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APPENDIX F Pilot Training Requirements Following is a summary of training requirements for selected pilotage juris- dictions in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the Panama Canal. The emphasis is on requirements for an original pilot's license (as opposed to renewals or certificates of exemption) and, when noteworthy, continuing education. This listing is not exhaustive; rather, exam- ples were selected to illustrate the considerable diversity in training require- ments, both within the United States and worldwide. A summary of training in the towing industry is also included, as pilotage in the industry under existing rules and regulations relies heavily on vessel operator experience. The sources for this appendix include written and oral presentations to the committee, statutes, rules and regulations, and other documents provided by pilot organizations and individual experts. FEDERAL PILOT LICENSES AND ENDORSEMENTS General requirements for pilot certification and licensing are set by statute. Applicants must demonstrate "the requisite general knowledge and skill" and proficient use of aids to navigation, and they must have "sufficient experience . . . to evidence ability to handle any vessel of the type and size which the applicant may be authorized to pilot" (U.S.C. Annotated, 1990, Section 7101~. Specific minimum requirements are contained in the Code of Federal Regu- lations Title 46 and local Coast Guard policies as determined by the Officer in Charge of Marine Inspection (OCMI). An applicant for a Federal First Class Pilot's License (general routes) must have 36 months' service in the deck depart- ment of steam or motor vessels, including 18 months as quartermaster; wheels 416

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 417 man; able seaman; apprentice pilot; or in an equivalent capacity, standing regu- lar watches at the wheel or in the pilothouse as part of routine duties. At least 12 of the 18 months must be on vessels operating on the class of waters for which the pilot license is sought (CFR 46: 10.703~. To qualify for an original license, an applicant must complete 12 to 20 round trips, 25 percent of them during darkness, while serving as quartermaster, wheelsman, able seaman, apprentice pilot, or in an equivalent capacity, or as an observer. One of the round trips must be made in the 6 months immediately preceding the date of application. Additional trips may be required by the OCMI for an individual to qualify for a particular route in order to become familiar with the geographic configuration of the waterway, the type and size of vessels on the waterway, the availability of aids to navigation, background lighting, and known hazards (CFR 46: 10.7053. A candidate must pass a written examination covering piloting, celestial phenomena, seamanship, watchkeeping, compasses, meteorology, shiphandling, pollution prevention regulations, shipboard management and training, and com- munications. The candidate must also make a chart sketch of the route, detailing recommended courses, distances, prominent aids to navigation, depths of waters in channels and over hazardous shoals, and other important features of the route, such as character of the bottom (CFR 46:10.707, 10.901, 10.910~. Once licensed, a pilot must meet one continuing-education requirement: one re-familiarization round trip every 60 months (CFR 46:10.713~. There are no specific pilot training or skill requirements, or skill-development requirements beyond experience and trips, although federal pilot associations providing local or regional services may adopt additional requirements. Interport Pilots Agency (Connecticut, Delaware, New 'Jersey, New York) Interport selects pilot candidates with extensive maritime experience and a federal pilot's license. To earn a federal license in the Port of New York and New Jersey, a candidate must complete at least 36 round trips and pass a series of examinations, the first for the original license and an additional test for each route endorsement. The candidate then is required by the association to ride and train with experienced pilots. The candidate begins piloting alone upon approval of the association membership, working jobs of increasing difficulty while gain- ing experience and confidence. There is no set time period for training, but it generally lasts 1 to 2 years (Lou Bettinelli, Interport Pilots Agency, personal communications, May 29-31, 1991~. New York/New Jersey Docking Masters State regulations specify that a docking master must have a federal pilot's

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418 APPENDIX F license and at least 10 years' experience working in vessel deck departments, including 5 years as a licensed master or mate. Six years of training are required. Within the first 2 years, the trainee must observe at least 225 passages, dockings, and undockings; at least 25 of these maneuvers must be performed by the trainee under the supervision of a docking master. During the next 4 years, the trainee is to be given assignments of increasing difficulty commensurate with experience (New York State Regulations, Part 57, provided to the committee by the Board of Commissioners of Pilots of the State of New York, May 8, 19911. A trainee rides with and observes senior pilots for at least one year before being assigned to the first solo job. The time period varies according to evaluations of the trainee by senior pilots and the Operations Department of McAllister Towing & Transportation Co., whose clients the docking masters serve. The trainee then is assigned light work until it is determined, through regular evaluations, that work difficulty can be upgraded. During this period and throughout their careers, pi- lots are expected- to ride with and observe senior pilots (Robert A. Moore, New York/New Jersey Docking Masters, personal communication, May 29, 1991~. McCormick Docking Pilots (Port of New York and New Jersey) Docking master candidates must have experience as tug mates or captains. Potential candidates initially accompany senior tug captains to learn shiphan- dling, local knowledge, and low-speed maneuvering. After evaluation by the tug captain and the tug operations division, candidates become relieving captains on smaller tugs. If they show aptitude for piloting, then they may be assigned either as a mate with a tug captain/docking pilot, or as a captain of a ship-docking tug. Throughout this period, the candidate is observed by seasoned senior docking pilots or tug captains. The hands-on apprenticeship lasts at least 10 years, includ- ing at least 5 years as a licensed mate or captain. During these 5 years, the candidate must observe on the bridge of an oceangoing vessel with a senior docking pilot on at least 225 passages, dockings, or undockings; the candidate also must perform at least 25 maneuvers within a 2-year period. Upon complet- ing the apprenticeship, a pilot is scrutinized and evaluated carefully during the progression to senior pilot status, a process than can take 10 years (Richard P. Wieners, McCormick Pilot Association, personal communication, July 29, 19911. Wilmington-Cape Fear Pilots (North Carolina) Under the state code, the Cape Fear Navigation and Pilotage Commission establishes rules and regulations regarding pilot qualifications. The commission has adopted a Coast Guard-approved apprentice training program developed spe- cifically for the Wilmington-Cape Fear Pilots Association. Applicants must have a 4-year college degree or a minimum third mate's license (unlimited ocean)

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 419 and must be recommended by a majority vote of the association and approved by a majority vote of the commission. The apprenticeship lasts up to 3 years for unlicensed applicants, up to 1 year for third mates. During the apprenticeship, novices must make at least 360 trips and third mates at least 120 trips. The apprentice is tutored by licensed pilots and must master learning tasks that meet the job performance needs of piloting, which were determined by a formal job task analysis (Bennett, 19893. A candidate's progress is graded every 6 months by tutor pilots, and a detailed log is kept of each trip under the guidance of tutor pilots. (Basil R. Watts, Wilmington-Cape Fear Pilots Association, personal com- munication, December 16, 19911. Following the apprenticeship, a candidate rec- ommended by a majority of the association may be issued a limited license. During the next year, the pilot serves on ships of increasing draft and tonnage, with each increase endorsed by a majority of the association. At the end of the year, upon recommendation of a majority of the association, the commission may issue a full license (Bennett, 1989~. Cape Fear Docking Pilots (North Carolina) Cape Fear docking pilots have extensive experience on tugs, having served in all capacities from deckhand to captain and even in engineering roles. A pilot candidate initially rides as an observer to the senior docking pilot on vessels of the size and character that the trainee later will handle. Although there is no formal apprenticeship program, docking pilots are brought up "through the ranks." As a deckhand, a candidate is observed by the tug captain, and promo- tion is based on merit. Once promoted to relief captain or mate, the candidate gains experience in shiphandling and learns how ships and tugs interact. Having advanced to mate or captain and obtained a federal pilot's license, the apprentice continues to ride as an observer with senior pilots. After a sufficient number of observation trips, the candidate pilots vessels of limited draft and tonnage with supervision. There is no specific trip requirement. The candidate is evaluated by senior pilots and is allowed to progress at an individual pace James A. Register, Cape Fear Docking Pilots, personal communication, July 8, 19915. Associated Federal Coast Pilots (Louisiana) The Associated Federal Coast Pilots require pilot candidates to have a fed- eral pilot's license and at least 5 years' experience as a deep-sea master or harbor tug master (with some exceptions). Prospective candidates are screened on eight parameters. After a vote by association members, the top two candidates are screened more thoroughly. Members then vote again to select one candidate as an apprentice. The 6-month apprenticeship begins with 1 month of rides with pilots as an observer, followed by hands-on training under pilot supervision (Fred Boyd, Associated Federal Coast Pilots of Louisiana, personal communica

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420 APPENDIX F lion, January 15, 1992~. The Coast Guard requires 20 round trips (Associated Federal Coast Pilots, correspondence, September 23, 1991~. Then there is a pro- bationary period of 1 year longer if necessary with a vessel draft restriction of 25 feet, followed by another vote. Apprentices are graded during their proba- tion on ability, shiphandling, pilot/captain working and interpersonal relation- ships, Coast Guard-required knowledge, and knowledge of the river. The associ- ation sends some members for shiphandling simulation training (Fred Boyd, as noted above). Puget Sound (Washington) Under local Coast Guard policy for Puget Sound, candidates for an original federal pilot's license or endorsement must complete 12 round trips as master, 15 round trips as mate or observer, or 18 round trips as able seaman, quartermas- ter, or wheelsman. Certain routes require fewer round trips. For example, 3 to 9 round trips are required for certain main channel routes, 9 to 12 round trips for terminal ports (after approval for the adjacent main-channel route), and 3 round trips for an interconnecting ferry route. Candidates also must pass the standard examination, including the chart sketch (Coast Guard, Marine Safety Office Puget Sound, Form 009, March 19893. STATE PILOT LICENSES Training requirements for state-licensed pilots may be established by state statute or regulations, or both, or by pilot associations. Programs range from highly prescriptive to informal; all involve on-thejob training that relies on the judgment of supervising pilots. Some jurisdictions accept pilot candidates with little or no maritime experience, while others require prior sea service, often designating experienced trainees as deputy pilots. Virtually all state-licensed pilots also obtain a Federal First Class Pilot's License, either as a condition of employment or as a required step in the training process. In any case, state- licensed pilots have a financial incentive to obtain the federal license, because it enables them to serve ships in the domestic trade. Alaska Under the Marine Pilotage Act that took effect in 1991, a state Board of Marine Pilots establishes criteria for selecting pilot trainees and for training programs conducted by pilot organizations. An applicant for deputy pilot must have significant maritime experience, including 2 years' service as a licensed master on vessels or tug and tow of at least 1,600 gross tons, 2 years' service as a commanding officer of U.S.-commissioned vessels of at least 1,600 gross tons, and 3 years' experience as a member of a professional pilot's organization while

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 421 an active pilot. Candidates must also pass written and oral examinations and complete training requirements established by the board. The law specifies that required training may include supervised trips, dockings, undockings, and tug- assisted maneuvers; any special training necessary for a particular pilotage re- gion; and completion of the training program within a specified time period. After three years as a deputy, a candidate is eligible for a marine pilot license (House Bill 194 EL&C], 17th Legislature, First Session, Legislature of the State of Alaska, May 19, 1991~. California San Francisco Bar Pilots A pilot training program and training standards for pilots, inland pilots, and pilot trainees are required by California's Harbor and Navigation Code, Section 1171.5. The code provides basic specifications for training and charges the Cali- fornia State Board of Pilot Commissioners for the Bays of San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisan to develop specific standards and programs. The standards are required by law to equal or exceed standards for federal pilotage. The code specifies a minimum of 1 year and a maximum of 3 years training for pilot trainees. Also required is a pilot evaluation committee consisting of five active licensed bar pilots. The State Board is responsible for selecting and examining pilot trainees. The board also selects members of the pilot evaluation committee who are responsible for conducting and supervising the training programs. Regulations specify that candidates must hold a valid federal master's li- cense with an unlimited radar observers' endorsement. Under the board's licens- ing standards, pilot candidates must also have served at least 2 years as master or pilot in another area. Trainees are selected by the board based on oral and written examinations. They must complete 1 to 3 years of on-thejob training under the supervision of a licensed bar pilot, who must submit written reports that are required by the pilot evaluation committee. During this period, trainees must obtain all applicable endorsements for federal pilot licenses and attend various simulation training courses specified by the committee, which evaluates trainees throughout the training period and reports regularly to the board. The Coast Guard requires a minimum of 15 round trips through each of seven pilotage areas to qualify for examination for federal endorsements covering all pilotage waters in the area; the number of additional trips is not specified. Generally, a trainee with substantial sea service and piloting experience makes about 200 additional round trips. A trainee with lesser marine experience typically makes up to an additional 500 or more trips (Arthur J. Thomas, San Francisco Bar Pilots, personal communication, August 5, 19911. The State Board reports that the training curriculum consists of trips on all sizes and classes of vessels on all pilotage routes and into all berths on those

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422 APPENDIX F routes. It also consists of classroom instruction covering all aspects of a pilot's duties supplemented by computer-based and manned-model simulations. Under a continuing professional development program, all licensed pilots are sent to a one-week course in manned-model shiphandling simulation (Charles Adams, California State Board of Pilot Commissioners, personal communication, July 16, 1991~. This requirement for active pilots is being expanded to require atten- dance at computer-based shiphandling simulations for training in bridge-team management and emergency procedures. The board reports that the curriculum, although not previously published, has been consistently applied to all trainees and is scheduled for publication. Long Beach and Los Angeles Long Beach and Los Angeles pilots hold federal licenses only, even though they serve ships in foreign trade. State licenses have not been required (see Chapter 3~. The Port of Long Beach appoints a Board of Pilot Commissioners, which contracts for pilotage service. The contractor is Jacobsen's Pilot Service, a pri- vate, employee-owned company that trains and employs pilots. Pilot candidates are screened for background, experience, and personality; about 80 percent of Jacobsen pilots come from the towing industry. The performance-based training program takes at least two-and-a-half years, including a 1-year probationary period. An apprentice is assigned about 70 to 80 jobs per month, with training directed at filling any gaps in prior experience. Former ship officers ride tugs, for example, and candidates from the towing industry ride ships. Trainees are also introduced to the business side of shipping, to build appreciation for the whole system. Computer-based shiphandling simulation is used for practicing risky maneuvers and for training in communications. Apprentices are evaluated by experienced pilots in consultation with experienced ship masters (John Strong, Jacobsen's Pilot Service, personal communications, October 6-8, 1991.) In Los Angeles, pilotage is regulated by the Board of Harbor Commission- ers, which is appointed by the mayor and empowered by the state to establish pilotage regulations for foreign trade. Local pilots are civil servant employees of the commission. Under city rules, pilot candidates must have 3 years of full-time paid experience as one of the following: licensed master or chief mate of an inspected vessel of at least 5,000 gross tons on any ocean; port pilot whose duties include docking and undocking of oceangoing or coastwise vessels in a major U.S. port; or master of a tugboat in San Pedro Bay and its tributaries, with experience as docking master on flat tow vessels of at least 5,000 gross tons. In keeping with the city's standing but unwritten practice, candidates take an oral examination, and the top six scorers are interviewed in depth. Candidates are interviewed to assess their training, experience, and personal qualifications; of particular interest is ability to pilot and navigate all types of oceangoing vessels

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 423 and to deal tactfully and effectively with ships' agents and officers. The pilots have established, informally but with the approval of the port's director of oper- ations, a 2-year training program. At the beginning of training, trainees ride as observers with pilots and aboard tugs. After 3 or 4 weeks, they begin to pilot vessels of limited size in and out of anchor; size limitations are increased gradu- ally, at a rate that depends on the trainee's progress and prior experience (Ward Pearce Jr., Worldport Los Angeles, personal communication, July 8, 1991; Patrick Donohugh, assistant chief pilot, personal communication, April 21, 19933. Florida Under state law, candidates for deputy pilot must have 2 years of sea service in the last 5 years to be eligible for the initial certification examination. Passing candidates are issued a 9-month temporary deputy certificate for a designated port. The state Board of Pilot Commissioners evaluates the deputy's perfor- mance for suitability to continue training and makes a recommendation to the state Department of Professional Regulation. Given a favorable recommenda- tion, the deputy receives a 2-year certificate, which may be renewed as neces- sary. To obtain a full pilot license, a deputy must obtain a federal pilot's license, complete the board-approved training program developed by the local pilot's association, and pass an additional exam. The law sets parameters for training: the deputy must serve at least 90 days as an observer trainee and must submit to the board a written report for each trip accompanying a state pilot. The deputy gains experience in stages, serving vessels of increasing length and draft, with each request for an increase submitted to the board. Active pilots must attend a board-approved seminar for continuing education (Florida Statutes, Chapter 310.071-.081). Port Everglades The deputy-pilot training program includes at least 600 rides with senior pilots over a period of at least 3 months (Robert I. Jackson, Port Everglades Pilots' Association, personal communication, July 18, 19911. Association rules require each active pilot to participate in simulator training every 5 years (Ed- ward "Ned" Cray, Board of Pilot Commissioners, State Pilotage Symposium, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, September 20, 1991~. Tampa Bay The deputy-pilot training program consists of nine levels defined by gradu- ally increasing vessel-size limits. Level 1 is the observer trainee stage, during which a candidate obtains a federal pilot's license and then may pilot vessels under supervision. At Level 2, the candidate may pilot vessels with a draft limi

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424 APPENDIX F ration of 21 feet and length limit of 500 feet. By Level 9, the draft limit is increased to 37 feet. Candidates must train for at least 90 days at each level and must obtain the recommendation of all tutor pilots to complete that level. Before requesting board approval to advance, a deputy must handle at least two vessels of the next level under the supervision of a state-licensed pilot and must receive that pilot's recommendation (Department of Professional Regulation, Deputy Pilot Training Program, Approved by the Board of Pilot Commissioners, Janu- ary 26, 1988 fRevised May 16, 19901~. Hawaii Under state administrative rules, an applicant for deputy pilot must have an unlimited master's license, federal pilot endorsements for all Hawaiian ports, 4 years' experience as a licensed deck officer including one as chief officer (or 2 years as an officer and 1 as a pilot), and at least 50 round trips in and out of Honolulu Harbor as an observer. The applicant also must pass a written exami- nation. Before applying for a full port pilot license, a deputy must serve at least 18 months, including 6 months piloting vessels under 500 feet in length and less than 30 feet in draft. A deputy must have 12 months' experience before piloting a tanker or passenger vessel. The director of commerce and consumer affairs may contract with a "qualified entity" to establish a training program (Hawaii Administrative Rules, Title 16, Chapter 96, Subchapter 61. The Hawaii Pilots Association's 2-year training program requires that, in addition to the 50 round-trip entry requirement, trainees complete 350 observa- tion trips in Honolulu with a licensed pilot and 500 solo assignments. Most trainees make even more transits (Leonard A. Stenback, Hawaii Pilots Associa- tion, personal communication, July 16, 19911. Because pilotage varies from port to port, the training program of the Port Pilots of Hawaii is designed to provide a deputy with maximum shiphandling training in Honolulu Harbor, after which the learned skills can be applied under the supervision of a licensed pilot to other routes. Each deputy pilot acquires local knowledge in an individual manner. The state Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs is studying proposals for the continuing training of pilots (Lou Geronimo, Port Pilots of Hawaii, personal communication, November 18, 19911. Louisiana About 20 percent of all state-licensed pilots in the nation work on the Mis- sissippi River. Three pilot associations operate on the river (Michael R. Deles- dernier, personal communication, January 17, 19921. Under state law, the pilots in each association are regulated by a board of commissioners or examiners, which set minimum standards for applicants. Applicants must have a federal

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 425 pilot's license and serve a 6-month apprenticeship (Louisiana Senate Bill 956, Act 418, Regular Session of 1988, Section 1, R.S. 1045~. The pilot associations establish local training programs to meet the governing board's standards. Crescent River Port Pilots Pilot candidates in the Crescent River Port undergo a 12-month apprentice- ship and 1 year of limited service (Michael R. Delesdernier, as cited above). A federal pilot's license for any gross tons is a prerequisite. The apprenticeship includes a seminar, sessions on maritime law and customs, discussions by ship- ping agents, reviews of past incidents, and shiphandling courses. Candidates may be enrolled in manned-model shiphandling simulation courses. Once all qualifications are met, candidates can be issued a state license under the over- sight of the Board of Examiners (Mark Delesdernier Jr., Crescent River Port Pilots Association, personal communication, January 15, 1991~. New Orleans-Baton Rouge Pilots The New Orleans-Baton Rouge Steamship Pilots Association (NOBRA) re- quires candidates to have a federal pilot's license, a high school diploma or two years' service in the wheelhouse, and a river master's or mate's license. In gen- eral, applicants have 8 to 10 years experience as pilots. The association "orients" pilots for about 6 months rather than training them. Candidates then take the board exam, which focuses on practical piloting rather than theory. Newly li- censed pilots are restricted to vessels of less than 40,000 gross tons and 36-foot draft (C. E. "Joe" Clayton, NOBRA, personal communication, January 15, 1991J. Associated Branch Pilots Pilot candidates are required to have 2 years of sea service. (One year of the Coast Guard's 3-year requirement was waived in consideration of the associa- tion's informal apprentice training program, which lasts at least 2 years.) The candidate begins training as a boatman, observing senior apprentices for a month or two. The candidate then maintains and operates pilot boats for about a year, thereby learning the local routes. The pilots then judge whether the candidate is ready to become an apprentice pilot. During the apprenticeship which normal- ly lasts 2 to 3 years the candidate first rides as an observer when not on watch. The pilots then begin to tutor the apprentice, who gradually assumes piloting duties under supervision. Each apprentice progresses at an individual pace. The federal's pilot license is obtained during this period. When ready, the apprentice begins "rubbing"; state regulations specify that a cub must pilot (under supervi- sion) at least 650 trips total over the three local routes during a 9-month period. The cub then is tested by the Board of Examiners, who may recommend a pass

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426 APPENDIX F ing candidate to the governor for appointment as a pilot (Jacques Michel, per- sonal communication, April 21, 19931. New York The Port of New York and New Jersey is served by two pilot associations that operate jointly as the United New York and New Jersey Sandy Hook Pilots' Association. New York State regulations specify the educational and training requirements for pilot candidates, who are selected by the state Board of Com- missioners for Pilots. Candidates must have 2 years of college, including at least 56 credits in subjects approved by the board. The board selects Sandy Hook apprentices based on academic record, satisfactory completion of prescribed courses at the Sandy Hook pilot school (or the equivalent), and personal inter- views. Regulations call for a candidate to spend at least 2 years as a junior apprentice before promotion to boat-keeper. Beginning in the 16th month as boat-keeper, the candidate must be instructed in shiphandling and all aspects of piloting. An apprentice must complete at least 225 passages in the company of licensed Sandy Hook pilots. The apprentice must also pass an examination (New York State Regulations, Part 51, Pilot Apprentices and Pilots in Training, pro- vided to the committee by Robert H. Pouch, Board of Commissioners of Pilots of the State of the New York, May 29, 1991~. The pilots' association maintains a full-time pilot instructor at the Sandy Hook pilot school on Staten Island. The initial apprenticeship lasts three-and- one-half years, after which the candidate becomes a registered apprentice for four years. The training program includes 6 days per month of academic classes in nautical science and assignments to be completed while on sea duty. Appren- tices also gain practical shiphandling experience, riding about 400 ships during the first six-and-three-quarter years. Before piloting ships alone, a senior regis- tered apprentice undergoes an intensive 9-month training, piloting an additional 225 ships under the supervision of senior pilots. Additional specialized training is given outside the school in fire fighting, radar, and automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA). Each apprentice is evaluated once a month by the director of training. After completing the apprenticeship, the trainee undergoes up to 1 week of writ- ten and oral examinations before becoming a deputy pilot for vessels limited to a 24-foot draft and 10,000 tons. These limits are increased on a schedule that is based on performance reviews, and all restrictions are removed after 7 years of satisfactory service. The total period of training and experience lasts at least fourteen-and-one-half years. (Vincent A. Black, United Sandy Hook Pilots of New York and New Jersey, personal communications, May 29-31, 1991~. Maine Maine law requires that pilot applicants have a federal pilot's endorsement

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 427 and access to proper means for boarding and leaving vessels (Maine Public Law, Chapter 509, Title 38, August 1991~. Portland Pilots, a small association for the port of Portland, does not require candidates to have a master's license for oceangoing vessels, but most recruits have served in that capacity. Association members initially judge a candidate's ability based on their knowledge of the candidate and employer recommenda- tions. During training trips, the pilots assess the candidate's natural ability, adapt- ability to sudden events, demeanor on the bridge, and rapport with ships' crews. There is no specific trip requirement. Initiative, common sense, ability, and will- ingness to accept the responsibility of prudent piloting are paramount (Granville I. Smith, Portland Pilots Inc., personal communication, July 12, 19911. Maryland Under guidelines in the state code, the Maryland State Board of Pilot Com- missioners interviews applicants and selects those qualified to become appren- tices. Pilot candidates must have graduated from a 4-year course at an accredited maritime institution and possess a license as third mate or greater grade of steam and motor vessels of any gross tons upon oceans, or must possess a valid license as master of steam and motor vessels, any gross tons upon oceans. The code states that the most qualified individuals will be chosen (Annotated Code of Maryland, Business Occupations and Professions Article, Title 11: Code of Maryland Regulations 09.26J. Apprentices must spend at least 2 years riding as an observer aboard all sizes and types of vessels, under the tutelage of senior pilots. Apprentices are allowed hands-on experience aboard hundreds of differ- ent vessels; more than 200 trips are made. During the apprenticeship, candidates must pass Coast Guard examinations for each route; their progress is reported to the state commissioners. As a final review, pilot members of the board observe each candidate's onboard performance and report their findings to the full board. Each candidate then takes a written examination covering local knowledge, hy- drodynamics, ship interaction in narrow channels, and other areas of knowledge relevant to shiphandling and piloting (Richard. W. Owen, Association of Mary- land Pilots, personal communication, August 28, 1991~. Oregon State law requires that candidates for river pilotage have 6 months' continu- ous experience piloting oceangoing vessels over the pilotage ground. Also re- quired is essential experience in maneuvering ocean-going vessels through the bridges through a range of operating conditions. The law also requires that can- didates satisfy any requirements, including examinations, adopted by the Oregon Board of Maritime Pilots. The board has adopted additional requirements, which

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428 APPENDIX F vary by pilotage ground (Kevin Q. Davis of Stoel, Rives, Boley, Jones & Gray, personal communication, October 6, 19919. Columbia River Bar Pilots A candidate for Columbia River Bar pilot must have 2 years' experience as master of an offshore merchant vessel and must make a minimum of 100 cross- ings of the bar, 25 percent during darkness, under the supervision of a state- l~censed pilot (Kevin Q. Davis, as cited above). Columbia River Pilots A candidate for Columbia River pilot must have at least 2 years' experience as captain of a towing vessel on the Columbia and Willamette rivers. Candidates generally have 12 to 25 years of prior experience (Jack Vonfeld, Columbia River Pilots, personal communications, October 6-8, 19913. Training is accomplished on the job; trainees serve a 2-year apprenticeship during which senior pilots certify progress by signing a trip sheet (Glen Hurn, Columbia River Pilots, per- sonal communication, July 12, 1991~. River pilots pass through three pilotage grades over a period of at least 18 months, gaining experience with vessels of increasing size, before receiving unlimited licenses (Kevin Q. Davis, as cited above). South Carolina Active pilots select applicants, subject to approval by the Commissioners of Pilotage, based on a numerical ranking system outlined in the commissioners' regulations. The regulations require 3 years of training, including an apprentice training course with a specified curriculum. An apprentice must complete 360 round trips involving at least 360 days aboard vessels over 1,600 gross tons. The apprentice is graded every 6 months by tutor pilots on procedures, skill, commu- nications, and attitude; the apprentice must receive a minimum grade of 3.2 on a 4.0 scale from a majority of tutors. (Final Regulation, Commissioners of Pil.ot- age, Port of Charleston, Chapter 136.) The Coast Guard-approved course in- volves observational mastery learning, a form of on-thejob training. The ap- prentice and the tutor pilot interact through coaching and queuing until the apprentice can replicate the learned material without assistance. Apprentices must pilot solo to the satisfaction of the tutor under all conditions and on every vessel size. Apprentices typically complete 1,300 to 1,400 trips (Whitemarsh S. Smith III,, Charleston Branch Pilots Association, personal communication, July 9, 1991.)

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PILOT TRAlNlNG REQUIREMENTS 429 Texas A review committee of the Houston Pilots association interviews, evaluates, and recommends pilot applicants to the full membership. The association then nominates deputy pilots, who must be approved by the Board of Pilot Commis- sioners for the Port of Houston Authority. Deputy pilots undergo a two-year training program, riding with all pilots on various vessels for 2 to 6 months, until the supervising master and the association membership determine that the depu- ty can pilot alone. Deputy pilots pass through three grades, piloting ships of increasing size and weight. In their last 6 months of training, under the direct supervision of the master and other pilots, they must ride and handle vessels over 24,000 gross tons and car carriers. Deputies must handle at least three such vessels during periods when they would otherwise not be in a duty status. The supervising master and association pilots are the sole judges of whether a deputy is qualified to become a full pilot (Harry Lydick Jr. and Armando Luna Jr., Houston Pilots, personal communication, September 12, 1991~. Washington State licensing regulations for pilots require 75 to 100 training assignments on various routes, depending on the background and experience of the individual candidate (William A. Bock, Puget Sound Pilots, personal communication, July 17, 19911. Pilot trainees in Puget Sound must obtain federal Pilotage endorse- ments, pass the state's written and oral examinations, and complete 100 training trips developed by the Board of Pilotage Commissioners. The trips must be completed during a 6-month period under the supervision of a pilot with at least 5 years' experience. State law stipulates that the board may require simulator training for pilot applicants and will require such training in the first year of active duty and at least once every 5 years for all active pilots. State law also requires that vessel sizes and types be limited during the first 5 years of a pilot's active duty (William A. Bock, Puget Sound Pilots, personal communication, October 7, 19913. BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA Pilotage is under federal jurisdiction in British Columbia, Canada. Pilot applicants must have served (1) as a master for at least 735 days, (2) as a watch- keeping deck officer for at least 490 days and as master for at least 365 days, or (3) as a deck watch officer for at least 1,000 days who has completed at least 20 familiarization trips (Pilotage Act, Chapter 1270, Pacific Pilotage Regulations, 1978~. The Pacific Pilotage Administration (PPA), which oversees Pilotage in the region, contracts with British Columbia Coast Pilots. Pilot candidates are examined by a committee appointed by the PPA. Successful candidates serve an

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430 APPENDIX F apprenticeship of at least 6 months and must attend a course in manned-model shiphandling simulation. Under a contractual agreement between the pilot asso- ciation and the PPA, newly licensed pilots are limited as to the size and type of vessels they may serve; these limits are increased annually for 5 years, after which the limitations are removed. The pilot association, in conjunction with PPA, enrolls pilots in special training courses considered mutually desirable; all pilots have taken a 3-day ARPA course (Wayne Whyte, British Columbia Coast Pilots Ltd., personal communications, October 6-8, 1991~. THE NETHERLANDS Formerly government employees, pilots were "privatized" in 1988. The training and examination procedures are derived, with minor alterations, from the rules and regulations for the old government system. A pilot applicant must be a licensed master for unlimited foreign voyages and must be an apprentice in one of the four regional pilots corporations. An apprentice takes a 2-month na- tional training course, followed by an exam. The training includes classes taught by senior pilots and nautical academy lecturers, as well as practical shiphandling instruction. The trainee then receives 10 months of regional shipboard training with experienced pilots, followed by another exam and test voyages. A total of 210 training trips are required, 30 to 70 for each pilotage area. Trainees also visit vessel traffic service stations, pilot boats, and companies associated with the port. No simulators are used in the training or examinations; simulators are used only by experienced pilots (Herberger et al., 1991~. UNITED KINGDOM Under the Pilotage Act of 1987, pilotage for each harbor is regulated by a harbor authority, which "authorizes" and employs pilots judged to be qualified after training and evaluation. The Port of London Authority (PLA) has jurisdic- tion over London, the largest U.K. port. PLA trainee pilots must have a master mariner's certificate and must have served as a master or first mate. During 6 months of initial training, they make an average of 210 to 220 trips with an authorized pilot, plus 20 trips on tugs. Trainees then must pass oral examinations covering pilotage areas, PLA bylaws, general directions for navigation, bylaws on dangerous substances in bulk, and PLA Notices to Mariners. Initial authoriza- tion is for ships of limited draft and length; these limits are increased gradually and are eliminated after a minimum of 360 trips and 28 months (Herberger et al., 1991, Tab I, "Memorandum from the Pilotage Manager, July 25, 1991"~. SWEDEN Swedish pilots are government employees, selected and trained by regional pilot boards composed of pilots and government administrators. A pilot appli

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 431 cant must have a master's license and must undergo interviews and a 6-month training period, including trips with pilots. Candidates may pilot very small ships after as little as 2 months of training. Their progress is certified by pilots. Ad- vancement to full pilot status takes 4 years (Herberger et al., 1991~. PANAMA CANAL Panama Canal Company pilots are federal government employees, although this status is in transition under the terms of the Panama Canal Treaty. Pilot development requirements were established following the federal pilotage pro- gram for structure and for licensing requirements. In addition, there is a formal, structured apprenticeship and progressive advancement program (once licensed) similar in concept and structure to that employed by the Sandy Hook Pilots. At one time, an unlimited master's license was required, although a master's license for bays, lakes, and sounds is now the entry-level threshold for a license issued by the Panama Canal Company. Check rides overseen by qualified pilot examin- ers are required as part of initial licensing and for upgrading during progressive advancement for the first 2 years. The check rides in the past were qualitative, however, some quantitative measures are beginning to be applied as well. At- tainment of unlimited status takes about seven years. After the first 2 years, pilots, as government employees, receive written performance evaluations annu- ally drawn from a review of available records and safety performance data. Use of field evaluations to assess pilot performance is an option if a pilot's perfor- mance becomes a concern based on safety performance (Daniel MacElrevey, personal communication, September 15, 1993; Markham, 1990; PCC, 19933. TRAINING IN THE U.S. TOWING INDUSTRY Limited information was obtained with respect to piloting training in the towing industry except for docking masters (Chapters 2 and 3~. A human sys- tems analysis for the industry comparable with that carried out in Chapter 7 for ships was not possible given the available information. Nevertheless, the follow- ing description of training in the towing industry provides a general point of comparison. Coastal and Harbor Towing Industry Vessels Professional development in the towing industry varies by both company and position. A wide range of training methods and topics are employed in addition to those that may be required by federal regulations. However, where training is mandated by law, it is included in the requirements for obtaining a Coast Guard license. Specifically, applicants for all original towing vessel li- censes are required to complete Coast Guard-approved first aid and cardiopul- monary resuscitation courses. Fire-fighting and radar observer training are re

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432 APPENDIX F quired to obtain a license as master or mate of steam or motor vessels of not more than 500 gross tons, for ocean and near-coastal waters, and a license as an operator of uninspected towing vessels in ocean service. On-thejob training; classroom instruction; seminars; arid, in some cases, simulator training may be employed (AWO, 1992b). A few technical references are available (Blank, 1989; Brady, 1967; Reid, 1986, 19921. The most common approach is on-thejob training, although there is a grow- ing trend toward more formalized instruction. Personnel normally work their way up from deckhand to vessel operator (the captain), building an intuitive understanding of nautical theory as it applies to towing industry operations in their area. Some individuals enter the industry upon graduation from maritime academies. In one company, graduates licensed as engineers are placed on ves- sels in watchstanding positions. Graduates licensed as deck officers have consid- erable entry-level knowledge of nautical theory, but they lack the basic tug-and- tow knowledge and skills necessary for safe and effective operations. Additional on-thejob and industry indoctrination and training is typically required (David Buchanan, Maritrans, personal communication, May 29, 1991~. Larger companies generally operate apprenticeship programs to develop their vessel operators' professional skills (Jack Hoophaugh, Hollywood Marine, per- sonal communication, January 15, 1992; Russ Johnson, Crowley Maritime, per- sonal communication, October 8, 1991; Steven Scalzo, Foss Maritime, personal communication, October 8, 1991~. Some companies sponsor classroom training. For example, one company has a formal steersman-development program and wheelhouse school that includes classroom training designed to foster an under- standing of boat handling (Foreman, 1991; Jack Hoophaugh, personal communi- cation, January 15, 1992~. Some companies operate apprentice programs, al- though on a semiformal basis, while others, such as smaller companies, recruit from personnel already in the industry (David Wells, Island Tug and Barge Company, personal communication, October 8, 19911. Training aboard industry vessels is normally the captain's responsibility. A small but growing number of companies are using marine simulation to indoctrinate and train operating personnel, and a major union serving the towing industry also operates a training school with simulation capabilities. The Towing Safety Advisory Committee (TSAC) examined the -use of computer-based simu- lation at the request of the Coast Guard in order to assist the agency in determin- ing the feasibility and practicality of mandating such training. The advisory com- mittee found that individuals and organizations that had experience with marine simulation considered it an effective training medium. The organization none- theless concluded that simulation cannot take the place of actual vessel experi- ence. Of particular relevance is the advisory committee's conclusion for the towing industry, that simulation's real value is not in teaching novices the funda- mentals, but in helping experienced mariners hone their skills.

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PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 433 Inland Towing Industry In the inland towing industry, boats are normally manned by a captain, "pilot," and steersman. The captain (and steersman/pilot in training) stand watch together. The second watch is the pilot. The pilot has an Operator of Uninspected Towing Vessel (OUTV) license and must be familiar with the local stretch of the river in order to get that license. If the captain has been out of the area for a while, the pilot describes what local knowledge is needed for the captain's watch. Training focuses on developing progressive skill levels. On inland rivers, vessel operators refer to themselves as "pilots" although a federal pilot licenses are not required for this service. Nevertheless, federal pilot's licenses or en- dorsements can be obtained from the Coast Guard by qualified individuals (see Chapter 31. A typical progression is from steersman to pilot to relief captain to captain. In some companies, captains make the choice as to who will move into a company's steersman program. The steersman often "lives" with and follows the captain for 3 to 4 years. Operating companies prefer steersman candidates to obtain their Coast Guard OUTV license first so that the company doesn't invest in someone who is unable to get the license. Once the steersman completes training, the individual may be taken away from the sponsoring captain. The candidate may be placed aboard a "line haul" boat for a number of 30-day hitches to improve boat-handling skills. Afterward, the steersman is typically returned to the sponsoring captain's boat for piloting under that captain's super- vision (Jack Hoophaugh, Hollywood Marine, personal communication, January 15, 1991; Larry Strain, American Commercial Barge Lines, personal communi- cation, January 15, 1991~. In one company, for the first 6 to 8 months, the steersman is allowed to pilot on northbound transits only because the vessel and tow are running into the current, thereby increasing controllability. Once proficient on northbound runs, the steersman is allowed to pilot southbound. Sometimes, the pilot (the equiva- lent of the mate) is taken off a northbound boat at a predetermined point, and the steersman is allowed to pilot the rest of the way. A replacement pilot is placed aboard for the southbound run. Then, the steersman is placed with a second captain for a separate evaluation. This training process takes a lot of time; it takes 3 to 4 years to qualify as steersman and 3 to 5 additional years to qualify as relief captain. Again, the Coast Guard license is an entry-level requirement (Lar- ry Strain, as cited above). Industry representatives report that so far, marine simulation has not been developed to meet the specific needs of river towing, although such advances may be attainable in the future. Even then, simulation would be used as an aid to training rather than as the primary training medium.