Index

A

Abandoned wells, 22

Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS), 126

Age of water, 84

Agricultural Census, 128, 129

Agricultural DRASTIC, 52, 53

Agricultural management, 15, 124

databases, 90, 129-131, 183

in San Joaquin Valley, 151-152

technical assistance, 34-35, 163-164

see also Fertilizers;

Pesticides

Agricultural Research Service, 130

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS), 128, 130-131

Air pollution, 123, 124

Aldicarb, 14, 147

Allocation of resources. See Resource allocation

American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 106

Animal wastes, 14

Approaches. See Methods

Aquifer sensitivity assessment methods, 45

Artificial recharge wells, 18

Associative methods. See Statistical methods

Atrazine, 32

Attenuation Factor (AF), 68, 73-74, 176

Attribute databases, on soil, 117-119

Awareness. See Public education

B

Back-siphoning, 14, 18, 21

Base data, 131

Bayesian methods, 68

Bias, 65

Biochannels, 3, 21

Biodegradation, 2, 42, 43

and water transport time, 2, 19, 43, 48

Bottled water, 14

Brine injection wells, 18

Bureau of Indian Affairs, 123

Bureau of Land Management, 123, 127

Bureau of Reclamation, 123



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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty Index A Abandoned wells, 22 Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS), 126 Age of water, 84 Agricultural Census, 128, 129 Agricultural DRASTIC, 52, 53 Agricultural management, 15, 124 databases, 90, 129-131, 183 in San Joaquin Valley, 151-152 technical assistance, 34-35, 163-164 see also Fertilizers; Pesticides Agricultural Research Service, 130 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS), 128, 130-131 Air pollution, 123, 124 Aldicarb, 14, 147 Allocation of resources. See Resource allocation American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 106 Animal wastes, 14 Approaches. See Methods Aquifer sensitivity assessment methods, 45 Artificial recharge wells, 18 Associative methods. See Statistical methods Atrazine, 32 Attenuation Factor (AF), 68, 73-74, 176 Attribute databases, on soil, 117-119 Awareness. See Public education B Back-siphoning, 14, 18, 21 Base data, 131 Bayesian methods, 68 Bias, 65 Biochannels, 3, 21 Biodegradation, 2, 42, 43 and water transport time, 2, 19, 43, 48 Bottled water, 14 Brine injection wells, 18 Bureau of Indian Affairs, 123 Bureau of Land Management, 123, 127 Bureau of Reclamation, 123

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty C CALF, 58 Calibration, 78, 79 California, 14, 28, 152, 153. See also San Joaquin Valley Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 9, 28, 35, 139-144, 165-166 Cartography. See Geographic information systems; Maps and mapping; Resolution; Scales and scaling Case studies ground water vulnerability index for pesticides (GWVIP), 162-165 Cape cod, 139-144 Florida, 145-151 Hawaii, 156-161 Iowa, 135-138 San Joaquin Valley, 151-155 Cells and polygons, 7, 65, 67, 87, 91 and geostatistical methods, 62 in GIS databases, 87, 90 in land use and cover mapping, 127 in processed-based models, 59 in soil mapping, 10, 113, 177 Censored data, 60 Centralized Database System (CDBS), 125-126 Chemical databases, 10, 176 Chemigation, 18, 21 Circular A-16, 106, 108 Clay in soils, 2, 42-43, 90 and sampling, 85 Cleanup and control of contamination, 4, 14, 31, 34 Climate, databases, 9, 91, 123-126, 182 Climatic Data Access Facility, 125-126 Cluster analysis, 60, 61 CMLS, 54, 56, 57, 58 Compliance monitoring, 34 Computers and computing, 22, 39, 40 environments, 7-8, 86-87 errors in, 8, 66, 96 see also Geographic information systems; Process-based simulation models Concentrations of contaminants, 7, 19, 80 regulatory limits, 34 and sampling methods, 85-86 and statistical methods, 6, 45 Conceptual errors, 66 Conditions on site use, 34 Confidence intervals, and map cells, 7, 67, 77-78 Confinement over aquifers, 43, 48 Contaminant pathways. See Flow paths Coordination among programs, 5, 39, 40 Federal, 105-108, 124 GIS facilitation of, 94 State and local, 108-109 weather data, 124-125 Counterintuitive situations, 11, 179 County assessments, 23, 37 soil databases, 90, 113 Coupled transport models, 6, 45, 53 Cracks, 3, 18, 21, 94 Cross-contamination, 22 D Data Base Analyzer and Parameter Estimator (DBAPE), 90-91 Data collection activity, 7, 9, 27, 38, 40, 65, 105 federal, 9, 105-108 remote sensing, 112, 132 of states, 9, 108 see also Monitoring activities and data Data quality and availability, 2-3, 4-5, 8, 9, 26, 27, 90 and method selection, 37-38 and overlay and index methods, 5-6, 38, 48, 50, 51, 52 and process-based models, 6, 27, 37-38, 53, 56, 94, 105 processing and storage errors, 7, 66 and statistical methods, 6, 38, 45, 60, 63 uncertainties and errors, 3, 7, 20, 38, 63-66, 76-77, 104-105 see also Data collection activity; Databases; Monitoring activities and data

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty Databases, 2-3, 9, 32, 87, 104-105, 131-132, 174-175 agricultural management, 90, 129-131, 183 automation of, 108-109, 131, 174 climate, 9, 91, 123-126, 182 federal coordination, 105-108 field assessments, 113, 120, 130-131 hydrogeologic, 2, 9, 63, 121-123, 177, 183 land use and cover, 2-3, 9, 126-129, 183 national assessments, 114, 120, 121, 174 regional assessments, 45, 114 soil properties, 2, 9, 90-91, 112-121, 177, 184 sources of, 125, 181-184 state and local, 108-109 topography, 9, 109-112, 184 see also Geographic information systems Decision making. See Land use management; Policy analysis and development Deep aquifers, 21, 22 Defense Mapping Agency, 110 Definitions of soil, 113 of vulnerability, 1-2, 15-19 Degradation, in situ measurement, 10, 175-176 see also Biodegradation Delphi approach, 52 Depth to water table, 2, 42, 43. in Iowa assessment, 9, 137-138 in overlay and index methods, 48, 49 in vulnerability definitions, 17 see also Flow paths Derived data, 90, 91, 95 Deterministic models, 9, 57, 79 Development of ground water, 22 Iowa assessment, 136 Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), 14, 152, 157, 160, 161 Differential geographic assessment, 7, 8, 77-78, 96, 172 map display of, 36-37, 67 Differential management, 32, 172-173 Cape Cod, 28, 140-144, 166 EPA, 16 Florida, 28, 148-151 Digital Elevation Model (DEM), 110-112 Discharge limits, 34 Discharge zones, 21 identification of, 10, 50, 176 Discriminant analysis, 60, 61, 62 Dispersion, 19 Display of results. See Geographic information systems; Maps and mapping Distributions of contaminants, 6, 45 DRASTIC, 50, 51, 52, 53, 81, 84 Cape Cod use, 141, 143, 144 Florida use, 148, 150, 166 Drinking water, 13, 14, 33 in Florida, 145-146 in vulnerability definitions, 17 E Ecosystems, 13, 33 Education. See Public education Elevation, 109, 110-112, 120, 126 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 16, 51 classification of methods, 44-45 Data Base Analyzer and Parameter Estimator, 90-91 databases, 130 Global Change Database Program, 126 National Pesticide Survey, 14, 81, 84 and President's Water Quality Initiative, 15 PRZM model, 52, 53, 55, 56, 70-72, 90 Equipment, 39, 40 Error. See Uncertainty and error Ethylene dibromide (EDB), 14, 147, 157, 161 Evaluation. See Testing and evaluation Extension Service (ES), 130

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty F Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey, 130 Farms. See Agricultural management; Fertilizers; Pesticides Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC), 9, 106-108, 174, 181 Federal government. See also Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Department of Agriculture; U.S. Geologic Survey data management, 9, 105-108 GIS use, 87, 92 land use management, 33, 127 water-level information, 48 Federal Information Processing Standard 173. See Spatial Data Transfer Standard Federal Interagency Coordination Committee on Digital Cartography (FICCDC), 106 Fertilizers, 14, 136, 145 Field assessments, 23, 37 databases, 113, 120, 130-131 testing of, 7, 8, 78-79 use of process-based models, 53, 59, 78-79 First Law of Ground Water Vulnerability, 2, 18-19, 170-171 First-order uncertainty analysis (FOUA), 68, 69, 73-75, 77 Fish and Wildlife Service, 127 Florida, 9, 14, 28, 145-151, 166 Flow paths, 3, 20, 21-22. See also Depth to water table preferential, 3, 6, 11, 21-22, 58-59, 94-95, 177, 178 travel time, 10, 19, 39, 81, 137, 176 Flow system. See Depth to water table; Discharge zones; Flow paths; Recharge rate; Recharge zones Forest Service, 123, 127 Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST), 71 Fractures, 18 G Geochemistry, 84 Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS), 127 Geographic information systems (GIS), 8, 9, 11, 42, 87-90, 91, 175, 178 errors in, 63, 66, 67, 92 Hawaii use of, 157 Iowa use of, 138 and modeling, 92-94 and overlay and index methods, 45, 52, 94 uncertainty display, 9, 92, 175 Geographic variation, 38, 170, 173 and overlay and index methods, 5-6, 50 see also Differential geographic assessment; Differential management Geologic Society of America, 121-122 Georgia, 14 Geostatistical analyses, 60, 62-63, 65 GLEAMS, 53, 54, 56 Global Change Database Program, 126 Government. See Federal government; Local government; Planning agencies; Regulation; State government Graphic display. See Geographic information systems; Maps and mapping GRASS Waterworks, 90, 91 Grid-cell based systems, 8, 87 Ground water Atlas of the United States, 121 Ground water vulnerability assessment methods, 45 Ground Water Vulnerability Index for Nitrates (GWVIN), 52 Ground Water Vulnerability Index for Pesticides (GWVIP), 15, 52, 162-165, 167 H Hawaii, 10, 14, 28, 156-161, 166

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty Hazardous waste disposal, 13 Historical Climate Network (HCN), 125 Horizontal (lateral) movement, 21, 50 Hybrid assessment methods, 11, 45, 60, 165, 167, 179 Hydraulic conductivity, 10, 90, 175 Hydrogeologic (physical) attributes, 37, 43-44. See also Depth to water table; Flow paths; Recharge rate; Soil properties; Topography; Unsaturated zone and assessment methods, 45 databases, 2, 9, 63, 121-123, 177, 183 and degradation rate, 10, 179 Florida, 145-146 Iowa, 137-138 and method selection, 5, 37 and overlay and index methods, 2, 5-6, 19, 45, 48-53 and process-based models, 54-55, 56, 57 San Joaquin Valley, 152 and statistical methods, 61 in vulnerability definitions, 17, 18 Hydrologic study units (HSUs), 61 and scale, 23 I Illinois, 51, 52 Index methods, 2, 3, 5-6, 19, 45, 46, 48, 62, 95, 173 GWVIP, 15, 52, 162-165, 167 Hawaii use of, 160-161, 166 USDA hybrid approach, 10, 28, 165, 167 use in Florida, 9, 28, 150, 166 Index value results, 7, 80 Injection wells, 14, 18 In situ measurements research needs, 10, 175-176 Integrated assessments. See Hybrid assessment methods Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 106 International Standards Organization (ISO) 8211 standard, 107 Interpretation, errors in, 65 Intrinsic vulnerability, 3, 21, 84, 171 and assessment method design, 46-47, 48 Iowa assessment, 9, 136 in overlay and index methods, 52-53 Ionic composition, 84 Iowa, 9, 22, 35, 52, 135-138, 165 Irrigation, 13, 123, 124, 129, 130 Florida, 145 San Joaquin Valley, 151 J Joints, 3, 21, 94 K Kriging, 60, 65 L Land owners, 33 voluntary behavior changes, 4, 31, 35 Land use and land cover (LULC) databases, 2-3, 9, 126-129, 183 Land use management, 4, 27, 31, 33-35, 40. See also Agricultural management; Land use and land cover databases maps, 51 technical assistance, 34-35 Landfills, 13, 16 Lateral transport. See Horizontal movement Law of ground water vulnerability First, 2, 18-19, 170-171 Second, 3, 20, 30, 170-171 Third, 8, 96 Leaching of contaminants, factors in, 2, 42-43 Leaching Potential Index, 82-83 LEACHM, 53, 55, 56, 58

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty Linear regression, 62 Loadings of contaminants, 7-8, 51, 80, 81, 97 in vulnerability definitions, 17 Local differences. See Differential geographic assessment; Differential management; Geographic variation Local government data management, 9, 105, 109, 127 GIS use, 87, 92 overlay and index methods use, 5, 45 M Macropores, 11, 120, 178 Major Land Resource Area (MRLA), 114 Management, 4-5, 26, 27 and process-based models, 56 see also Agricultural management; Data collection activity; Differential management; Land use decisions; Policy analysis and development; Program management; Public education; Regulation; Resource allocation; Zoning activity Maps and mapping, 3, 32, 36-37, 131, 132. in Cape Cod, 140-141 errors and uncertainty in, 7, 9, 37, 67, 75-76, 91-92, 96, 172, 175 in Florida, 149-150 geologic, 51 hydrogeologic, 121-123 technical supplementation, 37 topographical, 51, 110 water-level information, 48 zoning use, 34 see also Cells and polygons; Geographic information systems; Index methods; Land use and land cover databases; Overlay methods; Resolution; Scales and scaling; Soil maps Map Unit Interpretation Record (MUIR), 114, 119 Map Unit Use File (MUUF), 118-119 Mathematical models. See Process-based simulation models Methods selection of, 4, 5, 26-27, 35-40, 172, 173 types of, 2-3, 19, 42, 44-48 see also Hybrid assessment methods; Index methods; Overlay methods; Process-based simulation models; Statistical methods; Testing and evaluation; Uncertainty Microbial transformation. See Biodegradation Minnesota, 108, 122 Mitigation, 4, 14, 31, 34 Models. See Digital Elevation Model; Geographic information systems, and modeling; Process-based simulation models Monitoring activities and data, 28, 32, 34, 40, 81, 85-86 in California, 28, 153, 166 National Pesticide Survey, 14, 81, 84 and statistical methods, 6, 63 Monte Carlo techniques, 57, 70-72, 77 Multicounty assessments, 23, 37, 120 Multiple-phase transport models, 6, 43, 45 Multiple regression, 62 Multistate assessments, 23, 114, 120 Multivariate statistical techniques, 60, 62 N National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), 130 National Alachlor Well Water Survey, 81, 84 National assessments, 23, 37 databases, 114, 120, 121, 174 USDA, 10, 28, 162-165, 167

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), 125 National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS), 112 National Herbicide Use Database, 130 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Program regional centers, 125 and President's Water Quality Initiative, 15 National Park Service, 123 National Pesticide Survey, 14, 81, 84 National Resource Inventory (NRI), 115, 128, 129, 162-163 National Soil Characterization Database (NSCDB), 120 National Soil Geographic Database (NATSGO), 113, 115, 120 National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI), 106, 108, 131 National Water Quality Assessment Program, 164 National Weather Service (NWS), 123-126 N-dimensional queries, 93 Neighborhood analysis, 93 New York, 14 Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), 126 Nitrates, 14, 48, 52, 135-136 travel times, 19 NLEAP, 118 Nonparametric statistical techniques, 61, 62 Nonpoint sources, 14 in vulnerability definitions, 1, 16, 18 North Carolina, 51 NSSAD/SIRS, 90 Nuclear detonations, 18, 84 Numerical scoring. See Index methods O Oahu, Hawaii, 10, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 106 Official Soil Series Description (OSED), 119 Oil, 13, 18 One-dimensional transport models, 6, 28, 45, 53 Organic matter, 2, 42-43, 90, 113 Output. See also Maps and mapping; Probability; Uncertainty errors in, 67 presentation of, 36-37 value of, 39 Overlay methods, 2, 3, 5-6, 22, 45, 46, 48, 62, 95, 173 use in Florida, 9, 28, 150, 166 use in Iowa, 9, 22, 28, 137-138, 165 Ownership. See Land owners P Pedons, 113, 119-120 Percolation, 3, 21 Permits, conditions on, 34 Personnel. See Staffing Pesticide Information Network, 130 Pesticide Management Zones, 28 Pesticide Properties Database, 130 Pesticide-Root Zone Model. See PRZM Pesticides, 14 assessment methods, 45, 48 databases, 130 in Florida, 9, 14, 145, 147 in Hawaii, 10, 14, 157-161, 166 in Iowa, 136 process-based transport models, 53-56 in San Joaquin Valley, 9-10, 151-155, 166 transport of, 19, 44, 70-72 voluntary restrictions, 35 in vulnerability definitions, 17, 18 vulnerability index (GWVIP), 15, 52, 162-165, 167 Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy,

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty Pesticides in Ground Water Database, 130 Physical attributes. See Hydrogeologic attributes Pipelines, 13 Planning agencies overlay and index methods use, 5, 45 statistical methods use, 61 Point sources, 13-14 in vulnerability definitions, 1, 16, 18 Policy analysis and development, 4, 26-27, 30-32, 40 agricultural management, 164-165, 167 Florida, 147-148 Iowa, 136 maps use in, 131, 132 Polygons. See Cells and polygons Population at risk, 13, 17 in Florida, 145-146 in Hawaii, 156 Postaudit analyses, 78.79 Potential evaporation, 123, 124 Precipitation, 20-21, 124 databases, 2, 91, 123, 125, 126 Florida, 146 Preferential flow paths, 3, 11, 21-22, 94-95, 177, 178 and process-based models, 6, 58-59, 94-95 President's Water Quality Initiative, 15, 162, 164 Probability, 3, 6, 7, 8, 20, 80, 96-97, 171 in statistical methods, 6, 60 in stochastic models, 57 Process-based simulation models, 2, 6, 19, 37, 45, 47, 48, 53-60, 94, 95, 173 Cape Cod use, 9, 28, 140-141, 166 data quality and availability, 6, 27, 37-38, 53, 56, 94, 105 Hawaii use of, 160-161, 166 hybrid methods, 10, 28, 165, 167, 179 and preferential flow paths, 6, 58-59, 94-95 use in Oahu, 10, 28 Program management, 4, 31, 32-33 Protecting the Nation's Ground Water: EPA's Strategy for the 1990s, 16 PRZM, 52, 53, 55, 56, 70-72, 90 Hawaii use of, 160 Pseudospecific vulnerability, 52-53 Public education, 4, 27, 31, 35, 40, 172 in Cape Cod assessment, 35 federal geographic data, 108 in Iowa assessment, 35, 136, 172 Pumping, 18, 22, 81, 86 Cape Cod, 140, 141-142 Florida, 145 Purging, 86 Purposeful placement, 1, 16, 18 R Recharge rate, 2, 42, 43 Iowa assessment, 136 in overlay and index methods, 48, 49, 50 and uncertainty analysis, 73 Recharge zones, 20-21 Cape Cod, 141-142, 165-166 identification of, 10, 50, 176 Reference location, 3, 20-21, 81, 97 in overlay and index methods, 46, 48, 50 used in selected methods, 46-47, 48 Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program, 121 Regional assessments, 37, 50, 173 databases, 45, 114 and process-based models, 53, 59-60 scales, 23 and statistical methods, 61 testing of, 7-8, 78, 80-84 Regional Climate Centers (RCCs), 125 Regression analyses, 60, 61, 62 Regulation, 34, 172-173. See also Screening of sites; Zoning activity California, 152-155 Cape Cod, 139, 141-144 Florida, 146-147, 148-151

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty overlay and index methods use, 5, 45 statistical methods use, 5, 45 and uncertainty analysis, 75-77 Relative humidity, 123, 124 Remote sensing, 112, 132 Resolution, 3, 23, 24, 36 and zoning activity, 34 Resource allocation, 4, 27, 31, 32-33, 40 and map displays, 36 programmatic, 39 Results. See Output Retardation Factor (RF), 68, 73-75, 176 Risk, definition of, 17 Rivers, 13 Root holes, 21, 94 Runoff, 109 Rural areas and climate, 123, 124 drinking water, 13, 14 pesticide residues in wells, 14 RUSTIC, 90 S Safe Drinking Water Act, 35 Salt water intrusion, 18, 145, 156 Samples and sampling compliance monitoring, 34 equipment, 39 errors in, 65, 84-86 limitations of, 84-86 soils, 10, 113, 115, 120 from wells, 81, 84-86, 97 San Joaquin Valley, California, 9-10, 151-155, 166 Saturated zone hydraulic conductivity, 10, 175 Scales and scaling, 3, 20, 23-25, 28-29, 173, 174. See also Resolution; Time scales digital terrain data, 110, 112 hydrogeologic maps, 121-123 land use and cover maps, 127 merging of, 11, 177-178 and overlay and index methods, 46, 48 and process-based models, 6, 47, 48, 58, 59-60, 105 of sample measurements, 10, 176 soil surveys, 112-114, 121 and statistical methods, 47, 60 variability in, 65 Screening of sites, 33-34 and process-based models, 56 Screens, monitoring, 85-86 Seasonal variation, 65 and overlay and index methods, 5-6, 48, 50 Second Law of Ground Water Vulnerability, 3, 20, 30, 170-171 Sedimentary basin brines, 2, 19 Selection of methods and data quality, 37-38 institutional considerations, 5, 27, 39-40 technical considerations, 5, 27, 36-38 and uncertainty, 7, 38 Sensitivity, definition of, 17, 18 Septic tanks, 14, 18 Cape Cod, 139-140 Florida, 145 Shallow aquifers, 21, 22 Simulation. See Process-based simulation models Site selection, 31, 33-34, 56, 67-68 Site-specific databases soil, 119-120 Site-specific simulation models data requirements, 37 Size of assessment area, 37 SNOTEL, 125 Snowpack, 124, 125 Soil Classification File (SC), 119 Soil Conservation Service (SCS), 34, 123 Climatic Data Access Facility, 125-126 databases, 90, 120, 125-126, 128, 130-131

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty maps and mapping standards, 10, 51, 112, 121, 177 models, 91, 92-93 National Resource Inventory, 115, 128, 129, 162-163 Soil Interpretation Record (SIR), 117-118, 120 Soil loss, 92-93 Soil maps, 51, 112-121 standards for, 10, 112, 177 Soil-Pesticide Interaction Screening Procedure (SPISP), 162 SOILPROP, 90, 91 Soil properties combination with geologic information, 10, 176 databases, 2, 9, 90-91, 112-121, 177, 184 filtration, 13, 48 in overlay and index methods, 48, 49, 51 and process-based models, 37 San Joaquin Valley, 152, 155 in situ measurement, 10, 175, 177 in vulnerability definitions, 17 see also Soil maps Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO), 112-115, 120-121 Solar radiation, 123, 124 Sole source aquifer, 35, 139 Solution channels, 3, 21, 94-95 Sorption, 2, 19, 42-43, 48, 59, 176 Sources of pollution, 13-14. See also Nonpoint sources; Point sources Spatial Data Transfer Standard, 106, 107, 174 Spatial databases, 8, 9, 20, 96. See also Geographic information systems Spatial scales. See Resolution; Scales and scaling Specific vulnerability, 3, 21, 171 and assessment method design, 46-47, 48 in overlay and index methods, 52 Specificity of contaminants, 3, 20, 21 Spills, 21 containment, 34 Staffing, 39, 40 Standards for geographic data, 9, 106-108, 174 for soil mapping, 10, 112, 177 State Geographic Systems Activities Compendium, 109 State government data management, 9, 105, 108-109 GIS use, 87, 92 land use management, 33, 127 monitoring activities, 28 overlay and index methods use, 5, 45, 52 and President's Water Quality Initiative, 15 vulnerability assessments, 16 water-level information, 48 weather data, 123 State-level assessments, 37 databases, 114, 120 scales, 23 use of overlay methods, 51-52 State Management Plans (SMPs), 16 State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO), 112-113, 114, 115, 120 Statistical methods, 2, 6, 19, 45, 47, 48, 60-63, 173 data quality and availability, 6, 38, 45, 60, 63 parameters in, 60, 62 and uncertainty, 38, 60, 68, 95 Stochastic models, 9, 57, 68, 77 Streams, 13, 21 Surface impoundments, 13 Florida, 145 Surface water and discharge areas, 13, 21 T Targeting of resources. See Resource allocation Technical assistance, 34-35 Temperature, 2, 43, 91, 123, 124, 125, 126

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty Tennessee Valley Authority, 127 Terrain. See Topography Testing and evaluation, 4, 7-8, 20, 26, 27, 42, 77-78, 80, 96, 97, 173-174 equipment, 39 field assessments, 7, 8, 78-79 of overlay and index methods, 52 regional assessments, 7-8, 78, 80-84 use of statistical tools, 45, 68 Third Law of Ground Water Vulnerability, 8, 96 Time scales, 3, 5, 20, 39, 65, 170. See also Seasonal variation merging of, 11, 177-178 and water travel, 10, 19, 39, 81, 137, 176 Time series methods, 60, 61, 65 Topography databases, 9, 109-112, 184 maps, 51, 110 Trace elements, 18 Transport of contaminants. See Depth to water table; Flow paths; Leaching of contaminants; Process-based simulation models Travel time to water table, 10, 19, 39, 81, 137, 176 Iowa assessment, 137 Trichloropropane, 161 Tritium, 84 Truncated data, 60 U Uncertainty and error, 3, 7, 20, 26-27, 30, 38, 41, 42, 96-97, 170-171, 173 analysis of, 5, 7, 11, 67-77 in data, 3, 7, 20, 38, 63-66 display of, 9, 11, 20, 37, 92, 96, 174-175, 178 in method application, 3, 20, 63, 77 in method execution, 3, 7, 20, 63-64, 66-67 in process-based models, 57-58 in soil mapping, 10, 177 and statistical methods, 38, 60, 68, 95 Underground Injection Control Program, 51 Underground storage tanks, 13, 16 Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), 92-93 Universities, 48, 123 Unsaturated (vadose) zone, 2, 19, 42-43 characterization of, 10, 123, 176-177 hydraulic conductivity, 10, 175 in overlay and index methods, 48, 49, 50-51 solution channels in, 21 transport through, 2, 6, 43, 45 Urban areas, 124 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers GRASS Waterworks, 90, 91 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases, 128, 130 hybrid method use, 10, 28, 165, 167 President's Water Quality Initiative, 15, 162, 164 vulnerability index (GWVIP), 15, 52, 162-165, 167 see also Soil Conservation Service U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. See Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, 164 RASA program, 121 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maps, 51, 110, 121, 122, 127, 128 and President's Water Quality Initiative, 15 Uses of assessments, 4, 26, 27, 30-31, 40-41 constraints on, 4-5, 31, 35, 38, 40-41 institutional considerations, 39-40 technical considerations, 36-39 and uncertainty, 39 see also Educational outreach; Land use management; Policy analysis and development; Program management

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty V Vadose zone. See Unsaturated zone Validation. See Testing and evaluation Variation and variability. See Differential geographic assessment; Differential management; Geographic variation; Seasonal variation Verification. See Testing and evaluation Voluntary activities, 4, 31, 35 Iowa, 28, 35 Vulnerability index, 77-78, 162. See also Ground Water Vulnerability Index for Pesticides W Water content, 2, 43, 90 Watershed assessments, 37 Watershed modeling, 59, 91 Water table. See also Depth to water table as reference location, 3, 20-21 sampling near, 85-86 Weather, databases, 9, 91, 123-126, 182 Weights, 5-6, 45, 52, 95, 173 Wells, 3, 10, 14, 18, 21, 22, 35, 81, 84, 97 Cape Cod, 139, 140 in Florida assessment, 145, 148 in Iowa assessment, 9, 135-136 logs, 48, 122-123 Wind, 123, 124 Wisconsin, 52, 122 Worm holes, 21, 94 Z Zoning activity, 33-34

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty PLATE 1 Ground water vulnerability regions of Iowa. (Hoyer 1991. Reprinted, by permission from Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 1991.) A more detailed version of this map is available from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Bureau, Iowa City, Iowa

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty PLATE 2 Water resources classification map for Cape Cod, Massachusetts. (Adapted from CCC 1991. Reprinted, by permission, from Cape Cod Commission, 1991.)

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty PLATE 3 Risk to public-supply well from land use in the Barnstable zone to contribution. (Olimpio et al. 1991.)

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty

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Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty PLATE 4 Risk to public-supply wells from land use in the Barnstable zone of contribution. (Olimpio et al. 1991.)