Appendix B
Cases in Guatemala

CASES PRESENTED ON MISSION

This section of Appendix B presents the information presented by the delegates on cases of scientists, engineers, health professionals, and students of these fields who have disappeared or who have been murdered, in some instances following their abduction. For each case, the facts of the case as presented to officials during the mission to Guatemala appear first, followed by background information and additional details obtained during and after the mission.

Our information was obtained from relatives of the victims, government authorities, international organizations, and human rights groups. The following acronyms are used: AEU, University of San Carlos Students' Association; USAC, University of San Carlos; AI, Amnesty International.

Political Killings

DANILO SERGIO ALVARADO MEJIA: 32-year-old agronomist, professor at the University Center of Western Guatemala (a regional branch in Quetzaltenango of USAC), former director of the University Center's Students' Association; abducted on October 17, 1987; body recovered on October 23, 1987, with stab wounds; public protests reportedly were made following his murder.

Mr. Alvarado was married and had three children. He was the former



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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation Appendix B Cases in Guatemala CASES PRESENTED ON MISSION This section of Appendix B presents the information presented by the delegates on cases of scientists, engineers, health professionals, and students of these fields who have disappeared or who have been murdered, in some instances following their abduction. For each case, the facts of the case as presented to officials during the mission to Guatemala appear first, followed by background information and additional details obtained during and after the mission. Our information was obtained from relatives of the victims, government authorities, international organizations, and human rights groups. The following acronyms are used: AEU, University of San Carlos Students' Association; USAC, University of San Carlos; AI, Amnesty International. Political Killings DANILO SERGIO ALVARADO MEJIA: 32-year-old agronomist, professor at the University Center of Western Guatemala (a regional branch in Quetzaltenango of USAC), former director of the University Center's Students' Association; abducted on October 17, 1987; body recovered on October 23, 1987, with stab wounds; public protests reportedly were made following his murder. Mr. Alvarado was married and had three children. He was the former

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation leader of the university's Association of Agronomy Students of Western Guatemala. At the time of his abduction, he was working for the General Office of Agricultural Services (DIGESA), a government agency in Escuintla. His family reportedly filed a writ of habeas corpus in his behalf. Mr. Alvarado was reportedly beaten and abducted by armed men in plain clothes in front of witnesses on October 17, 1987, as he was driving his motorcycle between Quetzaltenango and Totonicapan. He was taken away in a Corinth pick-up truck. His stabbed body was reportedly found on October 23, 1987, on the Pacific Highway in the department of Suchitepéquez, by an agronomist and regional director of Sector 4 of DIGESA. AI reports that after the killings of Mr. Alvarado and fellow agronomist René Haroldo Leiva Cayax, whose body was found on the same day as Mr. Alvarado's and whose name also appears on this list, the Guatemalan press stated that the entire Quetzaltenango police force was transferred elsewhere. Because the police force was no longer in the area, it was extremely difficult for independent groups to investigate the crimes. The then minister of the interior, Lic. Juan Rodil, reportedly announced in December 1987 that the chief of police of Quetzaltenango at the time of the murders and five of his police agents had been arrested for the crimes. It was not possible to ascertain where they were being held, but Lic. Rodil said that further information would be made public after the initial 15 days of judicial inquiry. According to AI, further information was never made available, and AI was not able to verify whether the police officers were in fact in detention. Staff of the office of the ombudsman for human rights told an AI delegation in 1988 that ''the death of those agronomists was political although the government has said that it was not.'' They also said that following the men's abductions, a police car stained with blood was found. AI reports that a former high-level official in the National Police told AI's 1988 delegation that the arrested police officers were not responsible for the killings. The official said that police intelligence officers had told him that the agronomists' deaths were ordered by the army. AI also reports that one of the people who witnessed Mr. Alvarado's abduction testified that, at his wake, she recognized a known army informant and the two men who had abducted him. According to the office of the ombudsman for human rights, the perpetrators of the Alvarado murder were policemen. They were tried, convicted, and sentenced to 30 years' imprisonment. However, the sentences were appealed in 1990, and the policemen were released. AI reports that agronomy students as well as staff and graduates of USAC have been targeted by the security forces because "the [USAC] School of Agronomy has frequently been critical of government land policies and has been involved in attempts to organize peasants."

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation SYLVIA MARIA AZURDIA UTRERA: 33-year-old psychologist and student of political science at USAC, member of AEU; abducted on August 23, 1989, together with her husband, Victor Hugo Rodriguez Jaramillo; petitions of habeas corpus were filed; bodies recovered on September 10, 1989, with stab wounds and signs of torture. Ms. Azurdia and her husband were among seven AEU members abducted at the end of August 1989. They reportedly were abducted outside their home in Zone 11 of Guatemala City at 7:00 a.m. on August 23, 1989, as they were leaving for work at USAC. The abduction, which was witnessed by neighbors and family members, was carried out by 8–12 heavily armed men in plain clothes, driving two cars. Witnesses reportedly stated that the perpetrators displayed their arms, but passing police patrols made no effort to impede the abduction. The bodies of Ms. Azurdia, her husband, and two other USAC students were reportedly found on September 10, 1989, approximately 200 meters from the entrance of USAC in Zone 12 of Guatemala City. The couple were reportedly beaten until unconscious before being taken away. Neighbors gave police the license numbers of the red Nissan and the black pick-up truck used in the abduction, which they said had been parked in the area since 5:00 a.m. AI reported that, according to human rights groups in Guatemala, these vehicles as well as the arms and clothing used by the kidnappers were of the type customarily used by the G-2, the intelligence unit of the Guatemalan army. FERNANDO ANTONIO CASTELLON MORALES: 21-year-old medical student at the USAC School of Pharmacy; abducted on November 16, 1988; body recovered November 17, 1988, with bullet wounds, burn marks, and signs of strangulation. Mr. Castellón reportedly was abducted in Guatemala City by heavily armed men in plain clothes on November 16, 1988, after leaving his home to take a final examination at USAC. His body, riddied with bullets, burn marks, and signs of torture and strangulation, was reportedly found the following day in the village of Pachúl, Sacatepéquez, Antigua, on the road to San Lucas. His father, Manuel Antonio Castellón España, was a candidate in the mayoral primaries in Chiquimula. CARLOS LEONEL CHUTA CAMEY: 31-year-old economics student at USAC, former leader of AEU during 1987–1988; abducted on September 8, 1989; body recovered on September 10, 1989, with stab wounds and signs of torture. At the time of his abduction, Mr. Chuta was in his eighth semester of economics studies at USAC. He was an AEU leader in 1987–1988.

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation Mr. Chuta reportedly was abducted outside his home at 7:40 a.m. on September 8, 1989, by five armed men in civilian clothes driving a white Toyota. It has been reported that his abductors threw his wife, who was seven months pregnant, and his infant daughter to the ground. Mr. Chuta's body, along with those of three other USAC disappeared students, was found on September 10, 1989, approximately 200 meters from USAC in Zone 12 of Guatemala City. The bodies were apparently all found within one meter of each other, bearing stab wounds and signs of torture. CARLOS ALBERTO GARRIDO YAEGGY: 34-year-old agronomist, employed by the Compañía Bananera de Guatemala, a native of Mazatenango; body recovered on January 20, 1991, inside a pick-up truck with license plate number P254473 on a dirt road leading to Playitas, Puerto Barrios, Izabal; the body had multiple gunshot wounds. Mr. Garrido, who was married and had a 4-year-old son, reportedly was abducted while on his way home to Playitas from his job in Puerto Barrios. His body was recovered on January 20, 1991, inside his pick-up truck on a dirt road leading from Puerto Barrios to the town of Playitas. He was found with a bullet wound in the right side of his face. Following the recovery of the body, it was reported in the Guatemalan press that five other people were killed in a similar fashion and the security forces were investigating the murders. JOSE ALBINO GRIJALVA ESTEVEZ: 27-year-old agronomist, former student at USAC who returned to Guatemala from exile; abducted on February 16, 1988, by men in a white van with darkened windows; body recovered on February 17, 1988, with signs of torture; his case and cases of others also abducted in a white van were investigated, several treasury police agents were arrested but were later "released for lack of evidence." Mr. Grijalva reportedly was abducted on February 16, 1988, in Zone 7 of Guatemala City, as he waited for a bus to USAC. Witnesses reported that his captors were heavily armed men in plain clothes driving a white van with darkened windows, license plate number P156022. His body was found the following day in the department of Santa Rosa. Mr. Grijalva's death and that of Ana Elizabeth Paniagua Morales (whose name also appears on this list) are considered to be among a group of deaths known as the "Pañel Blanca" (white van) murders. According to AI, a number of students and graduates of USAC as well as others have been extrajudicially executed following their abduction by men driving a white van. AI reported that on March 10, 1988, the then minister of the interior, Juan Rodil, announced that the National Police had stopped a white van as it was about to be used to kidnap its next victim. In it, they reportedly found six uniformed treasury police agents assigned to the narcotics divi-

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation sion of the Treasury Police. They reportedly had with them lists of other intended victims. The treasury police agents allegedly resisted arrest, but were taken to a National Police station. The National Police Special Investigations and Drugs Brigade (BIEN) reportedly presented 300 pages of documentation implicating some 10 treasury police agents in at least 8 murders. According to the national police documentation, several vans were involved and between 20 and 30 different sets of license plates. In July 1988 extensive personnel changes were announced that delayed the investigations. On July 28, 1988, immediately after announcing that he had issued an order for the arrest of some 27 treasury police agents on charges of kidnapping and murder, the judge handling the investigation was abducted in Guatemala City and threatened for 52 hours before being released. Following his release, the judge declined to name those responsible. The case was then assigned to a different judge. On August 1, 1988, it was announced that the treasury police agents who had been accused had been released due to lack of evidence. ADRIAN GUERRA ROCA: agronomy student at USAC, leader of AEU; shot at several times and abducted on July 22, 1988; body recovered on the road to Palencia on July 27, 1988, with numerous gunshot wounds. Mr. Guerra reportedly was abducted late at night on July 22, 1988, while visiting a friend, Oscar Edmundo Monterroso, at his home in Guatemala City. (Mr. Monterroso was a law student at USAC and the AEU cultural and sports secretary.) In testimony made available to AI, Mr. Monterroso said he had received a series of death threats because of his AEU activities. He said his home was placed under surveillance and then attacked by men using weapons customarily used only by the army. During the attack, Mr. Guerra was reportedly abducted by 15 heavily armed men, some of whom wore military garb, and carried off in a Volkswagen with license plate number P261621. AI reported that children who witnessed the attack on Mr. Guerra said that a man in army uniform fired a round of shots from a sub-machine gun into his body, when he was lying on the ground, before taking him away. His friend, Oscar Monterroso, managed to flee his home. RENE HAROLDO LEIVA CAYAX: 29-year-old graduate student in agronomy at the University Center of Western Guatemala (a regional branch of USAC in Quetzaltenango), former leader of the University of Western Guatemala's Association of Agronomy Students; beaten, handcuffed, and abducted on October 19, 1987; body found on the Interamerican Highway in the department of Sololá on October 23, 1987; widespread student protests reportedly accused the National Police of his murder.

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation Mr. Leiva reportedly was abducted on October 19, 1987, near Central Park in Quetzaltenango by men driving a vehicle without license plates. For additional case information, see entry above on Danilo Sergio Alvarado Mejía. CARLOS ENRIQUE LEMUS ORELLANO: 22-year-old student at the USAC College of Veterinary Science and Zoology; shot on September 28, 1990, as he was driving to his home in Guatemala City; died of multiple gunshot wounds. EDUARDO ANTONIO LOPEZ PALENCIA: 24-year-old student in the faculty of Chemical Sciences and Pharmacy at USAC, a member of the executive commission of AEU in 1987–1988, and a representative of the Huelga de Dolores Committee in 1988 (an annual student event at USAC of satire and processions that often mocks the government in power); abducted on September 10, 1989, in Guatemala City; body found at the bottom of a ravine in Sanarate, El Progreso Department, on September 18, 1989; body had slash wounds and bore signs of severe torture. Mr. López reportedly disappeared around 5:30 p.m. on September 10, 1989, while he was with his girlfriend in Zone 1 of Guatemala City. According to unconfirmed reports, he was seized by two men on motorcycles. MYRNA ELIZABETH MACK CHANG: anthropologist, cofounder and senior researcher at the Guatemalan Association for the Advancement of Social Sciences (AVANCSO); died from multiple stab wounds on September 11, 1990, after leaving her workplace; case is under investigation and a former soldier in the Intelligence Branch of the Presidential High Command has been charged. Ms. Mack completed her graduate studies in England at the universities of Durham and Manchester. Through her work with AVANCSO, she collaborated with the Ford Foundation, ASDI (Swedish Development Authority), and Georgetown University, as well as a number of other organizations. She also participated in many academic conferences around the world. Ms. Mack specialized in rural studies and development policy. Immediately prior to her death, Georgetown University's Center for Immigration Policy and Refugee Assistance published AVANCSO's study on Policies Toward Internally Displaced Populations in Guatemala, for which Ms. Mack was the principal researcher. At the time of her death, she was involved in a project on the ecological impact of refugee policies in Guatemala—a project affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin and the University of California at Berkeley. On September 11, 1990, Ms. Mack was violently stabbed and killed after leaving the AVANCSO office in Guatemala City. Two police reports

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation were written in the months following her death. José Miguel Mérida Escobar, the head of the Homocide Section of the Guatemalan National Police Department of Criminal Investigation, led the investigation into Ms. Mack's death and wrote one of the police reports, naming former military officer Noel de Jesús Beteta Alvarez as one of the perpetrators of the crime. On August 5, 1991, Mr. Mérida was murdered near the National Police Headquarters in Guatemala City. In late 1991, Mr. Beteta was formally accused of the crime and extradited from the United States to Guatemala to stand trial. He is reportedly being held in a jail in Zone 18 of Guatemala City. Ms. Mack's case moved into the trial phase on August 20, 1992 (see Appendix D). ANA ELIZABETH PANIAGUA MORALES: 25-year-old former economics student at USAC, active member of AEU; beaten and abducted on February 9, 1988, by men in a white van with darkened windows; petition of habeas corpus was filed immediately; had received numerous death threats and had been shot at by men who abducted and killed her husband several years earlier; applied for asylum abroad; body recovered February 11, 1988; her case and cases of others also abducted in a white van were investigated, several treasury police agents were arrested but were later "released for lack of evidence." Ms. Paniagua reportedly was abducted early in the day on February 9, 1988, by heavily armed men in plain clothes. She was standing in line at a bakery when the men approached her. According to eyewitnesses who were too frightened to intervene, she was beaten and forced into a white van with darkened windows. Her family reportedly filed a writ of habeas corpus on her behalf immediately, but the Supreme Court rejected it because no official security force acknowledged having her in custody. Her body was found on February 11, 1988, with several stab wounds and a slashed throat. Several days after her death, security agents reportedly went to her family's home and threatened her brothers and sisters. The family reportedly went into exile shortly thereafter. In September 1983, Ms. Paniagua's husband, who was a doctor and USAC graduate, was abducted and has not been seen since then. Her sister-in-law was detained and killed in 1985. In 1986 Ms. Paniagua had reportedly applied for asylum abroad after receiving numerous death threats throughout the year. Due to delays in processing her application, however, she never learned that it had been accepted. In October 1987 she was held in incommunicado detention for 18 days by the Treasury Police after being stopped at a roadblock they had set up in the outskirts of Guatemala City. Following her disappearance, according to AI, the then minister of the interior, Juan Rodil, publicly condemned her and her entire family as "subversive." AI further reported that when her body was found, Rodil blamed

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation local human rights groups for what had happened to her, saying that they had not provided enough details about her "disappearance." For additional case information, see entry on Josí Albino Grijalva Estevez. VICTOR HUGO RODRIGUEZ JARAMILLO: 26-year-old psychologist and political science student at USAC, member of AEU; abducted on August 23, 1989, together with his wife, Sylvia María Azurdia Utrera; petitions of habeas corpus were filed immediately; bodies recovered on September 10, 1989, with stab wounds and signs of torture. For additional case information, see entry on Sylvia María Azurdia Utrera. FALCONIERI SARAVIA CASTILLO: agronomist; abducted on March 16, 1990; body recovered on April 1, 1990. Mr. Saravia's abductors were armed men. DIEGO VELASQUEZ AC: 29-year-old agronomy student at USAC, member of USAC staff, member of USAC staff labor union (STUSC); abducted on April 6, 1990; his wife reported his disappearance to the Mutual Support Group (GAM) which submitted an unsuccessful petition of habeas corpus in his behalf; body found some days later showing signs of torture. At the time of his death, Mr. Velásquez and his wife had six children, and his wife was pregnant with a seventh. Mr. Velásquez reportedly was last seen alive in Vía Nueva at noon on April 6, 1990. At 10:00 p.m. the same day his wrecked car was found at kilometer 44 on the Route to the Pacific, near Palín, Escuintla. According to a January 11, 1991, report written by Christian Tomuschat, an independent expert with the U.N. Commission on Human Rights, following his trip to Guatemala, Mr. Velásquez's body was found some days after his disappearance showing signs of torture. Mr. Tomuschat stated that it is "assumed that [he was] abducted by paramilitary gangs." Disappearances BENJAMIN DIAZ AREVALO: 22-year-old medical student at USAC. At the time of the mission, it was the delegates' understanding that Mr. Arévalo had been abducted on February 27, 1990. During the mission, however, the delegates were told by members of the office of the human rights ombudsman that Mr. Arévalo was never abducted or disappeared, but is living outside Guatemala.

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation CARLOS CONTRERAS CONDE: psychology student at USAC, leader of AEU; abducted on August 22, 1989; petition of habeas corpus was filed. Mr. Contreras was a member of the USAC Psychology Association and of the Management Council of the School of Psychology. He was among 11 university students abducted during the end of August and early September 1989. He was abducted on August 22, 1989, in the park in front of the university's psychology facility by armed men believed by AI to be members of the security forces. (The bodies of 4 of the 11 abducted students were found in September 1989, but Mr. Contreras' was not among them.) AI also reported that he was among a group of AEU members whose names appeared on the "death lists" issued in February 1989 by several Guatemalan "death squads." MARIO ARTURIO DE LEON MENDEZ: professor of mathematics and student of agronomy at USAC, member of executive commission of AEU; disappeared on August 23, 1989; petition of habeas corpus was filed. Mr. de León, who was a member of the executive commission of the AEU, was among 11 university students abducted during the end of August and early September 1989. He reportedly participated in a press conference at the AEU office on the evening of August 23, 1989. It is believed that the conference was held to denounce recent abductions of USAC students and staff. After the conference, he reportedly dropped off a fellow student at approximately 8:00 p.m. and drove in the direction of his home in Zone 21 of Guatemala City. He has not been seen since. According to AI, he may have been detained at a security checkpoint that he would have had to pass through to reach his home. AI also reported that he was among a group of AEU members whose names appeared on the "death lists" issued in February 1989 by several Guatemalan "death squads." An unsuccessful petition of habeas corpus was filed in his behalf. The bodies of 4 of the 11 students abducted were found in September 1989, but Mr. de León's was not among them. All of the bodies reportedly bore signs of torture. According to Bernardo Neumann, special assistant to President Serrano, every attempt to find conclusive evidence about de León's whereabouts was unsuccessful. He stated that out of a considerable number of inquiries that have been made into the cases of Mr. de León, Hugo Leonel Gramajo López, whose name also appears on this list, and others, inquiries into these two cases were the only ones without results. Mr. Neumann added that Mr. de León's case has been referred to the Presidential Commission on Human Rights for further investigation. EDGAR LEONEL DOMINGUEZ IZAS: doctor and surgeon at the Cantel Private Sanitorium (a clinic that assists the indigenous population in the

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation highlands), former student at USAC; abducted on March 28, 1984, in Cantel, Quetzaltenango; petition of habeas corpus was filed; his wife placed advertisements in national newspapers asking for her husband's reappearance. The Cantel Private Sanitorium is a clinic founded by a young indigenous doctor to assist the indigenous population in the highlands and staffed with persons of indigenous origin. Its founder reportedly left in March 1984 after receiving death threats from "death squads." Dr. Dominguez had been working at the clinic since February 1981. He had been a student at USAC and was married with three children. According to eyewitnesses, Dr. Dominguez was abducted by five uniformed and armed soldiers on March 28, 1984, 15 minutes after leaving the clinic where he worked in Cantel, Quetzaltenango. The car in which he was abducted was later found abandoned. In May 1984 AI reported that sources in Guatemala indicated that they believed Dr. Dominguez to be alive in a secret detention center but badly tortured. Dr. Dominguez's wife reportedly placed numerous advertisements in the national newspapers asking for the reappearance of her husband. Writs of habeas corpus, filed on his behalf, have not been successful. According to an August 22, 1984, letter written by the then Guatemalan ambassador to the United States, Federico Fahsen, to CHR chair Eliot Stellar, "your assertion that he [Dr. Dominguez] was picked up by members of the armed forces lacks credibility and is impossible to verify .... The Guatemalan government has launched an extensive investigation into the abduction of Dr. Dominguez Izas, and hopes that he will be freed by his abductors and returned safely to his family." It was reported that the former president of Guatemala, Oscar Mejía Víctores, agreed to establish a three-person committee in November 1984 to investigate disappearances that occurred in 1984. The committee members were reported to include the minister of the interior, the attorney general, and the deputy minister of defense. The CHR has not been able to obtain any further information about the case of Dr. Dominguez since that time. WALDEMAR DUARTE HERNANDEZ: agronomist; disappeared on April 26, 1986. Mr. Duarte reportedly disappeared at Finca Pataxte in the department of Izabal. JOSE MARIA GARCIA PORTILLO: engineer, mayor of Chiquimula; disappeared on August 10, 1986, while driving to Guatemala City; his family and the municipality of Chiquimula made many appeals for his reappearance.

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation IVAN ERNESTO GONZALEZ FUENTES: psychology student at USAC, member of coordinating executive of AEU; abducted on August 21, 1989; petition of habeas corpus was filed. At the time of his disappearance, Mr. González was also a representative of the Unified Group of Trade Union and Popular Organizations of the Commission of the Victims of Violence during the National Dialogue held to promote peace in Guatemala. According to AI, he was abducted midday on August 21, 1989, in Zone 1 of Guatemala City after leaving home to go to USAC. HUGO LEONEL GRAMAJO LOPEZ: political science student at USAC, leader of AEU; abducted on August 22, 1989. Mr. Gramajo, a 28-year-old political science student, reportedly was abducted on August 22, 1989, by five armed men as he was leaving the National Institute of Public Administration. A petition of habeas corpus filed in his behalf was unsuccessful. According to Bernardo Neumann, special assistant to President Serrano, every attempt to find conclusive evidence about Gramajo's whereabouts was unsuccessful. He stated that out of a considerable number of inquiries that have been made into the cases of Mr. Gramajo, Mario Arturo de León Méndez, whose name also appears on this list, and others, inquiries into these two cases were the only ones without results. Mr. Neumann added that Mr. Gramajo's case has been referred to the Presidential Commission on Human Rights for further investigation. ERNESTO JOAQUIN GUTIERREZ CASTELLANOS: medical doctor and staff member at USAC, former supervisor of the Ejercicio Profesional Supervisado, a program run by USAC that sent medical and dental students to rural areas to gain practical experience before graduating; abducted on May 3, 1983; efforts by his family and human rights organizations to obtain information regarding his whereabouts have been unsuccessful. Mr. Gutiérrez was reportedly abducted by armed men in Guatemala City on May 3, 1983. Al received reports following his abduction that he may have been held in secret detention in Guatemala City. In response to a telegram from CHR chair Eliot Stellar, then president of Guatemala, José Rios Montt, stated that an investigation into Mr. Gutiérrez's disappearance would be conducted. Numerous appeals reportedly were made by Mr. Gutiérrez's family during the years of 1983–1985, including appeals to the Special Law Courts, but no information on the results of these investigations was ever received by the family or by the CHR. SERGIO SAUL LINARES MORALES: civil engineer and lecturer in computer science at USAC; abducted on February 23, 1984, in Guatemala

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation City; unconfirmed reports by AI in 1985 indicated that he was alive and was being held in a secret detention center. In addition to his job as lecturer in computer science at USAC, Mr. Linares was an employee of the Municipal Institute of Public Works in Guatemala City. It is believed that Mr. Linares was abducted on February 23, 1984, as he was leaving work at the Municipal Institute. On the same day, uniformed police and men in plain clothes reportedly searched his home in the presence of his wife and mother. His mother was reportedly beaten. JORGE LUIS MORAN ESCOBAR: student at American College of Computer Science; abducted on April 8, 1991, within half a block of his home; his wife reported the abduction to the National Police and to the human rights ombudsman. Mr. Morán was reportedly abducted at 18th Avenue and 1st Street in Zone 6 of Guatemala City. Mr. Morán was on his way home when three armed men forced him into a vehicle without license plates. AARON UBALDO OCHOA: political science student at USAC, member of the executive commission of AEU, member of the directive council of the USAC School of Political Science; received death threats in February 1989; abducted on August 23, 1989. Mr. Ochoa reportedly was among 11 university students abducted during the end of August and early September 1989. It is believed that he was abducted on August 23, 1989, after leaving for the university at 4:00 p.m. in response to a telephone call asking him to go there. A writ of habeas corpus was filed in his behalf. Mr. Ochoa's name, along with 11 other student leaders and members of AEU, reportedly appeared earlier on a pamphlet spattered with blood and bearing the name of ''La Dolorosa,'' the "Painful One" (a Guatemalan "death squad" newly announced at that time). According to AI, armed men reportedly attempted to break into Mr. Ochoa's home on March 1, 1989. However, neighbors were aroused by the noise and the men fled. The bodies of 4 of the 11 abducted USAC students were found in September 1989 bearing signs of torture; Mr. Ochoa's body was not one of them. MARIA ELENA RODAS ORELLANA: 20-year-old industrial engineering student at USAC; disappeared on May 12, 1986, after getting off an intercity bus in front of the Cancer Institute in Zone 11 of Guatemala City; petition of habeas corpus was filed with the Supreme Court of Justice. Ms. Rodas was an industrial engineering student in her eighth semester at the USAC Faculty of Engineering. It is believed that she was on her way

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation from Chimaltenango, where she lived with her family, to USAC in Guatemala City to resume her studies, when she disappeared. CELIA LOURDES ROSALES DE PALENCIA: 31-year-old chemistry student at USAC; beaten and abducted at 8:30 a.m. on February 26, 1991, in Guatemala City while she was on her way to the university; was the mother of two children; family members are believed to have reported her disappearance to the authorities. Ms. Rosales was reportedly beaten and abducted by four heavily armed men in a vehicle with darkened windows. The license plate of the vehicle was P96938. It is believed that the abduction took place between 5th Avenue and 8th Avenue in Zone 19, Colonia Primero de Julio, in Guatemala City, as she was walking to the university. Ms. Rosales' father, Carlos Enrique Orellana, and her husband, Carlos Rosales Girón, believe that she was mistakenly abducted. EDWIN ANTONIO SOTO MORALES: 22-year-old medical student at the University Center of Western Guatemala (a regional branch of USAC in Quetzaltenango); disappeared on August 21, 1986, in Quetzaltenango; his family searched unsuccessfully for him at hospitals and detention centers. IRVING PAUL TILLMANS: 33-year-old agronomist and director of the University Center of Northern Guatemala (a regional branch of USAC in Coban, Alta Verapaz); abducted on November 2, 1987, in Guatemala City by armed men after being chased, shot at, and wounded; witnesses reported that cars with license plate numbers P226012 and P215523 were used in the shooting and abduction. Mr. Tillmans's car, a land cruiser with license plate P333074, reportedly disappeared following his abduction. AI reports that agronomy students as well as graduates and staff of USAC have repeatedly been the target of human rights abuses by the security forces. It is believed that they have been arrested, disappeared, and killed because the USAC School of Agronomy has frequently been critical of government land policies and has been involved in attempts to organize peasants. ADDITIONAL CASES IN GUATEMALA This section presents information about additional cases of scientists, engineers, health professionals, and students of these fields whose names did not appear on the original lists that were presented to the Guatemalan authorities during the mission. These individuals also have disappeared or have been murdered, in some cases following their abduction. The information below was obtained from government authorities, international organizations, and human rights groups.

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation Political Killings LEONEL CARRILLO REEVES: 54-year-old secretary of the USAC School of Pharmacy, formerly twice dean of the pharmacy school, and former interim rector of USAC; shot dead on the USAC campus on Friday November 25, 1983, by two men who reportedly escaped on a motorcycle; according to student witnesses, two men drove up on a motorcycle as Professor Carrillo was getting out of his car, and one of the men approached him from behind and shot him three times. CARLOS DE LEON GUDIEL: professor at the USAC Faculty of Economics; shot dead by unknown men on October 26, 1984. CARLOS ALFREDO DE LEON: student of agriculture at USAC; on November 28, 1984, his body was found 20 kilometers south of Guatemala City. FRANCISCO ESTRADA: 47-year-old agriculturalist and teacher; abducted by armed men on October 14, 1984, in San Martín Jilotepeque, Chimaltenango; the abduction took place shortly after he returned to Guatemala from Mexico, where he had fled in 1981 after being followed on several occasions by a Guatemalan police intelligence unit; his body reportedly was found some time later. EDSON FIGUEROA CRUZ: economics student at USAC; he and Leider Flores Pinto, whose name also appears below, were abducted by armed men on December 1, 1984; on December 3, 1984, their bullet-riddled bodies were thrown from a moving vehicle as it passed in front of USAC. LEIDER FLORES PINTO: economics student at USAC; he and Edson Figueroa Cruz, whose name also appears above, were abducted by armed men on December 1, 1984; on December 3, 1984, their bullet-riddled bodies reportedly were thrown from a moving vehicle as it passed in front of USAC. MAYRA JANNETH MEZA SOBERANIS: 23-year-old psychologist; abducted in Zone 12 of Guatemala City on September 8, 1983, and subsequently released; abducted for a second time on January 25, 1985 by several armed men; her body was found on January 26, 1985, in a vacant lot in Zone 11 of Guatemala City with her throat cut; her brother, Gustavo Adolfo Meza Soberanis, was abducted and disappeared on September 7, 1983. MANUEL ESTUARDO PENA: professor of history at USAC, cofounder of private organization that does social work in impoverished areas and with displaced people, director of Guatemalan Teachers' Association, member of National Teachers' Assembly; shot and killed on February 10, 1992, by two

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation men as he was approaching his apartment in Zone 21 of Guatemala City; received death threats by telephone during the months prior to his death. ALFONZO ALDANA PEREZ: student of veterinary medicine at USAC; Perez died in the San Juan de Dios hospital as a result of his injuries (for further details, see section "Other Human Rights Abuses"). JOSE MATEO PINZON CACERES: 33-year-old agronomist; shot to death on May 3, 1992, in Zone 4 of Guatemala City after five armed men followed him onto a public bus; he was reportedly killed by one of the gunmen, who shot him in the temple. SERGIO VINICIO SAMAYOA MORALES: 29-year-old engineering student at USAC; attacked and seriously wounded by armed men on February 1, 1984; was then taken to Roosevelt Hospital for medical treatment; during the night of February 1, ten men reportedly abducted him from the intensive care unit where he was being treated; on February 6, his body was found covered with bullet holes on the road to Chinautla just outside Guatemala City; his mother, who worked at the USAC Faculty of Economics, his two sisters, and his brother had all disappeared in September 1982. Disappearances SERGIO LEONEL ALVARADO AREVALO: 20-year-old economics student at USAC and a member of the board of AEU; abducted on May 19, 1984, in Guatemala City by armed men as he was on his way to USAC from home; his brother also disappeared, in December 1981. GUSTAVO ADOLFO CASTANON FUENTES: 26-year-old economics student at USAC and an accountant; abducted on May 21, 1984, by armed men near USAC in Guatemala City. CARLOS ERNESTO CUEVAS MOLINA: 24-year-old sociology student at USAC; the son of Dr. Rafael Cuevas Del Cid, former rector of USAC; abducted together with Otto René Estrada Illescas, whose name also appears below, in Zone 1 of Guatemala City on May 15, 1984, by armed men; the men shot at him before taking him away in one of their three cars; both men were reportedly seen in detention following their abduction. OTTO RENE ESTRADA ILLESCAS: 31-year-old economics student and accountant at USAC; abducted together with Carlos Ernesto Cuevas Molina, whose name also appears above, in Zone 1 of Guatemala City on May 15, 1984, by armed men; both men were reportedly seen in detention following their abduction. LUIS RODRIGO HERNANDEZ: economics student at USAC; abducted

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation at the end of February 1984 from Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City; had been admitted to the hospital six days earlier with bullet wounds. IRMA MARILU ICHOS RAMOS: 23-year-old economics student at USAC; abducted on May 21, 1984, by armed men near USAC in Guatemala City in the presence of other students; she was taken away by her abductors in a car. HECTOR ALIRIO INTERIANO ORTIZ: 28-year-old economics student and employee at USAC, leader of AEU in 1978; abducted on May 21, 1984, in Guatemala City by armed men as he was leaving work at the USAC Research Institute. EDY AMILCAR MERIDA PERALTA: 27-year-old graduate in science and literature at USAC and former employee of the Guatemalan Post and Telecommunications Service; disappeared on April 7, 1984, while on his way from Guatemala City to visit his mother; two days after his disappearance, armed men went to his house to look for his wife and told neighbors to tell her that her husband was at the police station; however, petitions of habeas corpus filed in his behalf have been unsuccessful. GUSTAVO ADOLFO MEZA SOBERANIS: 26-year-old surgeon, ran his own clinic in Coban, Alta Verapaz; abducted by armed men and disappeared on September 7, 1983, in Zone 12 of Guatemala City; his sister, Mayra Janneth Meza Soberanis, was abducted on September 8, 1983, and subsequently released, abducted a second time on January 25, 1985, and found dead on January 26, 1985. LUCRECIA ORELLANA STORMONT: 32-year-old lecturer in psychology at USAC; after leaving a meeting in a hotel in downtown Guatemala City on June 6, 1983, she reportedly disappeared; her case, along with a number of others, was submitted to a representative of the U.N. Human Rights Commission by then USAC rector Dr. Arturo Eduardo Meyer Maldonado. VICTOR HUGO QUINTANILLA ORDONEZ: 32-year-old lecturer in economics and law student at USAC; reportedly abducted at 8:30 a.m. on February 19, 1984, by armed men in Zone 11 of Guatemala City; his wife, Alma Libia Samayoa Ramirez, whose name also appears below, was abducted with him; both were members of the USAC executive council in 1979–1982. JORGE ALBERTO ROSAL PAZ: 28-year-old agronomist; reportedly abducted by men in army uniforms in an army jeep on August 12, 1983, between Teculután and Zacapa, Zacapa; according to all reports received by AI, he had no political affiliation and had not engaged in any illegal activities.

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation ALMA LIBIA SAMAYOA RAMIREZ: 29-year-old dentist and lecturer at USAC; reportedly abducted at 8:30 a.m. on February 19, 1984, by armed men in Zone 11 of Guatemala City; her husband, Victor Hugo Quintanilla Ordonez, was abducted with her; both were members of the USAC executive council in 1979–1982. Threats CARLOS LEON MEDRANO: medical doctor of Quiché indigenous origin, lives in Santa Cruz del Quiché and works in Chichicastenango, where he runs a foundation promoting indigenous medical techniques, including midwifery; reportedly has received threats including banging on his door late at night and telephone calls to his mother warning that he should leave Chichicastenango; AI reports that members of the armed forces have made inquiries about him; he is not known to be involved in politics. Other Human Rights Abuses Several members of the security forces shot eight USAC students, two of whom were killed, in April 1992. Below is a brief description of the incident. Early in the morning on April 10, 1992, several members of a security force unit, HUNAPU (a combined security force recently formed and made up of members of the army, the National Police, and the Treasury Police), entered a house in Zone 1 of Guatemala City where a number of USAC students were preparing for the "Huelga de Dolores," an annual student event at USAC of satire and processions which often mocks the government in power. Members of the security unit reportedly detained several of the students. As they were leaving with the detainees, an argument started between the security members and the students. The security members fired at the students, killing one student instantly and injuring eight others. The USAC students reportedly had already been threatened several times by the security forces. Local human rights groups in Guatemala believe that the shootings were unprovoked. There have been reports that then minister of the interior, Fernando Hurtado Prem, announced that an investigation of the shootings was being conducted and that 32 members of the Mobile Military Police have been arrested. According to a report issued by Bernardo Neumann, president of COPREDEH and special assistant to President Serrano, entitled "Report on the Human Rights Situation in Guatemala from January 1 to April 30, 1992": The members of government security forces who participated in the incident were immediately turned over to the courts of justice, and at present,

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Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala: Report of a Delegation 8 Army policemen are being tried by the Military Court and 12 national police agents plus 8 Guardia de Hacienda [treasury police] agents are being tried in civilian penal courts. A legal reconnaissance which was to take place on April 26 was cancelled due to absence of the offended students and the witnesses for the prosecution. It will be rescheduled for a date to be set by the Judge. Julio Rigoberto Cuc Quim, who was studying to be a secondary school teacher, was killed instantly; Alfonzo Aldana Pérez, a student of veterinary medicine, died in the hospital as a result of his injuries (his name is also listed under "Additional Cases"). The six who were wounded were María Isabel Cabeiro, a psychology student; Axel Oswaldo Morales Gaitán, an engineering student; Otoniel Estuardo Moran Aldana, an agronomy student; Otto René Pérez Figueroa, an engineering student; Juan Armando Pérez López, a medical student; and Julio Felipe Sajche, an engineering student.