C Selected Bilateral and Multilateral Global Change Projects



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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration C Selected Bilateral and Multilateral Global Change Projects

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration BILATERAL PROJECTS UNDER THE U.S. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UMBRELLA AGREEMENT Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives Agriculture Agricultural Environment Protection USDA MOA 5/91 Study of sustained ecological agriculture technology; equipment and techniques for agricultural environment; techniques for monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies, livestock, and poultry raising; disposal and comprehensive use of livestock and poultry manure. Data are available. Contact: Lucia Claster, USDA Office of International Cooperation, (202) 690-2867; Chinese PI: Zhang Wenqing, MOA. Agriculture Agricultural Productivity USDA MOA 6/91, 5/92 Study of agricultural productivity in arid and semi-arid regions and water and soil erosion control techniques. In 1991, evaluated new plant species and crop and livestock production systems in Gansu Province and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Examined desert reclamation, stabilization, and conservation activities. Trip report is available. Contact: Lucia Claster, USDA, (202) 690-2867; U.S. PI: Robert Lansford, New Mexico State University; Chinese contact: Liu Congmeng, MOA. Agriculture Methane Emissions USDA MOA 7/92 Monitoring of rice paddy emissions and the control of methane emissions from dairy cattle. Contact: Lucia Claster, USDA Office of International Cooperation, (202) 690-2867. Agriculture Renewable Energy USDA MOA 9/92 Study of techniques of turning agricultural wastes (crop residue, straw, manure, grain hulls, and wood scraps) into feed, complex fertilizers, or electricity; disposal of animal and poultry waste; technology for the commercialization of solar, wind, and light power electricity generators. Contact: Lucia Claster, USDA Office of International Cooperation, (202) 690-2867.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives Agriculture Utilization of Water USDA MOWR 10/92 Study of surface water, soil water, and ground water in areas in need of water resources or that are liable to drought, waterlogging, or alkalization. Contact: Lucia Claster, USDA Office of International Cooperation, (202) 690-2867. Atmosphere Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling NASA CAMS 1990- Cooperation via joint modeling workshops. The first workshop was held in Shanghai in 1990, where papers were presented on the budget and chemistry of trace gases, acid deposition modeling, chemistry-climate interactions, and stratospheric modeling. A second workshop was proposed for April 1992, which it is hoped will develop specific recommendations for substantive areas of cooperation in modeling. Contact: Robert McNeal, NASA, (202) 453-1479, U.S. PI; Chinese PI: Zhou Xiuji, CAMS. Atmosphere PEM-West NASA CAMS 1991- Study of anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, ozone, sulfur, and aerosols due to long-range transport of air pollutants from Asia and North America. The first round of experiments was completed in 1991 (data sets not yet available). Another mission is expected to take place in 1994. NOAA and CAMS run an intensive ground station in the PEM-West network capable of measuring many particulate species. Contact: Shaw Liu, NOAA, (303) 497-3356; U.S. PI: Robert McNeal, NASA (202) 453-1479; Chinese PI: Zhou Xiuji, CAMS, 86-1-832-7390. Atmosphere Continental Baseline Monitoring Station NOAA SMA 1990- Establishment of a baseline monitoring station in Qinghai Province for the collection of weekly air samples of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. Qinghai is a unique clean-air, inland station, and the data will be used as a base for long-term atmospheric chemistry measurements. Contact: James Peterson, NOAA, (303) 497-6074, U.S. PI; Chinese PI: Zhou Xiuji, CAMS.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives Atmosphere Monsoon Program NSF CAMS 1983- Causes and effects of the Asian monsoon and its connection with weather patterns in other parts of the world, including studies of global teleconnections of the winter monsoon, heat and moisture budgets of monsoon convection, monsoon circulations and associated cloud systems, mesoscale dynamics and the structure of mesoscale convective systems, and the response of the tropical atmospheric circulation to monsoon heating. Rainfall data sets available from the Chinese side. Contact: Pam Stevens, NSF, (202) 357-9887; U.S. PI: K.M. Lau, NASA; Chinese PI: Chen Longxun, CAMS. Atmosphere Climate Studies NSF CAMS ongoing Collaborative research projects on the climatic effects of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Contact: Jay Fein, NSF (202) 357-9892; U.S. PI: Wei-Chyung Wang, State University of New York, Albany, (518) 442-3357; Chinese PI: Ding Yihui, CAMS. Atmosphere Tibet Plateau and Mountain Meteorology Experiment NSF SMA 1985–1987 Study of how large terrain complexes influence atmospheric heating and subsequent air motions. Measurements of radiation, heat and moisture fluxes near the ground to gain insight into the meteorological effects of the Tibet Plateau. Data sets available (preliminary data in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 1987, Vol. 68, pp. 607–615). Contact: Ron Taylor, NSF (202) 357-7624; U.S. PI: Elmar Reiter, Colorado State University, (303) 442-2200; Chinese PI: Zheng Qinglin, SMA.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives Atmosphere Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) NSF SMA ongoing Although this topic is primarily a NOAA Marine and Fishery Protocol issue, a meteorological component to model the coupled ocean-atmosphere climate system (part of COARE) and ENSO prediction comes under the Atmospheric Protocol. Contact: Jay Fein, NSF, (202) 357-9892; U.S. PI: Mark Cane, Columbia Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, (914) 359-2900 x344; Chinese PI: Zhou Xiaoping, SMA. Atmosphere Climate Reconstructions NSF SMA ongoing Historical climate data extraction and tree-ring core collection and analysis to yield climatic records extending back at least 300 years. In 1991, discussions were held regarding the development of an exchange program for historical research including ice-core analyses and the construction of historical climate data comparison models. A joint paper by Thomas Crowley (Applied Research Corporation, [409] 846-1403) and Zhang Jiacheng (SMA) on the reconstruction from historical and paleorecords of Chinese climate variability and change from 1470 to 1979 was completed and published in the Journal of Climate. Contact: Jay Fein, NSF, (202) 357-9892; U.S. PIs: Pao Wang, University of Wisconsin, (608) 2626479, and Lisa Graumlich, University of Arizona; Chinese PI: Ding Yihui, CAMS. Environment CFC-Substitutes for Household Refrigerators EPA NEPA 4/91- Cooperative projects to test short-term methods for reducing CFC-11 and CFC-12 use in Chinese refrigerators and to test commonly available alternative designs that use long-term non-ozone depleting, energy-efficient substitutes for CFCs in refrigerators. The Chinese Ministry of Light Industry is also involved in this project. Contact: Stephen Andersen, Global Change Division, EPA (202) 233-9069. Environment Elimination of Halons EPA NEPA 1/92- Project to eliminate unnecessary halons in order to protect the stratospheric ozone layer and to improve fire safety in China. Coordination of cooperative projects to recall, recycle, and store halons from non-essential applications; to replace halon

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives           fire extinguishers and systems with modern dry chemicals, carbon dioxide, foam, and water fire extinguishers; and to convert halon chemical factories to the manufacture of other products. The Chinese Ministry of Public Safety is also involved in this project. Contact: Stephen Andersen, Global Change Division, EPA, (202) 233-9069. Environment Energy Efficient Refrigerators EPA NEPA   Under the auspices of the CFC Substitutes for Household Refrigerators project, this is an effort to increase the efficiency and decrease the energy consumption of Chinese refrigerators. The project is implemented through the Beijing Household Electrical Appliance Research Institute of the Ministry of Light Industry, whose scientists are researching substitutes for CFCs to increase the efficiency of refrigerators. Contact: John Hoffman, Global Change Division, EPA, (202) 233-9190. Environment Ozone Protection Projects EPA NEPA 12/90- Based on the Cooperation Principles for Cooperative Ozone Protection Projects. Joint research on the relationship between CFC and halon emissions and ozone depletion; the effects of ozone depletion; and CFC and halon substitutes and alternatives. Contact: Stephen Andersen, Global Change Division, EPA (202) 233-9069. Environment Rice Paddy Methane EPA   NEPA The focus is on two areas: (1) methane analyses through soil survey and the monitoring of methane emission coefficients and (2) comparative analyses of methane levels under different soil fertility, irrigation, and cultivation practices. Within NEPA, the work is conducted at the Chinese Research Academy for

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives           Environmental Sciences and the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science. Contact: Dennis Tirpak, Climate Change Division, EPA, (202) 260-8825. Environment Air Pollution Transport and Transformation EPA NEPA 1988- Studies of the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere; transformation of SO2 to SO3 in the atmosphere; rules of pollutant diffusion in areas of complex topography (1988-89); atmospheric chemical processes and models (ongoing since 1988); the transformation of harmful substances contained in soot particles (ongoing since 1988); mountain cloud chemistry project (1989–91); and cooperation on the Global Trends Network (1979–89). NOAA and CAS are also involved in this program. Contact: William Wilson, EPA (Research Triangle Park), (919) 541-2551. Environment Coal-bed Methane EPA MOE 4/90- The project is aimed at reducing atmospheric methane emissions, expanding the recovery and use of coal-bed methane, and providing substantial quantities of clean-burning natural gas. Current work is focused on resource assessment and the identification of demonstration project sites. The project is developing pilot projects in areas with documented coal-bed methane potential and creating a program to train Chinese engineers. No data are available. NEPA and SMA are also involved in this project. Contact: Dina Kruger, Global Change Division, EPA, (202) 233-9039; Chinese PI: Li Xuecheng, Ministry of Energy. Fossil Energy Analysis of General Circulation Models DOE CAS 8/87- Task One of the DOE-CAS Joint Research on the Greenhouse Effect. Analysis of various current climate models to improve general circulation models (GCM), specifically, the development of the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics' (IAP) two-level GCM. The Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 73(5) 1992 describes this joint project. Data sets are available. Contact: T.K. Lau, DOE, (202) 586-9249; U.S. PI: R. Cess, University of New York at Stony Brook, (516) 632-8321; Chinese PI: Zeng Qingcun, Institute of Atmospheric Physics.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives Fossil Energy Preparation Paleo-, Historical, and Instrumental Climate Data DOE CAS 8/87- Task Two of the DOE-CAS Joint Research on the Greenhouse Effect. Compilation of a climate database which will be used to estimate natural climate variation, to study climate changes, and to test climate models. Chinese historical climate information will be analyzed to establish relationships between physical processes and climate changes, with special attention to the case studies of wet and dry periods, desertification, and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Data sets are available. Contact: Michael Riches, DOE, (301) 903-3264; U.S. PIs: Sultan Hameed, State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, (516) 632-8319, Wei-Chyung Wang, SUNY, Albany, (518) 442-3357; Chinese PIs: Zhang Peiyuan, Institute of Geography, Fu Congbin and Huang Runhui, Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Fossil Energy Relationship Between Large-Scale and Regional-Scale Climate DOE CAS 8/87- Task Three of the DOE-CAS Joint Research on the Greenhouse Effect. Definition of temporal and spatial characteristics of climate regions by using regional climate data from a project database, and to estimate how such characteristics may be affected by global warming. Studies have analyzed desertification in northern China and its relationship to precipitation fluctuations and the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Data sets are available. Contact: Michael Riches, DOE, (301) 903-3264; U.S. PIs: Sultan Hameed, SUNY, Stony Brook, (516) 632-8319, Wei-Chyung Wang, SUNY, Albany, (518) 442-3357; Chinese PIs: Zhang Peiyuan, Institute of Geography, Fu Congbin and Huang Runhui, Institute of Atmospheric Physics.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Protocol Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives Fossil Energy Atmospheric Measurements of Methane DOE CAS 8/87- Task Four of the DOE-CAS Joint Research on the Greenhouse Effect. Production of data on methane fluxes from various sources in China, particularly from rice paddies and biogas pits. The study tries to determine the concentrations and trends of various greenhouse gases at rural and urban continental stations. The study will evaluate the role of Chinese methane emissions in the global methane cycle. Data sets are available. Contact: Michael Riches DOE, (301) 903-3264; U.S. PIs: Rei Rasmussen and M.A. Khalil, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, (503) 690-1077; Chinese PI: Wang Mingxing, Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Marine/ Fishery TOGA/ COARE NOAA SOA 1985- Study of the effect of ocean heat transport on climate variability by measuring ocean circulation and mixing, atmospheric convection and the fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture. Research will improve forecasting of long-term climate change. Because tropical convection and latent heat release are among the main driving forces for atmospheric circulation in higher latitudes, study of this area is key to understanding the mechanisms controlling the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon. NSF and NASA are also involved on the U.S. side and MOA and SMA on the Chinese side. Contact: James Bizer, NOAA, (301) 427-2089 x24. Marine/ Fishery Oceanographic Data and Information Cooperation NOAA SOA 1985- The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center and the SOA National Marine Data and Information Service exchange oceanographic data (hydrographic, model observations, etc.), atmospheric observations, buoy data, current measurements, and sea level studies that are relevant to global change research. Contact: Ron Moffatt, NOAA, (202) 606-4571.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Summaries of Selected University-Level Bilateral Projects Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives Biogeochemical Cycling of Atmospheric Trace Elements and Mineral Aerosol Over Central and Eastern Asia URI CAS 6/91- Experiments focus on the atmospheric transport of soils, in particular, on the interannual variability in atmospheric dust concentrations and the meteorological conditions responsible for the concentration differences. A second focus will be to evaluate the relationships between contemporary mineral aerosol particles and loess/paleosol sequences in China. U.S. PI: Richard Arimoto, University of Rhode Island, (401) 792-6235; Chinese PI: An Zhisheng, Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology. Chinese Ecological Research Network (CERN) UNM CAS 1992- Research data management training course to improve the management of CAS ecological data. U.S. PIs: James Gosz and James Brunt, University of New Mexico, (505) 277-9342; Chinese PI: Zhao Jianping, Bureau of Resources and Environmental Sciences, CAS. Chronology and Dynamics of Late Quaternary Climatic and Environmental Changes UWA CAS 1991- Research compares paleoclimatic indices obtained from detailed environmental records in China and in the U.S. Pacific Northwest with results of paleoclimatic modeling experiments that produce values for former wind, temperature, and precipitation at specific times in the past. U.S. PI: Stephen Porter, University of Washington, (206) 543-1166; Chinese PI: An Zhisheng, Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology. Climate Change Impacts Climate Institute CAS 8/91- The Climate Institute is a policy organization promoting links between CAS and international scientists and an understanding of global change, especially impact assessments and GCM modeling and training. Coordinates joint meetings between China and international experts, e.g.,

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives         the Symposium on Climate Change Impacts in Beijing in 1991, with a follow-up meeting planned for 1993 Beijing) to discuss and analyze impacts and response strategies. The institute's work with China involves cooperation with Dick Ball of DOE, Steve Leatherman (United States) and Nobuo Minura (Japan) who study of the vulnerability of the Chinese coast, and CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization) of Australia. Contact: Ata Qureshi, Climate Institute, (202) 547-0104. Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems UM, UMD CAS   International collaborations with laboratories at the Universities of Miami and Maryland on climate-vegetation interactions. Chinese PI: Zhang Xinshi, Institute of Botany; U.S. PIs: Mark Harwell, University of Miami, (305) 361-4157, Alan Robock, University of Maryland, (301) 454-5089. Global Trends Network NOAA NEPA 1979- Measurement of precipitation composition in remote areas, to be used as a baseline in a study of change in regions with high levels of human activity, especially in the United States and China. This network was established in 1979 as part of the Global Precipitation Chemistry Program. The China station was established in 1987 under the U.S.-Chinese Environment Protocol, but since 1989, the program has been administered by NOAA and the University of Virginia. Contact: Rick Arts, NOAA, (301) 713-0295; U.S. PI: James N. Galloway, University of Virginia, (804) 924-0569. Man and the Biosphere National Committee for MAB National Committee for MAB 1987-1991 Measurement models and training in the areas of wood decomposition, nutrient cycling, species, replacement, and nitrogen cycling. The South China Institute of Botany has two cooperative projects, an ecosystem restoration project (Sandra Brown, University of Illinois) and a comparison of broadleaved forests (Orie Loucks, The Miami University [Ohio]). Data sets are available. Contact: Orie L. Loucks, The Miami University (513) 529–1677; Chinese PI: Li Wenhua, Commission on Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, CAS.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Program Lead U.S. Agency Lead Chinese Agency Dates Objectives South China Sea Paleoceanography SCU CAS 1989- Study of cores taken from the South China Sea to study paleoceanography and paleoclimate. Data available. Chinese PI: Luo Youlang, CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanography, Guangzhou (86-20) 445-1335 x825; U.S. PI: Douglas Williams, Department of Geological Science, University of South Carolina (803) 777-7525. South China Seas Sediment Analysis NIU CAS   South China Sea Institute of Oceanology is conducting O-isotope work on sediment cores from the South China Sea. Chinese PI: Luo Youlang, SCSIO, (86-20) 445-1335 x825; U.S. PI: Hsin Yiling, Northern Illinois University, Department of Geology, (815) 703-7951. MULTILATERAL AND NON-U.S. BILATERAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS Program Countries Lead Chinese Agency Objectives Aerosol Particle Analysis Japan, Korea BNU A network of stations is being set up in China, Korea, and Japan for aerosol sampling and analysis at Beijing Normal University and Keio and Kyoto Universities in Japan. Contact: Zhu Guanghua, Beijing Normal University. Japanese Contact: Yoshikazu Hashimoto, Keio University.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Program Countries Lead Chinese Agency Objectives Australian Monsoon Experiment (AMEX) Australia, United States SMA A subprogram of TOGA consisting of a 6-week experiment in 1987 aimed describing the broad-scale structure of the Australian monsoon system. Chinese PI: Chen Longxun, SMA, 86-1-831-2277 x 2758); Foreign PI: Greg Hoiland, Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia, 613-669-4501. Chemistry of Glacial Ice Cores Japan, former USSR, France, Denmark, Switzerland, United States CAS Lanzhou Institute of GIaciology and Geocryology hosts international expeditions exploring the chemistry of ice cores from mid-latitude glaciers. Chinese PI: Yao Tandong, Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, 86-9-312-6725 x328; Foreign PI: Lonnie Thompson, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University (614) 292-6652; Claude Lorius, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environnement, 33-7-642-5872 x144); H. Oeschger, Physikalisches Institut der Universitât Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 46-316-5811. China-Japan Chinese Cooperative Study on the Kuroshio Ocean Current Japan SOA This project is carried out at the Second Institute of Oceanography, Hangzhou. Chinese PI: Yuan Yaocu, SIO, 86-571-87-6924 x352; Foreign PI: Japanese Science and Technology Agency, Office of Ocean Technology and Development. China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center Japan NEPA Agreement between the premiers of China and Japan for the establishment of a national data and information center and a national monitoring standards center at the National Environmental Protection Agency. Japanese participation is coordinated by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Environment Agency of Japan. Chinese Contact: Chen Zijiu, NEPA, 86-1-601-2118; Foreign Contact: Kazu Karo, Environment Agency, 81-33580-4982. Cooperative Ecological Research Program Germany CAS Collaboration under the UNESCO MAB Program, with eight different research projects in different parts of China. Chinese PI: Zhao Xianying, Chinese National Committee for MAB, 86-1-329-7418. Foreign PI: Dr. B. von Droste, CERP Coordinator, UNESCO, Paris, France, 33-1-45-68-40-67.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Program Countries Lead Chinese Agency Objectives East Asian/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, United States SMA East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study of the IGAC Program. Oversees PEM-West studies of atmospheric cycles of carbon, nitrogen, ozone, sulfur, and aerosols over the Pacific Basin. Effects of Acid Rain on Forests and Lakes Japan RCEES Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences acid rain study in Chongqing and other sites in southern China. Chinese PI: Feng Zongwei, RCEES, 86-1-256-1870; Foreign PI: Norio Ogura, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Environmental Science and Resources, 81-423-34-6906. Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment (EMEX) Australia, United States SMA This project is carried out in conjunction with AMEX, a TOGA subprogram consisting of six week experiment in 1987 aimed at obtaining a description of the mesoscale convection components of the Australian monsoon system. Chinese PI: Chen Longxun, SMA, 86-1-831-2277 x2785; Foreign PI: Peter Webster, Penn State University, Department of Meteorology (814) 865-6840. Sino-Japanese Atmosphere-Land Surface Processes Experiment Japan CAS Known locally as the HEIFE experiment, it is a large study of land surface climatology and hydrology in the Heihe River Basin in Gansu Province. The objectives of the program are to investigate air-surface exchanges, energy and water budget, the boundary layer structure, distribution of atmospheric dust over the desert, and water requirements of crops. The project is a contribution to the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Biological Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle research programs. Chinese PI: Gao Youxi, Lanzhou Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics, 86-931-25311; Foreign PI: Y. Mitsuta, Kyoto University (81–774) 32-3111.

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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Program Countries Lead Chinese Agency Objectives Rice Paddy Methane Studies Germany CAS Cooperation between the Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research and the Institute of Atmospheric Physics consisting of continuous flux measurements carried out on rice fields in Hangzhou since 1987, using an automatic sampling and analyzing system. Data sets available. Chinese PI: Wang Mingxing, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, (86-1) 491-9851; Foreign PI: Dr. Seiler, Fraunhofer Institute. Study of Atmospheric and Environmental Change at the South Pole United States, Uruguay CAS Study of the atmospheric and environmental change at the South Pole from the late Pleistocene Epoch to the present. Chinese PI: Liu Tungsheng, Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology (86-29) 51773, Qin Dahe, Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology.

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