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Index A Accountability, 3 in complete pilotage system, 407-412 current concerns, 9-10 docking masters, 146, 147-150 of docking masters, 124-127 gaps in, 107b, 145-150, 329-330 recommendations for improvement, 321, 329-330 state pilotage system, 12 summary recommendations, 13-14 Accreditation, 90, 157, 323, 407-408 definition, 102b national commission for, 322-323, 324 of private VTS systems, 209 ADSSE. See Automatic dependent surveillance shipborne equipment Aegean Sea, 39 Air traffic control, 293, 332-333 marine traffic control vs., 185, 186, 187-200, 211 pilot licensing, 103 Alaska, 94-9Sf, 420-421 Alcohol/drug testing, 112, 121 487 American Institute of Merchant Shipping, 366-368 American Pilots' Association, 323, 363-366 American Waterways Operators, 328, 389-391 Amoco Cadiz, 160 Anemometer, 437 ARCO Independence, 47 Argo Merchant, 160 Army, Department of, 313 Army Corps of Engineers, U.S., 5, 18, 20, 22, 24, 34, 127-128, 215, 298-299, 304 marine traffic management, 36, 190 recommendations for, 313, 334, 336, 341, 342, 343 Associated Federal Coast Pilots, 419-420 Automatic dependent surveillance, 20, 18O, 240-241, 243-246, 252-253, 256, 338, 437-438 Automatic dependent surveillance shipborne equipment (ADSSE), 243, 253, 438 Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA), 20, 49, 103, 170, 172b, 180, 242-243, 438

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488 ADSSE and, 153 standardization needs, 264-265 Autopilots, 246-250, 288, 438-439 B Bar pilot, 71, 79 Battelle Corporation, 363-366, 368-369 Bayou Boeuf, 369, 375 Belgium, 449 Braer, 39, 160 Branch pilot, 71-72 Buoys, 21, 237, 439 C California, 116, 421-423 Canada, 135-137, 429-430 Canal/lock operations, 31, 36, 70, 127- 128, 431 Cape Cod Canal, 127-128 Cape Fear Docking Pilots, 419 Cape Fear Navigation and Pilotage Commission, 418-419 Certification, 102b, 103, 407-408 See also Licensure Charting systems, 49, 440-441, 444 accuracy of, 226-228, 227b automated updating, 229 chart room design, 436-437 data sources, 20, 23, 226, 227b, 229, 307-308, 338-339 electronic steering interface, 247 implementation of improvements in, 18-19, 22, 61, 228-229 international standardization, 228, 232- 233, 301, 314 legal issues, 236n, 236-237 presentation medium, 224-225 raster vs. vector imaging, 227n recommendations, 338-339 role of, 224 See also Electronic Chart Display and Information System Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, 30, 73b, 127-128 Chesapeake Bay, 73b, 74b INDEX Coast Guard, U.S., 5, 8, 10, 12, 34 in accreditation of pilot training programs, 90, 91 charting data, 20 control of vessels in foreign trade, 107 108, 145-146 disciplinary activities of, 111-112, 115-116 docking and mooring regulations, 123 124 foreign-flag ship inspections, 61, 331 332 Great Lakes audit, 377-379 human factors research, 294-295 in implementation of new technologies, 336, 337 in international forums, 39 jurisdiction, 11, 28b, 80, 108 maintenance of traditional navigation aids, 237, 337 marine research activities, 23-24, 172, 178, 298, 304, 314, 335-336, 342 343, 360-363, 369-370, 382-383 in marine traffic regulation, 16, 18, 215 passenger vessel regulation, 134 in pilot regulation, 64, 80, 103, 104, lO5b, 108-109 in port-level pilotage system, 155-158 qualifications of personnel, 113-115 recommendations for, 313, 314, 316, 317, 322, 327-328, 331-332, 333, 334, 335-337, 338, 340, 341, 342 343 regulation of dredges, 135 resources for pilotage oversight, 101, 112-115, 142 risk assessment research, 313 summary recommendations for, 14, 15, 17, 18,22,23, In tow/tug industry oversight, 12-13, 15, 128, 130, 132-134, 151-152, 327-328 vehicle traffic services policy, 202, 205, 208, 209-210, 240, 333-334 Coastwise pilot, 71 Collision avoidance technologies, 242-246

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INDEX Columbia River, 88b, 428 Commerce, Department of, 23, 313, 339 Communications bridge-to-bridge, 53, 54, 179, 238, 341 error reduction in, 284-285 in marine accidents, 179 marine organizational structure and, 276-277, 292-294 on navigation bridge, 277-279 Communications technologies collision-avoidance systems, 242-246 digital selective calling (DSC), 240- 241, 244-246, 439 options for improvement of, 221t, 239- 241, 341 overuse of, 17, 179, 207b, 239 portable communication, navigation and surveillance system, 240, 253- 254, 337, 340, 445 problems in, 341 recommendations, 341 restricted channels for pilots, 241 SATCOM, 239 See also Vessel traffic services (VTS) Complete pilotage system, 68, 97-98 accident/incident investigation, 410- 411 accountability issues in, 407-412 application of, 397 audits of, 412 continuing professional development in, 403-406 current regulation vs., 115 disciplinary action in, 411 -412 infrastructure, 413-415 local involvement, 412 oversight in, 409-410 performance monitoring in, 111, 411 professional development in, 397-403 proficiency validation in, 406-407 standards, 412-413 Connecticut, 105 Constant tension winches, 439 Control Verification for Passenger Vessels, 38 Crescent River Port Pilots, 425 Customs Service, U.S., 331 489 D Data collection and analysis accident/incident investigation, 314, 410-411 in bridge operations, 277-279, 285, 286 in charting systems, 20, 23, 225, 226, 227b, 227n, 228-229, 307-308, 338-339 in complete pilotage system, 410-411 current state of, 4 deck officer quality, 48 exposure data base, 183 human factors, 24, 294-295 locale-specific pilotage, 10 marine safety, 160 marine traffic regulation, 16 near-miss reporting system, 182- 183 pilotage performance, 33, 64, 65, 318 pilotage risk, 180- 181 in Port; Needs Study, 372-373 recommendations, 313-314 risk analysis needs, 182-184 for risk assessment, 167- 168 in risk management, 178 ship safety, 59 summary recommendations, 5 tow/tug industry, 12, 15, 151, 152, 327, 391-392 in vehicle traffic services, 203, 208 in waterways management, 300-301 weather monitoring, 259-260 Decca navigation system, 439 Decision analysis, 161 Defense, Department of, 23, 338, 343 Depth sounder, 439 DGPS. See Differential Global Positioning System Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), 49, 307, 340 accuracy, 234, 234b, 439 automatic dependent surveillance and, 252-253, 437-438 ECDIS and, 231-233, 234-235 evaluation of, 234-235b implementation, 21, 23, 237-238

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490 operating status, 2O, 231-233, 234-235 recommendations, 337, 338 role of, 20, 338, 439 in steering/tracking technologies, 247 Digital selective calling, 240-241, 244 246, 439 Disciplinary action, 111 - 112, 115- 116, 120-121, 122, 137, 411-412 Docking maneuvers, 10 assisted/automated, 437, 440 for foreign-flag ships, 330 pilot responsibility, 116 technology, 124, 260-261 Docking masters, 79 accountability, 124-127, 146, 147-150 definition, 29b, 71 Port of New York and New Jersey, 126-127b professional associations, 74, 75 professional development of, 10, 89 92, 92b regulation of, 123-124 roleof,71n,122-123 state requirements, 123 training, 90-91, 124, 417-418, 419 Doppler speed log, 440 Double hull construction, 26, 39, 59, 256 Dredging operations, 134- 135 E Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS), 18-19, 49, 180, 441 assessment of, 225, 266-267, 301 DGPS and, 20, 232, 234-235 role of, 231, 232, 249-250, 259, 441 standards, 228, 233, 236, 314-315, 441 status of, 226, 232-233, 236, 441 supporting technologies, 236-238, 307 Environmental protection, 5 international coordination for, 39 marine industry concern, 58-59 in marine sector vs. aviation sector, 187 need for, 56 pilotage boundaries and, 145 INDEX port-state control for, 39-40 vehicle traffic services and, 204-205 Europe pilot training, 451-454 pilotage in, 135-137, 409, 449-451 vessel traffic services in, 203, 206, 454-458 Expert systems, 31, 49, 251b, 254-255, 445 Exxon Valdez, 36, 37, 39, 63, 160, 164, - 169, 249, 294, 385 F Federal Communications Commission, 18, 241, 341 Federal government, 3 advantages of, as regulatory body, 99 100, 103-104 assessment of regulatory performance, 363, 366-369, 375-379, 388 Congressional charter for national pilotage commission, 323, 324 disciplinary action by, 111 - 112, 115 116 in docking and mooring oversight, 123-124, 147, 148 economic vs. social regulation, 40 future of regulation by, 308-309 marine industry perceptions of, 61 marine infrastructure management, 190 marine jurisdiction, 11, 72b, 79-80, 106-108, 147, 325-326 opportunities for improvement in regulatory practice, 100, 115-116, 137, 321 oversight of professional development, 7 in pilot licensing, 90-91, 108-111, 115, 142, 416-420 on pilot-master relationship, 81 pilotage regulation, 4, 11-12, 28b, 40, 64, 65, 104-105, 328-329 restrictions on vessel categories, 143-144 safety performance, 148, 366-369 tow/tug regulation, 128, 130-133, 151 152

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INDEX in transition to national port-level system, 328-330 in VTS implementation, 207-208, 209 See also Coast Guard, U.S.; specific agency or department Ferry operations, 6, 134 Finland, 452, 454 Florida, 379-381, 423-424 Foreign-flag ships Coast Guard jurisdiction, 145- 146 crew skills, 6, 39 docking regulations, 330 harbor transits, 3 language issues, 26, 48, 121 port-state regulation, 15-16, 38-40 recommendations, 329, 331-332 regulation of, 2, 331 safety concerns, 4-5, 15, 61-62, 331 waterways management and, 330, 331 France, 453 G Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), 442 Global Positioning System (GPS), 23, 219, 442 accuracy, 233-234 current operating status, 231-233 evaluation of, 234-235b supporting technologies, 233-235 See also Differential Global Positioning System GLONASS, 442 Great Lakes pilotage, 377-379 Gyroscopic compass, 443 H Hand steering, 21, 48n, 249, 255-256 Harbor pilot, 3, 29b, 71 Hawaii, 86b, 424 Hazardous cargo, 2 Helmsman, 48n, 144, 279, 285 Henn report, 148 Holland, 454 Hull stress monitoring, 443 491 Human factors, 4 in bridge operations, 20-21 data collection, 24 definition, 27f, 272b in marine accidents, 395 reaction time, 286 recent research, 294-295 risk prevention, 5-6 shiphandling skills, 41-49 training issues, 6-8 Human systems automation of error-prone functions, 286-287 bridge teams as, 280 current marine operating environment, 271-272 decision-making, 26-27n definition, 26-27n, 272b distributed decision-making, 291, 293 electronic decision-making aids, 250- 259 innovations, 279-284 in marine casualties, 49 one-person bridge, 280-281, 284 organizational structures and, 289-294 pilot-copilot model, 281-282 rationalization of bridge tasks, 287- 288, 395 recommendations, 314-317 research needs, 273b, 298, 303, 342 risk-reduction strategies, 284-288 shipboard decision-making, 52-55, 276-279, 290-292 source of error in, 168 VTS-user interactions, 207b Hydrodynamics, controlled interactions, 174-175, 175b, 176b, 177, 185 I Inland navigation, 101, 106 passenger vessels, 134 tow/tug pilotage, 132-133, 152, 433 Insurance, 412 Integrated bridge/control systems, 49, 252, 443-444 applications, 21, 250, 339-340

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492 assessment of, 50-51, 256-257, 257b, Law 384 collision avoidance systems and, 256 implementation, 256-259 international standardization for, 250 252, 256 recommendations, 339-340 research needs, 339 role of, 20-21, 144-145 summary recommendations, 22 supporting technologies, 242-243, 252 256 International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, 39, 201, 457-458 International Civil Aviation Organization, 263-264 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 38 International Hydrographic Organization, 228 International law current marine operating environment, 2 in enhancement of marine navigation, 3 hydrographic survey data copyright, 233 port-state vs. flag-state control, 15- 16, 38-40, 331 ship construction/maintenance, 15-16, 26 U.S. influence, 2, 16, 26, 38, 59-60 vessel safety issues, 26 vs. unilateral port-state action, 26, 38 39, 59-60 International Maritime Organization, 8, 16,32,39,61, 109,201,226,314 315, 316, 333 role of, 202-203 International Rules for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 53 Interport Pilot Agency, 417 L Language issues, 26, 48, 121 INDEX coastwise seagoing vessels, 106 enforcement, 306 indemnification of chart makers, 236, 236n jurisdictional issues, 11, 79-80, 106 108, 147, 325-326 liability for environmental damage, 2 3, 5, 59 license revocation, 112 master-pilot relationship in, 150 navigation technology in, 22, 60-61, 225, 236-237, 336 pilot authority, 81 pilot understanding of, 400-401 pilotage, 72b, 79-80 tow/tug regulation, 130 See also International law Licensure assessment of, 318, 363, 385, 387, 388 candidate preparation, 86-87 certification vs., 103 of Coast Guard personnel, 113-115 in complete pilotage system, 407-408 consistency in, 9-10, 31-32, 64-65, 122 current practice, 11-12, 28b, 67-68, 314 development of federal pilots, 87-89 docking masters, 147, 149 entry-level qualifications, 6, 139- 140, 153, 327, 398-399 European practice, 135-136 federal oversight, 7, 10, 11-12, 64, 65, 79-80 federal requirements, 108-111, 416 420 independent federal, 105 physical condition standards, 413 pilotage boards, 11, 118, 139 problems in, 11-12, 99, 107b, 137 proficiency validation, 406-407 recertification, 7, 109-110, 120, 137, 141, 387, 406-408 recommendations, 138, 139, 320, 328 329 research needs, 302 revocation, 111-112

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INDEX role of, 102-103 single class of watch officer, 258-259 source of, and safety performance, 362-370, 376-377, 390 standardization of, 153 state oversight, 10, 12, 64, 65, 79, 80, 118 state requirements, 116- 117, 420-429 summary recommendations, 13- 15 terminology, 102b tow/tug pilotage, 13, 15, 130-131, 132 133 trip requirements, 90-91, 108, 109, 115, 417 vessel design and, 143-144 Loran technology, 231, 389, 444 Louisiana, 121, 424-426 M Maine, 426-427 Marine navigation accident/incident research, 178-180, 394-396 air traffic control system and, 185, 186, 187-200, 211-212 complexity of system, 289-290 current operating environment, 1-3, 25-30, 56-58, 62-63, 396 current research environment, 23-24, 298-299 decision-making structures in, 52-55 economic value, 38 generic waterway types, 170-172 human systems in, 26-27n, 40-41, 271- 272, 279-284 implementation of research program, 303-304 marine industry concerns, 58-61 national commission for, 13-14, 17, 142, 215 operational risk in, 4-5 opportunities for enhancement of, 3-4, 35, 305-306 port-level safety analyses, 371-375 professional language, 293-294 published resources, 445-446 493 recommendations, 342-343 regulatory trends, 306-307 research needs, 297, 299, 342-343 risk assessment in, 55-56, 159-160, 167-169 risk management in, 166 subsystems, 26-30, 274 systems research, 299-300, 312-313 theoretical basis, 46b See also Navigation technologies; Pilotage; Traffic regulation; Waterways management Marine pilotage/pilots. See Pilotage; Pilots Maritime Administration, 5, 8, 18, 22, 24, 155, 295, 298, 299, 304, 402 recommendations for, 313, 317, 336, 340, 341 MARPOL, 38 Maryland, 427 Masters authority of, 9, 26, 42-43, 53, 70, 276 master-pilot relations, 81-83, 150, 278, 388 es pilots, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14,43-44, 100, 104, 106-107, 143, 144-145, 314, 315, 326-328, 409 Mates, as pilots, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 47, 100, 104, 106-107, 143, 144-145, 314, 326-328, 409 McCormick Pilot Association, 418 Military Sealift Command, 134 Mississippi River, 170, 171b, 173, 241, 424 Mooring masters, 10, 29b, 122-123, 146 N National Airspace System, 17 National Electronics Manufacturing Association, 250-252 National Ocean Survey, 23 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 5, 20, 22, 23, 24, 226, 227b, 227n, 229, 298, 304, 338, 381 recommendations for, 313, 336, 338- 339, 341, 342, 343

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494 National Transportation Safety Board, 24, 121, 298, 304, 342, 369-370, 375 376, 381, 383, 394, 395-396 Nautical Institute, 381-382 Navigation technologies, 3, 4 advances in, 49, 60 application of, 49, 219-223t assessment of, 8, 22, 50-51, 203-205, 217-219, 223-224, 234-235b, 265- 267, 335-336, 340, 388-389 bridge design, 435-437 change processes, 261-264 collision avoidance, 221t, 242-246, 256 data display, 288 decision-making aids, 222t, 250-259 docking systems, 124, 223t, 260-261 electronic charting systems (ECS), 18- 19, 20, 23, 49, 338-339, 440-441 future of, 217, 219, 307-308, 334-335 human factors and, 49 implementation, 18, 19, 22, 237-238, 335-337 instruments/terminology, 437-448 integrated systems, 20-21, 22, 49, 50- 51, 144-145, 242-243, 250-259, 339-341, 384, 443-444 international standards for, 228, 232- 233, 235-236, 250-252, 256, 301, 314-315, 333 mariners in development of, 263 obstacles to advancement/ implementation, 60-61, 264-268 one-person bridge, 280-281, 284 passage/route planning, 220t, 224-229 performance-oriented evaluation of, 22, 336 piloting expert systems, 31, 49, 251b, 254-255, 445 pilots and, 92-95, 218, 263, 268-269, 316, 383-384, 437 positioning systems, 20, 23, 49, 220t, 229-238, 439 recommendations, 316, 334-341 research needs, 301-302, 303, 340 risk assessment, 175-178 risk factors in, 7-8, 218 INDEX risk management, 179- 180 shore-based, 36-37, 180, 212-214 steering and track keeping, 221, 246- 250, 288, 340, 438-439, 440, 447 summary recommendations, 22-23 traditional aids, 21-22, 23, 49, 50-Slb, 237, 308, 337 training in, 7-8, 51-52, 179-180, 268, 314-316, 402 weather/environment monitoring, 223t, 259-260 See also Communications technologies; Vessel traffic services Navy, U.S., 282, 304, 343 Netherlands, 430, 449, 450, 454, 455-456 New Orleans-Baton Rouge Steamship Pilots Association, 425 o Oil industry international fleet, 61 shipping trends, 59, 61, 62 Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), 5, 26,39,59, 105, 165,249 Oil spills, 2, 59, 62, 63, 160, 164, 169 Omega position-fixing system, 231, 23 in, 444 Oregon, 427-428 Own-ship pilotage option, 11, 14, 94, 326 p Panama Canal, 31, 70, 431 Passenger vessels, 38, 134, 386-387 Petersfield, 369, 375, 376 Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS), 229, 259-260, 444-445 Pilot training accreditation of, 7, 90, 157, 322-323, 324, 407-408 apprenticeship programs, 109, 119- 120, 136, 408 in bridge team operations, 280 in Canada, 429-430 in complete pilotage system, 397-407

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INDEX computer simulation, 7, 8, 42, 42, 43, 120, 136-137, 140-141, 316-317, 402-403, 404-405, 451-454 continuing professional development, 6-7,141,318,403-406 course of, 87-92 current practice, 6-8, 10, 99, 137 for emergencies, 315, 403 entry-level qualifications, 139-140, 327, 398-399 in Europe, 451-454 federal vs. state performance, 65 instructor certification, 142, 314 international standards, 315, 383 knowledge base, 399-401 in Netherlands, 430 in new technologies, 7-8, 19, 254, 268, 314-316 in Panama Canal, 431 pilot interaction in, 41 professional organizations in, 323 recommendations, 316, 317, 320 recruitment issues, 397-398 research needs, 302, 303 responsibility for, 86-87 shiphandling skills, 401-403 sources of, 6, 31-32, 315 standards for, 11, 138-139~ 315, 383 state efforts, 100, 119- 120 state prerequisites, 105 summary recommendations, 8, 13 in Sweden, 430-431 tow/tug operations, 15, 132-133, 328 in United Kingdom, 430 See also Licensure Pilotage accident investigation, 320-321 administrative system, 319, 375-381 in Canada, 135, 429-430 change processes in, 98 code of ethics, 139 current operating environment, 1-3, 9- 13, 25-26, 54, 56-58, 63, 64-65, 317-319, 396 decision-making in, 290-292 definition, 28b, 67 in docking operations, 125-127 495 for dredges, 134-135 emergency situations, 41-42, 85, 137, 140-141 in Europe, 135-137, 409, 449-454 expert accounts, 73b, 74b, 78b, 82b, 86b, 88b, 91b, 93b, 94-9Sf harbor transit of foreign-flag ships, 3 implementation of recommendations, 326, 328-330 independent contractor model, 96 inland passenger vessel, 134 input/output analysis of, 274 j urisdictional authority, 11 - 12, 13 - 14, 147, 325-326 language difficulties in, 48 legal history, 72b local advisory system, proposal for, 325 in marine navigation system, 312-313 national commission for, 153-158, 321-324, 333 need for standards, 10- 11, 99, 138 - 139, 153-158, 319, 413 in Netherlands, 449, 450, 454, 455-456 opportunities for enhancement of, 3-4, 100-101, 137-145, 306-308, 319 320, 321-322 port-level administration, 154-158, 321-322, 326-327 professional models, 68, 96, 135, 137 recommendations, 320-330 research efforts, 298, 360-370, 361b, 383-394 research needs, 64, 302, 342-343 risk analysis, 180-181 risk assessment, 170-173, 318-319 shore-based support, 29b, 36-37, 180, 212-214 of small passenger vessels, 386-387 summary recommendations, 3-4, 13-15 in Sweden, 450 terms, 28-29b tradition of, 311-312 of tugs and tows, 12-13, 15, 128-134, 151- 152, 327-328 in United Kingdom, 450 See also Pilots

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496 Pilots authority of, 9, 31, 53, 81 boarding procedures, 79, 80, 145, 401 402 compensation for, 85-86, 119, 181 182, 414 deck officers as, 9, 11, 12, 14, 44-47, 104-105, 106-107, 115, 143, 144 145, 314, 315, 326-328, 409 definition, 70 docking responsibility, 116 generic definition, 28b geographic variance in performance, 10 independent federal, 105 legal definition, 28b local knowledge of, 54, 407 master-pilot relations, 81-83, 150, 278, 388 masters as, 9, 11, 12, 14, 43-44, 104 105, 106-107, 314, 315, 326-328, 409 numbers of, 72-74 physical condition requirements, 413 professional models, 78 in reporting unsafe ship conditions, 83 85, 137, 150-151 responsibility for position fixing, 230 231 role of, 6, 9, 30, 33, 34, 54, 67, 68-70, 78b, 78-79, 150, 388 skills, 6, 30-31, 40-41 technology use, 92-95, 218, 263, 268 269, 383-384, 437 types of, 28-29b, 70-72 See also Pilotage; Pilot training Port Everglades, 423 Port Needs Study, 169,170-172, 175, 371-375 Port of Baltimore, 73b Port of Boca Grande, 82b Port of Charleston, South Carolina, 74b Port of Key West, 82b Port of Long Beach, 422 Port of Los Angeles, 422-423 Port of New York and New Jersey, 65, 126-127b, 148, 173, 417-418, 426 INDEX Port of Tampa Bay, 423-424 Portable communication, navigation and surveillance system (PCNS), 240, 253-254, 337, 340, 445 Professional organizations accountability, 10 code of ethics, 139 competition between, 119 in complete pilotage system, 413-414 in development of pilotage, 321-322 in development of pilots, 46b, 68, 87, 90, 408 financial management in, 85 locations, 75-77 numbers of, 73-74 in pilotage oversight, 409-410 recommendations for, 322, 323 role of, 118 support for traffic control systems, 37 tow/tug industry, 328 training programs, 417-433 in VTS implementation, 209 Public concern, 2, 59, 63, 169 Puget Sound, 93b, 213, 420 Q Queen Elizabeth 2, 83 R Racons, 446 Radar, 446 Radar Observer's certificate, 103, 108, 136 Radio beacons, 446 Radio Direction Finder, 231, 23 in, 446 Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, 18, 341 Rate-of-turn indicator, 446-447 Rates/fees, 119, 181-182, 414 Recertification, 7, 109-110, 120, 137, 141, 387, 407-407 Registration, 102b See also Licensure Risk analysis components, 161-163, 162 current state, 2-3, 4

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INDEX data collection and management, 4, 64, 182-184 decision analysis and, 161 economic factors in, 165, 166, 176b, 203, 262 in marine environment, 159-160 probabilistic vs. perceived risk, 163-165 recommendations, 313 role of, 161 Risk assessment, 58 casualty rates in, 172-173 in marine navigation, 167-169 methodology, 55-56 of navigation technologies, 8, 175-178, 256-257 in pilotage operating environment, 170-173 recommendations, 313, 334 research needs, 5, 183- 184, 299-300, 336 in risk analysis, 161-162 summary recommendations, 5 systemic approach, 313 vessel traffic services, 172 in waterway evaluation, 25 Risk communication, 161, 162 Risk factors, in vessel operation, 56, 57b Risk management causal analysis, 178-180 data needs in, 178 in marine navigation, 166 in risk analysis, 162 River pilot, 29b, 71 Rudder, 447 S Safety competition and, 119, 181 cultural context, 294 current marine operating environment, Ship operations 2, 3, 4, 57-58, 275-276 in European pilotage, 449 of foreign-flag ships, 4-5 geographic variance, 10 in implementation of new technology, 19 497 international efforts, 26 oil industry efforts, 2-3, 5, 59 opportunities for improvement in, 3, 4, 305, 311-312, 321-322 organizational structure and, 289-294 pilot compensation and, 181-182 pilot responsibility for ship condition, 83-85, 150-151 pilotage issues, 181-182, 383-384 port-level assessment, 371-375 public concern, 169 as regulatory domain, 40 research on, 23-24, 64, 65, 305 state vs. non-state pilots, 363-369 systemic obstacles to improvement in, 312-313 systems research, 299-300 in tow/tug pilotage, 151- 152 trends, 61-63 vessel condition, 4-5, 15, 61, 62-63, 381-383 San Francisco Bay, 91b, 421-422 SATCOM, 239 Ship construction/maintenance advanced shipboard technology, 7-8 bridge design, 434-437 double hull tankers, 26, 39, 59 monitoring of, 331-332 passenger ships, 38 as pilot responsibility, 83-85, 137, 150 151 port-state regulation, 3, 15-16, 17, 26, 38 research, 381-383 safety concerns, 4-5, 15, 61, 62-63, 381-383 technology disparities in, 254-255n trends, 275 vs. waterway systems design, 32-33, 41, 56, 334 automation of error-prone functions in, 286-287 aviation model, 281-282 bridge operations, 277-279, 280, 285, 434-437 bridge team, 48-49

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498 command and control organization, 276-277 computer simulation, 136- 137, 282- 284, 316-317, 402-403 controlled hydrodynamic interactions, 174-175, 175b, 176b, 177, 185 deck officers in, 44-47 in emergency situations, 41-42, 85, 137, 140-141, 315, 403 engine console, 441-442 environmental factors in, 173-174 federal pilotage jurisdiction, 106-108 forces acting on ship, 174 hand steering, 21, 48n, 255-256 human risk factors, 7, 40-49, 52-55, 168, 271-272, 276-279, 286, 290- 292, 395 integrated systems, 20-21, 22, 49, 50- 51, 144-145, 242-243, 250-259, 443-444 language, 26, 48 master's authority, 9, 26, 42-43, 53, 70, 276 one-person bridge, 280-281, 284 own-ship pilotage option, 11, 14, 94, 326 pilot-copilot model, 281-282, 384 in pilot knowledge base, 399-403 rationalization of tasks in, 287-288, 395 safety concerns, 61-63 shiphandling skills, 41-49, 248b single class of watch officer, 257-259 staffing levels, 47, 48, 52b, 61-62, 144-145, 274-275, 308 steering systems, 247, 249, 285, 288, 340, 435, 438-439, 440 systems in, 32 in towing, 128 turning a ship, 248b See also Navigation technologies Shore-based pilotage, 29b, 36-37, 180, 212-214 Simulation training bridge simulator, 43, 48n in complete pilotage system, 402-403, 404-405 INDEX concerns about, 136- 137, 283 -284 in Europe, 451-454 manned model, 42 in new technology assessment, 51-52 obstacles to implementation, 283, 405 PC-based, 405 pilot training modules, 403b recommendations, 317 research needs, 303, 316-317 summary recommendations, 8 use of, 7, 33, 42, 42, 43, 89, 120, 136, 140- 141, 282-283, 316, 404-405, 432 Size of ship, 386-387 South Carolina, 428 State government assessment of regulatory performance, 362-366, 375-381, 388 canal passage regulation, 128 current regulatory practice, 137, 321 disciplinary action, 120-121, 122 docking and mooring oversight, 123, 147, 148, 149 gaps in accountability, 146, 147-150 jurisdictional authority, 11, 28b, 36, 79-80, 325-326 national pilotage commission and, 324 opportunities for improvement of regulatory practice, 122 in pilot licensing, 10, 29b, 64, 65, 314, 420-429 on pilot-master relationship, 81 pilot performance monitoring, 120 pilot training requirements, 100, 105, 119-120 pilotage boards, 118, 121, 139 in pilotage oversight, 3, 4, 12, 28b, 116-117 regulatory history, 72b regulatory mechanisms, 100, 102-104 regulatory resources, 117- 118 reporting of unsafe conditions to, 83 84 tow/tug regulation, 128 Sweden, 430-431, 450

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INDEX T Tank barges, 6, 106, 130 Texas, 429 Texas maneuver, 176b, 177 Tiller, 447 Time division multiple access, 246 Tow/tug operations assessment of, 389-391 casualty research, 391-394 coastwise pilotage, 130- 132 command system, 128 criticism of pilotage in, 133-134, 151 152 current pilotage operations, 12-13 docking masters and, 124, 125, 149 inland pilotage, 132- 133, 152, 433 licensing of operators, 6 protege in, 9, 28b, 106-107, 128-133, 433 recommendations, 15, 327-328 risk in, 128-130 simulation training, 42, 89, 432 size of, 389-390 as source of pilot trainees, 401 training in, 46b, 431-433 Traffic regulation alternative models, 200-201 aviation model, 35, 185, 186, 187-200, 211-212, 332-333 current system, 16- 17, 35, 186 individual responsibility in, 194- 199 infrastructure for, 190 marine community participation, 215 organizational structure, 25, 199-200 recommendations, 333-334 research needs, 300-301 summary recommendations, 17- 18 unique factors in marine sector, 185- 186 See also Vessel traffic services Training bridge team, 83, 280 Coast Guard personnel, 113-114 deck officers, 44-47, 257-259 docking masters, 124 for emergency situations, 41-42, 85, 137, 140-141 499 helmsman, 48n in integrated control systems, 21, 340 in maritime academies, 45 for masters, 44 in new technologies, 51-52, 179 pilot-copilot model of navigation, 282 safety concerns, 63 shiphandl:~ng skills, 41 single class of watch officer, 258-259 state licensing requirements, 420-421, 429 theoretical nautical science, 46b tow/tug industry, 431-433 in VTS operations, 334 See also Pilot training Transit position-fixing system, 231, 23 in, 447-448 Transportation, Department of, 14, 16, 18, 23, 24, 156, 304, 377-378 National Airspace System, 190-193 recommendations for, 313, 334, 338, 342-343 U United Kingdom, 430, 450, 453, 456, 457 Vessel traffic services (VTS) automatic dependent surveillance with, 243-246 concerns about, 37, 179, 337 cost-benefit analysis, 172 current application, 35-36, 188-189 definition, 201, 448 economic considerations, 203, 204, 208 effectiveness of, 203-205 in Europe, 454-458 implementation, 206, 207-211, 215 individual liability and, 194 in marine traffic models, 200-201 obstacles to implementation, 212, 215 operations, 16-17, 205-206 operator station, 246 Port Needs Study, 371-375

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boo privately-operated, 208-209, 333, 334 recommendations, 333-334 role of, 4, 16, 25, 35, 36, 185, 201, 206, 240, 242, 306-307 in shore-based piloting, 37, 213-214 staffing considerations, 209-211 summary recommendations, 17-18 surveillance capabilities, 244-245b traffic regulation system and, 199 unlinked system, 212 user interactions, 207b watchstander role, 209, 210 W Washington State, 36, 121, 429 Waterways management current operations, 15-17, 34-35, 330- 331 elements of, 32, 34 federal management, 190 foreign-flag ship traffic in, 330, 331 INDEX future of, 307 monitoring of systems in, 34, 330, 331 national commission for, 13, 17, 142, 215 navigation rules in, 53-54 port-state control, 15- 16, 17, 38-40 recommendations, 330-334 research needs, 24, 300-301, 330 responsibility for, 25, 34, 35 ship design parameters and, 32-33, 41, 56, 334 sources of error in, 168-169 summary recommendations, 17-18 See also Marine navigation; Traffic regulation Weather monitoring systems, 259-260, 448 charting data and, 229 Wilmington-Cape Fear Pilots Association, 418-419 World Prodigy, 381