thus, it is difficult to do justice to Struve's work in an article of this length.) About half of Struve's papers were what we call technical contributions. He published thirty-nine articles (and ten other items) in Popular Astronomy (1923-51), 154 in Sky and Telescope (1942-63), and eighty-three reviews of books and other astronomers' work. His popular articles kept many astronomers, both amateur and professional, abreast of the rapidly developing field of twentieth century astronomy and astrophysics.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 Struve's most important work was published in several books and in the Astrophysical Journal, the premier research journal of astrophysics, which Struve edited from 1932 to 1947. According to my count, there were 223 such papers. As a junior astronomer, Struve collaborated on projects with the more senior Yerkes astronomers. There were seven papers with G. van Biesbroeck containing positional measurements of asteroids (1923-28). With Frost and Storrs Barrett, he published "Radial Velocities of 368 Helium Stars" in 1926, and with the same coauthors, "Radial Velocities of 500 Stars of Spectral Class A" in 1929.43 Such velocity data on stars allowed the determination of the sun's motion in the local portion of the galaxy. Also, the data bank of spectra with sufficient resolution to allow radial velocity measurements was also a data bank for Struve's subsequent work on the "peculiarities'' of stellar spectra. One of Struve's early and ongoing interests was interstellar calcium, whose presence was known from the absorption lines in the spectra of many stars. It is now well known that most stellar atmospheres have about the same composition, but that the presence or absence of certain spectral lines is due to the pressure and temperature in these atmospheres. One of Struve's most important contributions to stellar spectroscopy involved the observed widths of spectral lines. These are affected by the abundances of the elements, broadening due to the rotation of the stars, and the effect of electric fields on the atoms (the Stark effect). The resulting widths (or dispersions) add quadratically: Struve noted in a 1929 paper that it was R. d'E. Atkinson who, in 1922, first considered Stark broadening in stellar spectra. Theoretical analyses by E. O. Hurlbert, H. N. Russell,

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 and J. Q. Stewart, and then M. Vasnecov, led to predictions of a measurable effect, a broadening of 1 Å for the sun, but 42 Å for a Lyrae, a much hotter star. Cecilia Payne had noted the Stark effect in actual spectra in 1925,44 but it was Struve and C. T. Elvey (one of his two principal collaborators in the 1930s) who published the first proof. They investigated the widths of spectral lines in hot B and A stars and found that neutral atoms of low atomic weight show wider lines than the heavier atoms. They found that stars with narrow lines were more luminous than stars of the same spectral subdivision with broad lines, in agreement with theory. Theory stipulated, however, that hydrogen lines should increase in width due to Stark broadening from Hß to He, and the observed increase was less than expected. With the Russian astronomer G. A. Shajn, Struve showed, in 1929, that B- and A-type stars rotate much faster than the cooler G, K, and M stars. The hot stars can have equatorial rotation speeds in excess of 200 kilometers per second. By comparison, the sun's value is 2 kilometers per second. This led Struve to conjecture that rapidly rotating stars could fission into rapidly revolving close binaries, or perhaps rapidly revolving close binaries might fuse into rapidly rotating single stars. Because stellar spectral lines contain information on abundance, rotation, and the Stark effect, one must try to separate their relative contributions. Struve states that the rotational dispersion can be separated statistically in short-period binaries. The dispersion due to abundance is best investigated in cooler stars (for which the Stark effect is small). Pinning down the Stark component involves a strong combination of theory and high dispersion observations of stars, something Struve specialized in. A fourth contributing factor to the stellar spectral lines is turbulence in the stellar atmospheres. In 1934 Struve

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 refers to a six-year-old sister of Otto dying in 1919, and refers to Otto's brother Werner and another sister. 34. S. Chandrasekhar, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, October 6, 1987, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 20. 35. Naomi Greenstein, "Reminiscences of Otto and Mary Struve," cassette tape monologue of January 21, 1988, as suggested by a list of questions prepared by Kevin Krisciunas. American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project. 36. Letter of Donald E. Osterbrock to Kevin Krisciunas, July 9, 1988. Osterbrock attributes this to Su-Shu Huang, who worked with Struve in Berkeley. 37. Interview of Paul and Helen Jose, Fort Davis, Texas, January 15, 1988, by Kevin Krisciunas and James Sweitzer. The Joses did graduate work in astronomy at the University of Michigan in the early 1930s. Paul Jose worked at McDonald Observatory in the late 1940s and the 1950s. They still own the Struves' incredibly long dining room table and eleven of the original twelve chairs, which Mary and Otto Struve had at House A at the observatory. More on Paul Jose is to be found in Evans and Mulholland's book (note 45). 38. Otto's mother died on October 1, 1964, at the age of ninety. Mary Struve was discovered to have died on August 5, 1966. The estimated date of death was July 19. The cause of her (natural) death could not be determined. (Death certificates obtained from the Alameda County, California, recorder.) I am told by a number of sources that after World War II Mary Struve was very much a recluse. 39. Dernières Nouvelles (Paris), No. 614, 1922, in Russian. 40. Materials pertaining to the Astronomers Relief Committee were obtained from the Yerkes Observatory Archives. 41. The most complete published list is by A. Unsöld in Mitteilungen der Astronomischen Gesellschaft (1963, pp. 5-22), which lists 444 papers and abstracts, with references to data published in Harvard Cards, and observatory reports. However, in the Bancroft Library at Berkeley there is Struve's own list compiled in early 1962, which is 876 items long. We must subtract two from that list because they are errata, and four more because they are the second halves of articles published in Sky and Telescope. But we must add three books, twenty-one items in Unsöld's list, one from Popular Astronomy, and twelve articles from Sky and Telescope (May 1962 to April 1963),

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 hence the number 907. About 8 percent of these are abstracts and observatory reports. 42. The most prolific astronomer, according to the number of published items, was Ernst Öpik (1893-1985), who published 1,094 items. Letter of John McFarland, librarian at Armagh Observatory, to K. Krisciunas, February 27, 1986. 43. Full references to Struve's published work are included in the selected bibliography at the end of this memoir. 44. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, An Autobiography and Other Recollections, ed. Katherine Haramundanis. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984):169. 45. David S. Evans and J. Derral Mulholland, Big and Bright: A History of the McDonald Observatory (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986). 46. Bengt Strömgren, interview by Lillian Hoddeson and Gordon Baym, May 6 and 13, 1976, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, pp. 26, 46. 47. W. W. Morgan, interview by David DeVorkin, August 8-9, 1978, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 13. 48. E. A. Milne, "On the Award of the Gold Medal to Professor Otto Struve, Director of the Yerkes and McDonald Observatories," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 194 (1944):112-20, p. 117. One is reminded of the twentieth century Indian mathematician Ramanujan, for whom "every positive integer was one of his personal friends." See James R. Newman, "Srinivasa Ramanujan,'' in The World of Mathematics, ed. James R. Newman (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956):368-376, p. 375. 49. Otto Struve and Velta Zebergs, Astronomy of the 20th Century (New York and London: Macmillan, 1962):305-12. 50. Margherita Hack, "Epsilon Aurigae," Scientific American (October 1984):89-105. See also 1982-1984 Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae, ed. Robert E. Stencel (Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1985), NASA Conference Publication 2384. 51. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, p. 9. 52. G. H. Herbig, "Introduction: A Personal and Scientific Appreciation of Otto Struve," in Spectroscopic Astrophysics: An Assessment of the Contributions of Otto Struve, ed. G. H. Herbig. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970):1-3, p. 2. 53. W. W. Morgan, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, October 7, 1987.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 54. S. Chandrasekhar, interview by Spencer Weart, May 17-18, 1977, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 70. 55. Jesse Greenstein, "Otto Struve," cassette tape monologue [July] 1988, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 6. 56. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, pp. 14-15. 57. W. H. McCrea, "Clustering of Astronomers," Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 25 (1987):1-22, p. 13. 58. J. B. Hearnshaw, The Analysis of Starlight: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Astronomical Spectroscopy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986):337. 59. Morgan interview, 1978, note 47, p. 13. 60. Evans and Mulholland, note 45, p. 31. See also Ciel et Terre (1934):97-100 and (1935):170. 61. Struve had wanted Strömgren to come for three years, but they agreed that it would be half that. It was agreed from the start to be a temporary appointment. Strömgren interview, 1976, note 46, pp. 29, 48. 62. David H. DeVorkin, "The Maintenance of a Scientific Institution: Otto Struve, the Yerkes Observatory, and Its Optical Bureau during the Second World War," Minerva 18 (Winter 1980):595-623. 63. Otto Struve, "Cooperation in Astronomy," Scientific Monthly 50 (1940):142-47; DeVorkin, note 62, pp. 603-4; Evans and Mulholland, note 45, pp. 98-100. 64. Leo Goldberg, "The Founding of Kitt Peak," Sky and Telescope, 65 (March 1983):228-32. 65. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, p. 25. 66. After his success in building the 100-inch telescope at Mount Wilson, Hale gave up the directorship in 1922. W. S. Adams succeeded him in this role, but as the person in charge of operations. Hale continued on as "honorary director in charge of policy." See Helen Wright, Explorer of the University: A Biography of George Ellery Hale (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1966):345. 67. Chandrasekhar interview, 1977, note 54, p. 71. 68. Sarah Kuiper Lansberg, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, January 16, 1988. 69. Cowling, note 14, p. 292. 70. Otto Struve to Mary Struve, January 5, 1949, Bancroft Library. 71. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, p. 26.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 72. A. van Hoof, "The Beta Canis Majoris Stars," in Herbig, note 52, pp. 343-63, 361. 73. Ruth S. Freitag to Kevin Krisciunas, February 23, 1988. 74. A. I. Slastenov, Astronomy at the University of Khar'kov over 150 Years (in Russian) (Khar'kov: Khar'kovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta imeni A. M. Gor'kogo, 1955):64-66, p. 64. See also Vladimir Kourganoff, "Otto Struve: Scientist and Humanist," Sky and Telescope, 75 (April 1988):379-81; and Kevin Krisciunas, "More About Otto Struve," Sky and Telescope 76 (September 1988):229-30. Let us consider the grammatical structure of the first sentence of the quote ". . having betrayed his native land, he went abroad and settled in the USA." Given the temporal ordering of these three clauses, "having betrayed his native land" came before his emigration, and so it must refer to Struve's activity as an officer in the White Russian Army. (I thank Prof. Kourganoff for his help in clarifying the original Russian.) 75. Death certificate obtained from Alameda County, California, recorder. 76. Beverly T. Lynds, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, August 12, 1988. 77. David S. Heeschen, letter to K. Krisciunas, August 12, 1988. The 300-foot transit telescope at NRAO met its demise on November 15, 1988. See Gerrit L. Verschuur, "Reminiscences of the 300-Foot," Sky and Telescope, 77 (March 1989):252-53. 78. Otto Struve to I. I. Rabi, October 31, 1961, Bancroft Library. 79. S. Chandrasekhar, "Otto Struve. 1897-1963," Astrophysical Journal, 139 (February 15, 1964):423. 80. Sky and Telescope, 68 (October 1984):312. 81. Bart J. Bok, "Otto Struve Memorial Symposium," Sky and Telescope, 32 (August 1966):68-71. 82. M. Hack, ed., Modern Astrophysics: A Memorial to Otto Struve (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, and New York: Gordon and Breach, 1967). 83. A. H. Batten, ed., Extended Atmospheres and Circumstellar Matter in Spectroscopic Binary Systems (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1973). IAU Symposium 51 (Struve Memorial Symposium). 84. See G. H. Gerbig, ed., note 52. 85. J. Greenstein, note 55, p. 4. 86. J. Greenstein, note 55, pp. 4-5.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1922 Aid to Russian scientists (in Russian). Dernières Nouvelles ( Paris), no. 614. 1923 On the spectroscopic binary 13 y Ursae Minoris. Pop. Astron. 38:90-91. Notes on two stars having variable bright lines. Astrophys. J. 58:138-40. On the double star 9 Argus. Astrophys. J. 58:141-48. 1924 On the nature of spectroscopic binaries of short period. Astrophys. J. 60:167-74. 1925 On the calcium clouds. I. Pop. Astron. 33:639-53. 1926 On the calcium clouds. II. Pop. Astron. 34:1-14. With E. B. Frost and S. B. Barrett. Radial velocities of 368 helium stars. A study of the nature of spectroscopic binaries. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 86:63-76. A study of spectroscopic binaries of short period. Abstr. Theses: Univ. Chicago Sci. Ser. 1923-24 2:57-60. With G. Struve. The facts concerning Otto Struve's work on ξ Cancri ( 1840-75). J. R. Astron. Soc. Canada 20:87-92. Review of "Stellar atmospheres," by C. H. Payne. Astrophys. J. 64:204-8. 1927 Interstellar calcium. Astrophys. J. 65:163-99. An unusual spectroscopic binary (27 Canis Majoris). Astrophys. J. 65:273-85. On the period of 27 Canis Majoris. Astrophys. J. 66:113-21. 1928 Further work on interstellar calcium. Astrophys. J. 67:353-90.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 1929 With B. P. Gerasimovich. Physical properties of a gaseous substratum of the Galaxy. Astrophys. J. 69:7-33 . The Stark effect in stellar spectra. Astrophys. J. 69:173-95 . Pressure effects in stellar spectra. Astrophys. J. 70:85-104 . The Stark effect as a means of determining comparative absolute magnitudes Astrophys. J. 70:237-42 . With G. A. Shajn. On the rotation of the stars. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 89:222-39 . The determination of stellar distances from the intensities of the detached calcium line K Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 89:567-89 . With E. B. Frost and S. B. Barrett. Radial velocities of 500 stars of spectral class A. Publ. Yerkes Obs. 7:1-79 . 1930 With C. T. Elvey. Preliminary results of spectrographic observations of 7 ε Aurigae. Astrophys. J. 71:136-49 . On the axial rotation of stars. Astrophys. J. 72:1-18 . With C. T. Elvey. A study of stellar hydrogen lines and their relation to the Stark effect. Astrophys. J. 72:277-300 . With A. Unsöld and C. T. Elvey. Zur Deutung der interstellaren Calciumlinien. Z. Astrophys. 1:314-25 . 1931 A study of the spectra of B-type stars. Astrophys. J. 74:225-67 . With C. T. Elvey. Algol and stellar rotation. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 91:663-75 . 1932 With P. Swings. On the interpretation of the emission lines in stars of early spectral class. Astrophys. J. 75:161-84 . 1933 The problem of classifying stellar spectra. Astrophys. J. 78:73-86 . 1934 With P. C. Keenan, and J. A. Hynek. Color temperatures of B-type stars and Rayleigh scattering. Astrophys. J. 79:1-7 . With C. T. Elvey. The intensities of stellar absorption lines. Astrophys. J. 79:409-40 .

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 1935 The spectrum of P Cygni. Astrophys. J. 81:66-96 . A test of thermodynamic equilibrium in the atmospheres of early-type stars. Astrophys. J. 82:252-67 . Freedom of thought in astronomy. Sci. Mon. 40:250-56 . Some new trends in stellar spectroscopy. Pop. Astron. 43:483-96, 559-68, 628-39 . (Reprinted with additions in Astronomy of the 20th Century , 1962.) Letter to the editor. Ciel Terre 51:170 . 1936 With C. T. Elvey. Photometric observations of some of Barnard's dark nebulae Astrophys. J. 83:162-72 . With H. Story. The scattering of light in diffuse nebulae. Astrophys. J. 84:203-18 . With C. T. Elvey and F. E. Roach. Reflection nebulae. Astrophys. J. 84:219-28 . 1937 On the interpretation of the surface brightness of diffuse galactic nebulae. Astrophys. J. 85:194-212 . With G. P. Kuiper and B. Strömgren. The interpretation of ε Aurigae. Astrophys. J. 86:570-612 . 1938 With G. van Biesbroeck and C. T. Elvey. The 150-foot nebular spectrograph of the McDonald Observatory. Astrophys. J. 87:559-67 . With K. Wurm. The excitation of absorption lines in outer atmospheric shells of stars. Astrophys. J. 88:84-109 . Edwin Brant Frost, 1866-1935. In Biographical Memoirs , vol. 29, pp. 25-51 . New York: Columbia University for the National Academy of Sciences The observation and interpretation of stellar absorption lines. Pop. Astron. 46:431-51, 497-509 . La constitution des nébuleuses par réflexion. Ann. Astrophys. 1:143-72 . 1939 With C. T. Elvey. Observations made with the nebular spectrograph of the McDonald Observatory Astrophys. J. 89:119-24 and 89:517-25

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 With C. T. Elvey and W. Linke. Observations made with the nebular spectrograph of the McDonald Observatory. III. Astrophys. J. 90:301-308 . The ultraviolet spectra of A and B stars. Astrophys. J. 90:699-726 . Stars with extended atmospheres. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 81:211-51 . The dedication of McDonald Observatory. Science 89:493-99 . 1940 With P. Swings. Spectrographic observations of peculiar stars. Astrophys. J. 91:546-620 . Cooperation in astronomy. Sci. Mon. 50:142-47 . 1941 With P. Swings. The evolution of a peculiar stellar spectrum: Andromedae (with a note on IC 4997). Astrophys. J. 93:356-67 . With P. Swings. Spectrographic observations of peculiar stars. II. Astrophys. J. 94:291-319 . The constitution of diffuse matter in interstellar space. (Joseph Henry lecture at Washington Philosophical Society, March 29, 1941.) J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 31:217-58 . 1942 Extended stellar atmospheres: A review of the problems of gaseous shells. Astrophys. J. 95:134-51 . With P. Swings. Spectrographic observations of peculiar stars. III. Astrophys. J. 95:152-60 . With P. Swings. Spectrographic observations of peculiar stars. IV. Astrophys. J. 96:254-71 . The Poulkovo Observatory. Sky Telesc. 1:3-4, 19 . 1943 With P. Swings. Spectrographic observations of peculiar stars. V. Astrophys. J. 97:194-225 . With P. Swings. Spectrographic observations of peculiar stars. VI. Astrophys. J. 98:91-7 With P. Swings. The spectrum of a α2Canum Venaticorum. Astrophys. J. 98:361-497 . Fifty years of progress in astronomy. Pop. Astron. 51:469-81 . The W. J. McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 55:123-35 .

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 1944 The spectrographic problem of U Cephei. Astrophys. J. 99:222-38 . Recent progress in the interpretation of stellar spectra. Rev. Mod. Phys. 16:286-300 . 1945 Spectrographic observations of 13 eclipsing binaries. Astrophys. J. 102:74-127 . With P. Swings. Spectrographic observations of peculiar stars. VII. Astrophys. J. 102:224-31 . The cosmogonical significance of stellar rotation. Pop. Astron. 53:201-18, 259-76 . 1946 The effect of diluted stellar radiation upon the spectra of astronomical objects. Physica 12:739-60 . 1947 With G. A. Shajn. The absorption continuum in the violet region of the spectra of carbon stars. Astrophys. J. 106:86-91 . The story of an observatory. Pop. Astron. 55:227-44, 283-94 . 1948 J. S. Plaskett's star of large mass, HD47129. Astrophys. J. 107:327-36 . Whirlpools of gas around binary systems. (Bruce Medal lecture.) Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 60:160-73 . The scientific work of Dr. Joel Stebbins. Pop. Astron. 56:287-95 . 1949 With M. Rudkjøbing. Stellar spectra with emission lines in the obscuring clouds of Ophiuchus and Scorpius. Astrophys. J. 109:92-4 . Spectroscopic binaries. (George Darwin lecture.) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 109:487-506 . 1950 Stellar Evolution: An Exploration from the Observatory . (The 1949 Lewis Clark Vanuxem Lectures.) Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1951 The analysis of stellar spectra. In Astrophysics: A Topical Symposium Commemorating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Yerkes Observatory and a

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 Half Century of Progress in Astrophysics , ed. J. A. Hynek, pp. 85-144 . New York: McGraw-Hill. 1952 Award of the Bruce Gold Medal to Dr. S. Chandrasekhar. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 64:55-61 . The present state of our knowledge of the ß Canis Majoris or ß Cephei stars. Ann. Astrophys. 15:157-68 . What I don't know about flying saucers. The Griffith Observer 16:138-40 . 1953 With S.-S. Huang. A study of line profiles: the spectrum of p Leonis. Astrophys. J. 118:463-76 . 1954 With S.-S. Huang. Stellar rotation. Ann. Astrophys. 17:85-93 . Evoliгutsiгa Zvezd-Dannye Nablгudenii i ikh Istolkovanie. (Translation by A. G. Massevich of 1950 book Stellar Evolution: An Exploration from the Observatory.) Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Inostr. Liter. 285 pp . Lomonosov. Sky Telesc. 13:118-20 . 1955 Can we hope to detect evolutionary changes of single stars? Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 67:29-33 . The International Astronomical Union. (Address by the President at the opening of the IAU at the Ninth General Assembly in Dublin, August 29, 1955.) Sky Telesc. 14:492-95 . (Also, Trans. Int. Astron. Union 9(1957):11-16.) 1956 Epsilon Aurigae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 68:27-37 . 1957 About a Russian astronomer. Sky Telesc. 16:379-81 . ''The royal road to success": Henry Norris Russell ( 1877-1957 ). Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 69:223-26 . 1958 With J. Sahade and S.-S. Huang. Plaskett's star, HD 47129. Astrophys. J. 127:148-59 . With S.-S. Huang. Spectroscopic binaries. Handb. Phys. 50:243-73 .

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 The Astronomical Universe . Eugene, Oregon: Oregon State System of Higher Education. 55 pp . The problem of ß Lyrae. (Henry Norris Russell lecture at American Astronomy Society meeting, Urbana, Illinois, August 1956.) Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 70:5-40 . G. A. Shajn and Russian astronomy. Sky Telesc. 17:272-74 . Some possible evidence of evolution in individual stars. Sky Telesc. 18:74-76, 86 . 1959 Footnote to history. Science 129:60 . With B. Lynds and H. Pillans. Elementary Astronomy . New York: Oxford University Press. 396 pp . Reflections of a spectroscopist. Sky Telesc. 19:7-10 . 1960 With R. M. Emberson and J. W. Findlay. The 140-foot radio telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 72:439-58 . With S.-S. Huang. Stellar rotation and atmospheric turbulence. In Stellar Atmospheres , vol. 6 , Stars and Stellar Systems , ed. J. L. Greenstein, pp. 321-368 . Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. 1962 The Universe . (Karl Taylor Compton 1959 lectures.) Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 159 pp . With V. Zebergs. Astronomy of the 20th Century . New York and London: Macmillan. 544 pp. 1963 Comments on stellar spectra. Astrophys. J. 137:1306-8 . 1969 With M. Hack. Stellar Spectroscopy: Normal Stars . Trieste, Italy: Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste. 203 pp. 1970 With M. Hack. Stellar Spectroscopy: Peculiar Stars . Trieste, Italy: Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste. 317 pp. (These last two volumes, which I have counted as a single item in Struve's publication list, came from a manuscript originally completed by Struve in 1962. The work was revised by Margherita Hack and includes material as recent as 1968.)