Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 74
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas 3 Integrated Coastal Management The Committee believes that whether because of any of the issues discussed in the preceding chapter or because of other concerns, most coastal cities now, or in the near future will, face the need to address complex coastal quality management issues. With increasing population pressures, increasing recognition of the importance of nonpoint sources in coastal waters, and decreasing availability of public funding at the federal, state, and local levels, coastal cities face the need to establish objectives and set priorities for protecting coastal resources. The Committee therefore proposes here a framework toward which it believes coastal environmental quality management should evolve. DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE VISION Most indicators suggest that, throughout the country, human impact upon urban coastal areas continues at a level of severity which threatens the biological integrity of many marine systems and seriously impairs their capacity to produce a full range of goods and services valued by people. Given the importance of coastal areas to society, managing their social and economic uses in a sustainable fashion should be a central tenet of government policy. In the absence of controls, coastal resources are unpriced and widely accessible, and the market fails to reveal social values or restrain use. There is a need for a complete system of resource valuation capable of identifying the consequences and opportunity costs associated with various patterns of resource use. Unfortunately, such a comprehensive
OCR for page 75
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas system does not exist. Some work has been done, particularly in the area of human uses of water resources, but it is significantly incomplete, especially with respect to the full range of human values, the consequences of health effects, and ecological values. Thus, there is no comprehensive set of economic tools capable of developing and implementing an optimal coastal management strategy that meets society's goals. In the absence of such a capability, reversing trends of degradation in an effective and efficient manner is more difficult. It requires, at the least, that society formulate a clear vision of the coast's future and identify the tasks necessary to achieve that vision. The concept of integrated coastal management (ICM) is a starting point for that vision. This chapter addresses the conceptual principles and methodology for ICM. Chapter 4 addresses specific applications of the principles and methodology outlined here. ICM is associated here with two general objectives: 1) to restore and maintain the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems and 2) to maintain important human values and uses associated with those resources. Recently, in Reducing Risks: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Science Advisory Board, explored the problem of making its management programs more relevant to ecological imperatives. It concluded that the ''EPA should target its environmental protection efforts on the basis of opportunities for the greatest reduction of risk" and the "EPA should attach as much importance to reducing ecological risk as it does to reducing human health risk" (EPA 1990). In a substantial sense the methodology for integrated coastal management set forth in this report is a further step in the general direction proposed in the EPA report. The principles and methodology set forth are a further elaboration of work done by others (see bibliography at the end of this chapter). There appear to be few examples of where these ideas have been systematically applied in the conscious effort to protect coastal resources. Nonetheless, there are several examples where the concepts have, to some extent, been applied over time. Notable in this regard are the examples of the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay. Some detail about one aspect of the Chesapeake Bay Program—the experience in controlling nutrients—is presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 provides a discussion of the benefits and barriers associated with the implementation of ICM and provides some recommendations for implementation. The evolution of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement from 1978 through 1987 consisted of an iterative planning and implementation process. As a result, toxics joined nutrients as pollutants of concern and the management area was expanded and now includes the entire watershed. A more complex understanding of pollution sources and prevention strategies in the Great Lakes has evolved and the mechanisms for governance have become more sophisticated.
OCR for page 76
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas OBJECTIVES OF INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT • To restore and maintain the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems, and • To maintain important human values and uses associated with those resources. An integrated approach to coastal management is an increasingly important component of the international agenda for wise environmental management. At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, integrated coastal management was a significant element of the policy document dealing with the problems of the marine environment which was agreed to by governments. Similarly, the World Bank is currently in the process of developing guidelines for integrated coastal management to be utilized by countries receiving assistance. PRINCIPLES AND METHODOLOGY FOR A SYSTEM OF INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT Important changes in the two decades since the passage of the Clean Water Act suggest that integrated coastal management is achievable. Two developments, one social and the other technical, are worth highlighting: Today, a far greater proportion of the public cares about the environment in general and coastal areas in particular than 20 years ago. Although public concern over specific problems was high then (e.g., the first Earth Day was in 1970, the same year EPA was established), the general public is now more aware of the complexity of environmental issues. This awareness is a potentially powerful political force that can be effective in driving admittedly complex processes to useful conclusions. Additionally, important technical progress has been made over the past 20 years in source reduction, treatment systems, outfalls, and modeling of systems. Although scientific knowledge about coastal processes is far from complete, it is far advanced over that of a generation ago. Beyond mere data, scientists and engineers also understand in a more sophisticated way the nature of how coastal processes operate. Finally, modern computing and other data management tools have given scientists and others, for the first time, the capacity to organize, analyze, and display this complex of information in a way that is accessible to technical analysts and lay persons alike.
OCR for page 77
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas Integrated coastal management is an ecologically-based approach to environmental management and is therefore in many ways a departure from the technology-driven strategy that has characterized the national effort since the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. This is especially so in urban areas, where a major emphasis has been appropriately on the construction of sewage treatment plants. In fact, to a certain extent ICM is analogous to the water-quality based efforts that preceded the 1972 amendments. Although that approach was supplanted by the technology emphasis of the 1972 amendments, two decades have passed and it is now time to reconsider the validity of an ecologically-based strategy, especially in highly complex situations. As noted above, the public attention to environmental issues and the scientific understanding is vastly more pronounced than was the case in the 1960s. Therefore the basic likelihood of environmental action is enhanced. In addition, there is now a well-developed regulatory system with permits, inspection, and enforcement procedures, capable of assuring that identified obligations are, in fact, met. This system is being complemented by the development of an economically-based incentive system, which may add even greater force to the compliance imperative. Perhaps most critically, it is now necessary to ensure that scarce public economic resources are spent on those management options that will have the maximum positive impact. Society can no longer afford to spend large amounts of money solving unimportant problems. The following discussion of integrated coastal management sets forth a set of interlocking management principles and a related process. The fundamental objective of this system is to allow for improved identification of important priorities and better allocation of resources to the identified problems. An integrated system is interlocking and iterative, that is, each of the principles builds on and influences others. The following discussion identifies these six principles and suggests how they could be applied in a coherent and logical fashion. Principles The following six principles should underlie the development of an integrated coastal management system and the institutions necessary to implement it: Coastal management's overall objective is to maintain ecological processes and meet human needs for goods and services. Accordingly, management actions need to be developed on the basis of the best science available about ecological functions as well as a comprehensive understanding of human needs and expectations, which are both tangible and intangible.
OCR for page 78
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas Management objectives should be expressed as water- and sediment-quality based, and other environmentally and health based goals. Using environmentally and health based goals allows flexibility in the methods used to achieve those goals, while assuring that ecosystems and human health are protected at the desired level. Comparative assessment of both risk scenarios and available management options should drive the selection of management strategies. This approach will ensure that a rational basis is used for focusing action, and human and financial resources on the most important problems. A dynamic and iterative planning process should integrate risk-based analysis with evolving scientific understanding and human expectations. The process is a continuing one and allows for incremental decision making when that is the prudent course. On the other hand, it also provides a context for making the high cost or risk decision most likely to be correct in the face of scientific uncertainty. This integration requires a stable institutional base for the planning process. A transdisciplinary perspective is critical to coastal problem solving. While specific disciplines such as chemistry, biology, toxicology, microbiology, and hydrology and their integration through environmental engineering principles will always be central to this transdisciplinary perspective, increasingly, fields such as economics, law, and sociology are important components of marine management. Maintaining systems for routine exchange and analysis among professions is essential to help managers gain a comprehensive understanding of coastal problems. With a linked analytical system, disciplines could assist more effectively in formulating a transdisciplinary management response. Such a system should integrate scientific, engineering, and other information into management practice in a timely and flexible fashion. This system should function in a context that is responsive to scientific uncertainty about the functions of coastal ecosystems. Accordingly, it is based on the premise that how these natural systems respond to stresses from pollution events, overfishing, sedimentation, or encroachment on habitat is not often well understood or subject to human intervention. Management actions instead must recognize that it is the human activities at the source of these stresses that must be reduced or changed. Integrated coastal management is driven by science and engineering together with public expectations. Especially important, therefore, is the requirement that there be significant opportunities for public participation and involvement throughout the process. Appropriate public values are not only economic or recreational but also those arising out of ethical and aesthetic concerns for protection of the environment.
OCR for page 79
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT • Management actions are based on the best available scientific information about ecological functions, as well as a comprehensive understanding of human needs and expectations, which are both tangible and intangible. • Management objectives are expressed as water- and sediment-quality based, and other environmentally and health based goals. • Comparative assessment of both risk scenarios, and available management options drive the selection of management strategies. • A transdisciplinary perspective is critical to coastal problem solving. • The ICM process functions in a context that is responsive to scientific uncertainty about the functions of coastal systems. • ICM is driven by science and engineering together with public expectations. Process The process of integrated coastal management is composed of the following elements, which are applied in the sequence they are discussed. Elements at the bottom of the list are not less important than earlier ones and should feed back into them. The flow chart in Figure 3.1 gives a simple schematic view of the relationship among the elements. Set Goals At the outset of the development of a management plan, it is important to develop a well-informed understanding of the goals and expectations held for a coastal region and the range of environmental problem areas that require further attention. Management has two primary objectives: to protect the fundamental functions and biological richness of the ecosystem and to maintain important human uses. The starting point of integrated management is to identify the problems threatening these goals. Two important tasks must be completed to meet these objectives: 1) define critical (important) environmental processes in time and space using existing information and data; and 2) define and rationalize the variety of human expectations about uses and benefits to be derived from the coast. Environmental Processes. All coastal systems are not the same. There will be variations in the functions of natural processes. In a particular system, the important elements of these processes must be identified with sufficient precision that management can protect them. The definition of processes and issues inevitably leads to a system for setting priorities, forcing decisions about issues that are more important to address than others in order to maintain ecological and human health.
OCR for page 80
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas FIGURE 3.1 Process of integrated coastal management. Human Expectations. Societal values and needs with respect to a particular coastal system also vary from region to region. Often there are conflicts among various interests, and changes in values and needs will occur over time. Initial management steps must seek to understand the existing range of expectations. This understanding will further contribute to an appreciation of those elements of the natural systems that are important for protection. Once important environmental processes and human expectations have been identified, the anthropogenic conditions that threaten their maintenance can be determined. Define Geographic Extent of Concerns It is important to address environmental problems at the scale on which they occur. Thus, integrated coastal management must be based on adoption of a relevant environmental domain with appropriate aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric components. The starting point for defining the geo-
OCR for page 81
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas graphic extent of an issue often will be the coastal area of concern, some or all of its watershed, and other areas as dictated by important related marine and terrestrial processes. For example, concerns about pelagic fisheries likely would suggest concern over a large area. The process of defining the geographic extent of an issue should also take into account sources of problems and other demands on the system, such as for the products produced in the coastal area, which create stress. Only rarely will there be a perfect coincidence between the variety of ecological domains, the various sources of degradation, and the boundaries of administrative jurisdictions. However, it is possible to delineate the most important environmental processes and to identify the most immediate or significant sources of degradation at a scale that is consistent with appropriate management actions. An overall goal in adopting relevant environmental domains is to minimize the number of significant causes and effects taking place outside the domain and maximize the effectiveness of management measures that can be taken within the domain. In many situations, the result of this analysis may produce both a variety of environmental domains and parallel sets of variable jurisdictional boundaries. As the problem analysis progresses, decisions can be made about the most logical way in which to draw areas for specific management and concern as a function of knowing what problems are important and what management options can be used to address them. Assess and Compare Risks An assessment and comparison of risks to ecological systems and human health across the full spectrum suggested above should be completed before management options are selected. The risk comparison should guide decisions for setting priorities. Ideally, risk management decisions should place the burden of control on activities that may significantly harm humans or the environment. While risk assessment methodologies are not fully developed and comparisons of human risks with ecological ones are difficult to make, even a qualitative examination driven by the goals set for coastal management will substantially improve the priority setting process. The continued refinement of risk assessment and comparison methods using the basic concepts of dose, exposure, and hazard is crucial to integrated management. When an integrated understanding of environmental degradation and deterioration in human use has been developed, choices for priority attention can be made on the basis of the relative importance of issues within the total complex of problems. In addition to deciding which problems are important to solve, this analysis should include a component that attempts to define an understanding of what level of protection or management is required in order to meet established goals.
OCR for page 82
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas An integrated understanding of the sources of degradation provides the basis for choosing those control options that will yield the greatest net benefits. A comprehensive display of the relative risks and their causes is the essential ingredient to a strategic approach to management. It is also critical to decisions about allocating societal resources to those problems that are of most immediate importance. The science of natural systems often will be understood imperfectly. A comparative risk analysis can contribute to maximizing the probability that more important problems will be addressed first. However, uncertainty may occasionally be so significant as to not allow for a clearly rational choice; and social values may appropriately demand that preventive action be taken. Where such value laden choices are made, they are likely to be better informed if made within the context of strategic assessments of comparative risks and with input from the public, who ultimately provide the necessary resources. Develop and Compare Alternatives for Risk Management Coastal problems cannot be managed successfully as separate issues, such as pollution or wetland loss or fisheries depletion. There are at least two reasons for the need to integrate such pressing issues. In the first instance, apparently separate issues are interrelated. Thus, fisheries declines could be due to overfishing, pollution, or failed reproduction due to loss of tidal wetlands. Secondly, resources are scarce. In the foregoing case of fisheries loss, it would be ideal to define the most likely cause of the loss and then design management options addressing that specific problem. Thus, risk management strategies must be devised to address the most important elements in the complex structure of problems in an integrated fashion—one that assesses important sources of risk and achievable management alternatives. Risk management decisions should be made through the consideration of priority problems in light of available management options, human and financial resources, administrative and legal structures, and other factors relevant to solutions. Consideration must also be given to the tradeoff between expenditures and benefits both with respect to different solutions to the same problem and solving different problems. Not all problems need to be addressed using the same kinds of strategies. While a standards-based regulatory system may be essential to providing a basic framework of governance, other techniques, such as economic incentives, streamlined management, land-use policy, and education will be appropriate for particular problems. Too often society perceives that the problem of a coastal environment is singular or one-dimensional. Thus, enormous efforts are made to improve a
OCR for page 83
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas sewage treatment plant or to eliminate the presence of a particular chemical, yet problems remain. As suggested above, more frequently, degradation of resources is due to the combined effects of a number of human actions or to a condition that is not the most obvious. While correcting one problem might mitigate environmental harm for a brief period of time, long-term protection and restoration may not be accomplished. This situation does not mean that all problems need to be addressed with equal vigor simultaneously. It does mean that choices must be made about which problems to solve in a context that considers the multiplicity of causes and effects and maximizes the expenditure of resources on those issues that are important. These four steps described together constitute the Dynamic Planning Process. This process whereby values, ecological processes, comparative risks, and strategies are developed and assessed must be considered as a dynamic and continuing planning process. Such a process is needed to capture interactions where one action may lead to another, to recognize new problems, to respond to new knowledge, and to recognize and correct mistakes. This process is an iterative exercise in which choices are made about how to anticipate and resolve conflicts and set priorities among multiple uses before environmental harm is done. In order to give reality to the planning process, it must be tied to some system of allocating uses in the coastal environment. These systems can include a broad spectrum ranging from land-use controls to regulatory systems with permits to protected-area programs such as marine sanctuaries. The dynamic nature of the planning process is the core concept that allows for feedback between the various elements of the methodology. At one scale there are a series of interactions among the planning process, the conduct of scientific activity, and the establishment of implementation programs. Within the planning process itself there are numerous iterative steps between the various functions. Perhaps the strongest connections exist between the comparative risk assessment and comparative risk management activities. Institutional Arrangements Institutions and mechanisms of governance must be arranged in a fashion that is capable of meeting the demands that an ecosystem-based management initiative will dictate. Ideally, one might strive to create a single management institution responsible for all aspects of management within an entire coastal ecosystem. In a world with existing institutions, government boundaries, and variable ecological boundaries, however, the development of an ideal institution will rarely be possible. But, communication among institutions and an improved system of coordination can go far to remedy the current, highly fragmented governance structure.
OCR for page 84
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas It may also be necessary to create new institutions and structures to meet certain management needs. For example, a significant land-use management objective may only be able to be implemented with a change in the relation between local and state governments. While theoretically achievable, if such change is politically impossible, it imposes a constraint on management options. Development, Selection, and Implementation Once alternative management options have been developed, choices must be made about the alternative to be implemented. Inevitably the choices result from a political decision-making process that may involve executive and legislative authorities within several jurisdictions and entities having different missions and levels of authority. This political process is an integral part of coastal management. First, fiscal, regulatory, or institutional realities may pose constraints that make certain options impossible to achieve. Inflexibility in environmental laws and regulations make it difficult to implement an ICM approach effectively. The existence of such constraints will force reconsideration of management options. In addition, failures to use scientific and related information may result in insufficient attention to the coastal problems so that hard choices are avoided. Finally, if public expectations and values are ignored it may be difficult to implement recommended alternatives. Monitoring Integrated coastal management must include a comprehensive monitoring effort that focuses on factors of significant ecological, human health, and resource use importance, or the processes that are crucial to them, and the control measures that have been put in place. In general, such a monitoring system will not only measure the status of water quality in a chemical and physical sense but will also take the pulse of the biologic regime. The results of monitoring function as a feedback mechanism to modify management actions, direct new research, and provide information for public accountability. The products of monitoring are the essential glue that allows integrated coastal management to take advantage of the new factors of public concern about, and the technical capacity to understand, environmental problems. Information Management Monitoring and research develop the data that drives an integrated data management system. Integrated coastal management can only be accom-
OCR for page 85
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas plished if monitoring and other data for environmental systems are managed in a way that allows managers and other interested parties to appreciate and make decisions about the whole. As noted, in the last decade, for the first time, significant capacity has been developed that permits a much greater degree of comprehensive understanding. This new capacity consists of three essential elements: significant increases in raw data; enhanced models for analyzing this data; and powerful hardware and software to manage the data. While data and models will never be complete or perfect, the increased capacity to manage them does provide an ability to integrate available data in a fashion that substantially enhances the prospect of integrated management. It is this information that helps to continually refine the understanding of the nature of particular coastal problems, expands the capacity to carry out comparative risk assessment and management, and ultimately allows for the development of new options for implementation when needed. Finally, it provides the picture as to whether efforts have succeeded or failed. Research An ongoing peer-reviewed research program to continually refine the capacity to carry out the various elements of the dynamic planning process is essential. Attempting to carry out each step of the process will suggest questions to which there are only incomplete answers. Furthermore, research coupled with monitoring will develop new information that might suggest additional questions. To provide for appropriate research efforts, the system must foster the formulation of these issues and the making of decisions. The need for more research need not become an excuse for doing nothing. On the contrary, display of problems, comparative risks, and management options with an understanding of uncertainty can allow decisions to proceed where problems are severe. CONCLUSION Integrated coastal management is a rigorous and difficult process. It is needed for situations that are scientifically or governmentally complex, costly, risky or otherwise fraught with a degree of uncertainty. Accordingly, it need not be used for those problems that, upon initial examination, present a relatively simple solution. While integrated coastal management may be useful most often in complex ecological systems that extend far beyond the limits of an urban area, it is also a useful analytical and management methodology when decisionmakers are faced with problems having a predominantly urban theme. In urban areas, sources of human perturbation of the marine environment and their
OCR for page 86
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas effects are often highly complex. Urban areas also rarely affect adjacent marine resources in splendid isolation from events in freshwater watersheds or the distant ocean. Finally, public resources are always scarce and must be allocated to correcting those problems having the highest likelihood of important environmental benefits. Integrated coastal management provides a context for considering all of these complexities and then deciding what is important to be done in the urban setting. Integrated coastal management is an iterative process. As discussed, there is continual feedback among the various components of the methodology. Equally importantly, the entire process can be used for a particular situation with an increasing level of precision over time. For example, a quick analysis might be carried out in a matter of days using existing information. The result of such a rapid exercise can set up the dimensions of a more protracted process by identifying gaps and problems that require focus. For the elected official this apparently complicated process should have utility because it will produce clearer choices. These choices allow, and may even force, the political process to allocate resources to the most important problems. In essence, the process allows the political decisionmaker to strike a balance between the expectations of various publics with respect to the facts as presented by technical professionals and to reach a conclusion about implementing achievable management options. While those responsible for political choice and implementation need not necessarily understand, or even participate in, every aspect of the science or planning of integrated coastal management, it is a process that allows for a rational display of choices and provides for their refinement and modification over time. REFERENCES EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1990. Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection. SAB-EC-90-021. Washington, D.C.: Science Advisory Board (A-101). Background Reading Bailey, R.G., and H.C. Hogg. 1986. A world ecoregions map for resource reporting. Environmental Conservation 13:195-202. Born, S.M., and A.H. Miller. 1988. Assessing networked coastal zone management programs. Coastal Management 16:229-243. Bower, B.T., C.N. Ehler, and D.J. Basta. 1982. Coastal and Ocean Resource Management: A Framework for Analysis, Analyzing Biospheric Change Programme. Delft, The Netherlands: Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. Caldwell, L.K. 1988. Perspectives on Ecosystem Management for the Great Lakes. New York: State University of New York Press. Christie, W.J., M. Becker, J.W. Cowden, and J.R. Vallentyne. 1986. Managing the Great Lakes basin as a home. Journal of Great Lakes Research 12(1):2-17.
OCR for page 87
Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas Cicin-Sain, B. 1990. California and ocean management: Problems and opportunity. Coastal Management 18:311-335. Colborn, T.E., A. Davidson, S.N. Green, R.A. Hodge, C.I. Jackson, and R. Liroff. 1990. Great Lakes, Great Legacy? Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation and the Institute of Research on Public Policy. Derthick, M. 1974. Between State and Nation. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Donahue, M.J. 1986. Institutional Arrangements for Great Lakes Management: Past Practices and Future Alternatives. Lansing, Michigan: Michigan Sea Grant. Donahue, M.J. 1988. The institutional ecosystem for Great Lakes management: Elements and interrelationships. The Environmental Professional 10:98-102. Eichbaum, W.M. 1984. Cleaning up the Chesapeake Bay. Environmental Law Reporter, News & Analysis 14(6):10237-10245. Eichbaum, W.M., and B.B. Bernstein. 1990. Current issues in environmental management: A case study of southern California's marine monitoring system. Coastal Management 18:433-445. Godscholk, D.R. 1992. Implementing coastal management 1972-1990. Coastal Management 20:93-116. Haigh, N., and F. Irwin. 1990. Integrated Pollution Control in Europe and North America. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation and The Institute for European Environmental Policy. Hansen, N.R., H.M. Babcock, and E.H. Clark II. 1988. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution-A Citizen's Handbook. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation and The National Audubon Society. Howarth, R.W., J.R. Fruci, and D. Sherman. 1991. Inputs of sediment and carbon to an estuarine ecosystem: Influence of land use. Ecological Applications 1:27-39. Juhasz, F. 1991. An international comparison of sustainable coastal management policies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 23:595-602. King, L.R., and S.G. Olson. 1988. Coastal state capacity for marine resources management. Coastal Management 16:305-318. Kumamoto, N. 1991. Management and administration of enclosed coastal seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 23:477-478. Moriarity, F. 1983. Ecotoxicology: The Study of Pollutants in Ecosystems. London: Academic Press Inc. Sorensen, J.C., S.T. McCreary, and M.J. Hershman. 1984. Institutional Arrangements for Management of Coastal Resources. Columbia, South Carolina: Research Planning Institute.
Representative terms from entire chapter: