Index

A

Academic research, 1-2, 5, 141-143

employment, 124-126, 128-129, 137-139

see also Coordination of research;

Funding of research;

Laboratories and research centers

Acoustic technology, 61-62, 63-64, 105

see also Seismic studies

Advisory Committee on Ocean Sciences, NSF, 31-32

Advisory groups, 9-10, 27, 31, 40, 41

Algae, 72-73

Algorithms, 43, 62-63, 154

Alkali compounds, 71-72

Alkenones, 72-73

Altimeters, 42, 62

Alvin, 149

Anthropogenic changes, 16, 43, 96-97, 101-102

Applied research, 9, 15, 34, 50-51

Atmosphere-ocean interface, 56-61, 64, 116-117

see also Carbon dioxide and carbon cycles;

Global climate change

Atmospheric Radiation

Measurements program, DOE, 43

B

Bacteria, 69, 70, 71, 97-98, 100

Baltic Sea, 101

Basalts, see Magma

Basic research, 33, 49, 50-51, 124

funding, 6-7, 10-11, 24-25, 28, 50

Benthic organisms, 99, 102

Biodiversity, 15

Biogeochemical processes, 67-73, 95-100

see also Atmosphere-ocean interface;

Carbon dioxide and carbon cycles



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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships Index A Academic research, 1-2, 5, 141-143 employment, 124-126, 128-129, 137-139 see also Coordination of research; Funding of research; Laboratories and research centers Acoustic technology, 61-62, 63-64, 105 see also Seismic studies Advisory Committee on Ocean Sciences, NSF, 31-32 Advisory groups, 9-10, 27, 31, 40, 41 Algae, 72-73 Algorithms, 43, 62-63, 154 Alkali compounds, 71-72 Alkenones, 72-73 Altimeters, 42, 62 Alvin, 149 Anthropogenic changes, 16, 43, 96-97, 101-102 Applied research, 9, 15, 34, 50-51 Atmosphere-ocean interface, 56-61, 64, 116-117 see also Carbon dioxide and carbon cycles; Global climate change Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program, DOE, 43 B Bacteria, 69, 70, 71, 97-98, 100 Baltic Sea, 101 Basalts, see Magma Basic research, 33, 49, 50-51, 124 funding, 6-7, 10-11, 24-25, 28, 50 Benthic organisms, 99, 102 Biodiversity, 15 Biogeochemical processes, 67-73, 95-100 see also Atmosphere-ocean interface; Carbon dioxide and carbon cycles

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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships Biological sciences, 92, 94-106 employment, 130, 133-134 Bio-optics, 105 Bromley, D Allan, 7 Bubbles, 64 Budgets, see Funding of research Bush, Vannevar, 18, 19 C Calibration measurements, 61, 62-63 California Current ecosystem, 101 Capacity of research, 7, 20, 50 Carbon dioxide and carbon cycles, 42-43, 56, 57-58, 90-91 biogeochemical processes, 66, 95-96, 97-100, 118-119 Carbon Dioxide Program, DOE, 42, 44 Carbonate sediments, 120 Cartography, see Maps and mapping Chemistry, see Biogeochemical processes; Carbon dioxide and carbon cycles; Geochemistry Chemosynthesis, 97, 99-100 Chief of Naval Operations, 33 Circulation processes, 6, 48, 50-51, 62, 63 see also Atmosphere-ocean interface; Currents; Fluxes Climate and Global Change Program, NOAA, 35 Climatology, 6, 41-42, 48, 53-54 modeling, 43, 55-56, 89-90 sediment records, 79, 89-91 see also Atmosphere-ocean interface; Global climate change Coastal areas and processes, 15, 16-17, 43, 52, 69, 101, 107-120, 147, 149 see also Continental shelf and margins Coastal Ocean Margins Program, DOE, 42, 44 Coastal Ocean Program, NOAA, 35 Cold War, 19 Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, FCCSET, 10, 27 Computer Hardware, Advanced Modeling and Model Physics program, DOE, 43 Computer simulation, 43, 50, 56, 154 Continental shelf and margins, 38-39, 42-43, 78-79, 87-89, 99, 108-109, 110, 111, 114, 117-118 Continuous Plankton Recorder Surveys, 106 Convection, see Mantle convection and composition; Thermohaline circulation Coordination of research, 9-13, 25-31 international, 7-8, 19, 21-22, 25-26, 153 see also specific federal agencies Cosmic rays and dust, 66, 67, 74 Costs and cost factors, 7, 20, 50, 170 Council on Ocean Affairs, 142 Cross-shelf exchange, 107, 117-118 Crustal plates and movement, 5, 47, 68-69, 72, 77-81, 92-93 and continental margins, 78-79, 87-89, 108-109 off-ridge processes, 85-87 ridge processes, 78, 81-84 and sediments, 67, 77-78, 79, 89-92 Currents, 111, 152 boundary, 60, 101, 110 Cyanobacteria, 97-98 D Data management and exchange, 12, 30, 33, 36-37, 40, 43, 44-45

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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships Deep-sea areas, see Crustal plates and movement; Hydrothermal vents and processes; Mantle processes and composition; Ridges Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), 26, 77, 89, 140-141 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, 42 Defense research, 15-16, 19, 33, 33-34 Department of Defense, 42 see also Navy Department of Energy (DOE), 10, 28, 42-44 Diatom blooms, 96, 97 Disasters, natural, 16, 44 Disposable sensor systems, 61-62 Dissolved organic matter, 98 Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE), NSF, 31-32, 160-161 Doctorates, see Ph.D.-level scientists Doppler current profilers, 62 Drilling programs and technologies, 26, 31, 32, 77, 78, 89, 93 E Earth Observing System (EOS), 40, 41 Ecosystems, 6, 15, 48, 95, 100-102 hydrothermal vent, 5, 15, 47-48, 99-100 Education and training, 35, 38, 134 see also Ph.D.-level scientists El Niño, 5, 15, 48, 96, 101 Emiliania huxleyi, 72-73 Employment of scientists, 124-139 Energy resources, 16, 42-43, 44 see also Oil resources Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 8-9, 10, 28, 37-38 Environmental Studies Program, MMS, 38-39 Erosion, 68, 114 Estuaries, 17, 34, 69, 110-111, 114, 117-118 Euphotic zone, 57-58, 95 European Space Agency, 41, 63, 153 Eutrophication, 101-102 Evaporation, 59, 152 Evolution of species, 92 Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), 45 Exploratory Development program, Navy, 33 Extinction of species, 92 F Facilities, 50, 139 see also Instrumentation; Laboratories and research centers; Ships Faculty, 123-129 passim Fecal pellets, 98 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 10, 27 Federal government, advisory groups, 9-10, 27, 31, 40, 41 employment, 124-12S, 128-129, 133, 136-139 interagency cooperation, 10, 27-28 ship use and support, 36, 39, 143-144, 146 see also Coordination of research; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency; Funding of research; Minerals Management Service; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Science Foundation; Navy; Office of Naval Research; U.S. Geological Survey

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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships Fish and fisheries, 15, 36, 96, 101, 102, 105 Floating instrument platform (FLIP), 149-150 Flow cytometry, 105 Fluxes, 53, 59-61, 67-69, 74-75, 93, 96, 117 Food webs, 96, 97-100, 102 Forecasting, see Models and modeling Fossil records, 92 Free-falling sensor systems, 61-62 Freshwater flux, 59-61, 111 Fronts, 107, 117 Funding of research, 2, 6-11, 18, 24-25, 28, 29, 34, 50, 154-159, 169-170 basic, 10, 24-25, 28, 50 budget constraints, 33, 35, 36, 41 see also Individual investigator grants; specific federal agencies G Gases, see Atmosphere-ocean interface; Carbon dioxide and carbon cycles Genetics, 104 Geochemistry, 64-77 see also Biogeochemical processes Geological Survey, see US Geological Survey Geology and geophysics, 44, 45, 77-93 Georges Bank, 102 Glacial periods, 59, 90, 92 Global Change Data and Information System, 40 Global Change Research Program, 42 Global climate change, 14-15, 16, 50-51, 53, 54, 89-92 biological processes, 95-96, 100-101 and carbon dioxide, 42-43, 91 Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics program, 137 Global ocean observing system (GOOS), 25-26, 35, 52-53, 54-55, 120 Gravity field, 41, 153 Greenhouse effect, see Global climate change H Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, 149 Hazards, 16, 44 Heat flux, 59-61, 68, 117 Human-induced changes, see Anthropogenic changes Hurricanes, 16 Hydrocarbon seeps, 15, 48, 99-100 Hydrophone array, 63 Hydrothermal processes and vents, 67, 68-70, 71-72, 75, 79, 81-84 ecosystems, 5, 15, 47-48, 99-100 I Ice conditions, 36, 54, 59, 62, 100-101, 111 Ice core records, 90-91 Imaging techniques, 105-106 Indian Ocean, 59 Individual investigator grants, 10-11, 19, 27-28 Infrared measurements, 36, 62 Instrumentation, 11, 29, 43, 61-62, 74, 105-106 see also Acoustic technology; Calibration measurements; Computer simulation; Imaging techniques; Infrared measurements; Microwave measurements; Optical instruments; Satellites; Sensor systems

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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships Interdisciplinary research, see Multidisciplinary research International competition, 15 International research coordination, 7-8, 19, 21-22, 25-26, 153 Isotopes, 66, 68, 74 J JOIDES Resolution, 150 Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 136-137 Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), 26, 133-135, 137-139, 141 Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling, 32, 140 141 L Laboratories and research centers, 139-143 federal, 33, 35, 37-38, 40-41, 43-44, 142 seafloor observatories, 93 Lipids, 72-73 Lithosphere, 77, 79-81, 82-83, 87 M Magma, 79, 83, 85-87 Mantle processes and composition, 78, 79, 80, 82-87 Maps and mapping, 34, 44-45 crustal composition, 78, 81-82, 88 Matching grants, 34 Metabolic processes, 70, 71 Microstructure measurements, 57, 58 Microwave measurements, 36, 42, 62, 152 Military research, see Defense research Mineral resources, 17, 44, 45 Minerals Management Service (MMS), 38-39 Mixing processes, 56-61, 69-71 Models and modeling, 33, 50, 54, 153-154 climate, 43, 55-56, 89-90 coastal processes, 118-120 crustal dynamics, 78, 88 Molecular biology, 44, 104 Monitoring programs, 28, 34 see also Global ocean observing system Moored instruments, 62, 105, 107-108 Multidisciplinary research, 6, 48, 51-52 Multi-Frequency Acoustic Profiling System, 105 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 39-42 National Mapping Program, USGS, 44 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 9, 10, 20, 24-25, 28, 34-37, 41-42, 106 National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), 36-37 National Research Council (NRC), 10, 27, 44 National Science Foundation (NSF), 8-9, 10, 19-20, 21, 24, 28, 30, 31-32, 49, 106, 123-126, 143, 155, 160-163 National Sea Grant College Program, NOAA, 20, 30, 34-35 National security, see Defense research National Space Council, 41 Natural gas, 16, 38-39 Naval Research Laboratory, 33 Navy, 19-20, 32-34, 42, 140, 149, 164

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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships see also Oceanographer of the Navy; Office of Naval Research Nimbus 7, 40 North Atlantic Ocean, 59, 97 North Sea, 96 Numerical analysis, see Algorithms; Models and modeling Nutrient transport, 58, 69, 70, 96-97, 110-111 see also Food webs O OCE, see Division of Ocean Sciences Ocean color, 40, 42, 61, 152 Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), 31, 32, 89, 93 Ocean margins, see Continental shelf and margins Oceanographer of the Navy, 33-34, 106, 164 Oceanography from Space 1985-1995, 150 Ocean Studies Board (OSB), 31-32, 44 oceanographer survey, 126, 133 Office of Health and Environmental Research, DOE, 42, 44 Office of Naval Research (ONR), 8-9, 10, 19, 24, 28, 30, 32, 33, 93, 140, 143, 163 Office of Naval Technology, 33, 34 Office of Research and Development, EPA, 38 Off-ridge processes, 85-87 Offshore Geologic Framework, USGS, 45 Oil resources, 16, 17, 38-39 Oil spills, 16 Operational measurements, 41-42 Optical instruments, 105 Organic matter, 66, 69, 72-73, 95, 119 see also Food webs Outer Continental Shelf, 38-39 Oxygen and oxidation, 66, 69, 71 P Pacific Ocean, 101, 103 Paleoceanography, 48, 65-66, 73, 77, 79, 89-92 Particle dynamics and transport, 67, 68, 69-71, 75-76 organic matter, 98, 119 sediments, 76-77, 119-120 Peer review systems, 19, 31, 32, 38-39, 45 Petroleum, see Oil resources Ph.D.-level scientists, 121-139 Photochemical reactions, 68 Photosynthesis, 57-58, 72, 97, 100 Physical sciences, 33, 52-64 see also Geochemistry Plankton, 58, 62, 69, 70-71, 97-99, 101-102, 105 Plate tectonics, see Crustal plates and movement Polar regions, 59, 60 Policy issues, 4-9, 17, 38-39 Pollution, 15, 16, 17, 37, 68 Population size and growth, 15, 17, 108. Precipitation, 60, 64, 100-101 Predictions, see Models and modeling Private research, 24, 125, 142 Publication of research, 38-39, 44-45 R Radiation, 43, 44, 60, 62 Rainfall, 60, 64 Reducing Risk, 37 Remotely operated vehicles, 149 Remote sensing, see Space-based observation systems

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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global experiment [RIDGE), 78, 93, 100, 137 Ridges, 69, 75, 78, 79, 81-84 Rivers and streams, 66-67, 69, 75, 76, 100-101 Rotators, 31, 32 S Salinity, 54, 60, 71-72 see also Thermohaline circulation Satellites, 5, 40-42, 44, 60, 62-63, 103, 150-153 Science Advisory Board, EPA, 37 Science: The Endless Frontier, 18 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 34, 37, 43, 134, 141, 142 Sea Cliff, 149 Sea level, 81, 91-92, 101 Seafloor, see Crustal plates and movement; Hydrothermal processes and vents; Sediments Seafloor observatories, 93 Seasat, 40 Sea-viewing Wide Field Sensor, 152 Sediments, 71, 72, 111, 114 and crustal processes, 67, 77-78, 79, 89-92 paleoceanic record, 65-67 particle transport, 76-77, 119-120 Seismic studies, 45, 78, 81, 83, 93 Sensor systems, 61-62, 63-64, 105, 107-108 Ships, 28, 29, 143-149 federal use and support, 36, 39, 143-144, 146 Navy support, 19-20, 32, 33-34, 140 UNOLS fleet, 26, 39, 45, 146, 149 volunteer observing, 61-62 Short-term scientific officers, see Rotators Simulations, see Computer simulations; Models and modeling Sinks, 71-72 Small-scale mixing processes, 56-57 Societal issues, 2-4, 14-17, 48-49 Solar radiation, 43, 59 Sophistication factor, 7, 170 Sound, see Acoustic techniques Southern Ocean, 59 Space-based observation systems, 36, 39-42, 44, 62-63, 103, 150-153 State government, 34-35, 125, 144 Stommel, Henry, 51 Storms, 16 Subduction, see Crustal plates and movement Submersibles, 149 Subtropical gyres, 70 Synthetic aperture radar, 62 T Tactical oceanography, 34 Teaching faculty, 123-129 passim Technological developments, 1-2, 7, 20, 49-50, 170 biological studies, 103-106 data management, 36-37 see also Instrumentation; Models and modeling; Spacebased observation systems Tectonic plates, see Crustal plates Telemetry, 62-63 Temperature, 73, 152 see also Global climate change; Heat flux; Hydrothermal processes and vents; Thermohaline circulation Thermohaline circulation, 58-59, 60, 111

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Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships Time scale studies, 54, 65-67, 73, 77, 79, 84, 89-92 Time-series measurements, 62, 63, 93, 106 Tomography, 78, 93 Trace elements, 64, 66, 71-72, 74, 75-76 Tracer studies, 57, 58, 63, 66, 67, 76-77 Transoceanic hydrographic sections, 60 Transport processes, 43, 45, 48, 53, 58, 60, 66 see also Fluxes; Particle dynamics and transport U University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), 26, 39, 45, 141, 143-146, 149 University research, see Academic research Upwelling, 15, 59, 110 mantle processes, 82-83 U.S Geological Survey (USGS), 44-46, 146 V Ventilation, 60 Volcanoes, 67, 72, 79, 81 see also Hydrothermal processes and vents Volunteer observing ships (VOS), 61-62 W Waste disposal, 15, 17, 37, 96-97 Water mass formation, 53, 58-59, 63 Wetlands, 45 Winds, 42, 54, 62, 66, 68, 101, 110, 116-117 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), 34, 134, 140, 149 World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 60-61, 136-137, 154 World War II, 18-19, 140 Z Zooplankton, 98