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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration 4 Chinese Participation in International Global Change Research Programs INTRODUCTION This chapter presents an overview of Chinese activities in three major international global change programs: (1) the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), which is sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), (2) the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), which is sponsored jointly by the World Meteorological Organization and ICSU, and (3) the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (HD/GEC) Program, which is sponsored by the International Social Science Council. Research highlights are presented in each of the core project areas in which China is, plans to be, or has the potential (in the panel's view) to be actively engaged. A section on the Chinese Ecological Research Network (CERN) is also included as it is a component of the CNCIGBP'S global change program. Further details about the organization and research of selected institutions identified in this chapter are provided in Appendix A. Below are listed Chinese institutes conducting research related to IGBP, WCRP, or HD/GEC that are identified in this report. Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle and Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (BAHC/GEWEX) IGBP, WCRP Institute of Geography, CAS Lanzhou Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics, CAS Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, CAS
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Data and Information Systems (DIS), IGBP Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling (GAIM), IGBP Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS Institute of Botany, CAS Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, SMA Peking University Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, CAS State Oceanographic Administration University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE), IGBP Institute of Botany, CAS Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, CAS Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (HD/GEC), ISSC Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geography Institute of Automation, CAS Institute of Systems Science, CAS Ministry of Aviation and Space Flight Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS State Science and Technology Commission Xinjiang Institute of Geography, CAS International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC), IGBP Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, CAS Beijing Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Services Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, SMA Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS Nanjing University Peking University Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS South China Institute of Botany, CAS University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), IGBP; Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ), IGBP First Institute of Oceanography, SOA Guangzhou Institute of Geography Institute of Geography, CAS Lanzhou Institute of Desert Research, CAS
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS Nanjing University, Department of Geo and Ocean Sciences Qingdao Institute of Oceanology, CAS Qingdao University of Oceanology Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA Xiamen University, Department of Oceanography Past Global Changes (PAGES), IGBP Beijing Normal University, Department of Geography Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, SMA Chinese University of Geosciences, Wuhan Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, CAS Fudan University Guiyang Institute of Geochemistry, CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS Institute of Botany, CAS Institute of Geography, CAS Institute of Geology, CAS Institute of Geology, CAGS Institute of Oceanographic Geology, MOGM Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, CAS Lanzhou Institute of Desert Research, CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS Nanjing University National Remote Sensing Center, CAS Northeast Normal University Peking University Qinghai Institute of Saline Lakes, CAS Shaanxi Normal University Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA Tongji University Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, CAS Xinjiang University, Department of Geography Yunnan Institute of Geological Sciences Zhongshan University System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START), IGBP Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS Institute of Botany, CAS
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, CAS Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Program (TOGA), WCRP Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, SMA First Institute of Oceanography, SOA Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS Institute of Geography, CAS Institute of Mechanics, CAS Lanzhou Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics, CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology, CAS Qingdao University of Oceanology Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, CAS Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA INTERNATIONAL GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) was created under the auspices of the Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution in 1988 in response to the growing international concern over observed changes in atmospheric chemical compositions and their potential impact on mankind. When the IGBP was formed, IGAC was adopted as one of its core projects. The overall goal of IGAC is to measure, understand, and thereby predict changes—now and over the next century—in global atmospheric chemistry, with emphasis on changes affecting the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, the impact of atmospheric composition on climate, and the interactions of atmospheric chemistry with the biota. The goal is broad and encompasses several contemporary environmental issues, including the increased acidity of precipitation, the depletion of stratospheric ozone (O3), and global warming due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases, for example, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). According to the IGAC plan, six major foci address important problems in global atmospheric chemistry, whose solutions require international cooperation: (1) natural variability and anthropogenic perturbations of the marine atmosphere; (2) natural variability and anthropogenic perturbations of tropical atmospheric chemistry; (3) role of polar regions in changing atmospheric composition; (4) role of boreal regions in changing atmospheric composition; (5) global dis-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration tribution, transformation trends, and modeling; and (6) international support activities. Research Highlights Atmospheric chemistry research is carried out in a number of institutes and universities, usually addressing urban air pollution issues such as oxidants, suspended particles, and toxic species. Recently, some attention has been directed at research projects that have regional and global implications. Most of these projects are closely related to IGAC research activities. A major focus is on greenhouse gas emissions, including CH4, N2O, and CO2. Research projects on stratospheric O3 have also been carried out. Regional-scale research activities are focused on acid precipitation and oxidants. In addition, the interesting problem of long-range transport of Asian dust and its impact on the Pacific Basin has also drawn some attention. A brief description of these projects is presented here and additional details are discussed in Chapter 5. The panel identified significant interest in studying CH4 emissions in China. Observed to be increasing at the rate of about 1 percent per year, CH4 is one of the important trace gases implicated in global warming. With present day concentrations of about 1.75 ppm, increases in CH4 can affect global climate as well as tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Rice paddy fields—of which 24 percent of the world's total lie in China—are an important source of atmospheric CH4, contributing to approximately 10 to 20 percent of total global emissions. At least four groups, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS), CAS Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences (RCEES), and CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science, have either made or started measurements of CH4 emissions from rice fields. Some of the measurements were conducted as bilateral collaborations between the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics and the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany (Wang et al. 1992) and between the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics and the U.S Department of Energy (DOE)1 (Khalil et al. 1990). These groups have also started measurements of N2O emissions from soils. In addition, exchange of CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere is being studied at the CAS South China Institute of Botany and RCEES. Trace gas and aerosol monitoring is carried out by various organizations. CAMS, RCEES, and Peking University operate several atmosphere stations in rural and remote areas where measurements of
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), aerosols, and precipitation chemistry are carried out. In addition, networks of stations have been established for national-scale precipitation chemistry measurements by NEPA and CAMS and regional-scale measurements by RCEES and several provincial agencies. Aerosol chemistry studies also focus primarily on urban and regional-scale environmental problems. An exception is the study of Asian dust storms that exert a large influence on the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosols and precipitation over eastern Asia and the northern Pacific Ocean. CAMS has an extensive program to study the formation and transport of dust storms. A cooperative international program, the China and America Air-Sea Experiments (CHAASE), has been conducted to study the compositions of aerosol particles and precipitation in China and Korea since 1990 (Arimoto et al. 1990, Gao et al. 1992a,b). The program involves the State Oceanographic Administration (SOA), the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, and the University of Rhode Island.2 In addition, as part of the WCRP Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program (see below), compositions of rain and aerosol samples collected over the western Pacific Ocean were analyzed under bilateral projects between the U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the State Meteorological Administration (SMA) and between NOAA and the Chinese National Research Center for Marine Environment Forecasts at the State Oceanographic Administration (SOA). Total O3 is measured by scientists from the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics at a station in Beijing and one in Yunnan Province. Ground-based remote sensing techniques for measuring stratospheric trace gases such as O3 and nitrite (NO2) are under development at CAS Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics and Peking University. Modeling studies of the stratospheric O3 are conducted at the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics, SMA, CAS University of Science and Technology of China, and Peking University. In addition, chemistry models of the troposphere are also under development at some of these institutes for the study of regional and global environmental problems. In September and October 1991, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the first of its four planned airborne experiments over the Pacific Basin as part of what are collectively called the Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM). Their major objectives are to investigate the budgets of tropospheric oxidants, reactive nitrogen species, and sulfur species. The first of these experiments, known as PEM-West, is coordinated through the East Asia-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) of the IGAC Program, which includes scientists from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. PEM-West scientists measured a suite of important trace gases and aerosols from two aircraft (a NASA DC-8 and a short-range Japanese aircraft)3 and six intensive ground stations over the western Pacific Ocean. SMA, in collaboration with NOAA, operates one such intensive station on the eastern coast of China. PAST GLOBAL CHANGES The objective of the IGBP Past Global Changes (PAGES) Core Project4 is to organize efforts internationally to better understand past changes in the earth system in order to put current and future global changes into perspective and to improve the interpretation of their causes and dynamics. PAGES has taken a ''two-stream'' approach. The first stream is directed to relatively recent earth history of the last 2,000 years. The second stream takes a longer view of the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Late Quaternary Period (IGBP 1990). Review of CNCIGBP Literature Research on historical analysis of environmental change is voluminous in China; virtually every aspect of PAGES research described in IGBP Report No. 12 (1990) or in Bradley (1991) is being reported. Every CAS institute involved in global change research lists some form of historical analysis (CAS 1991), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) has funded this area extensively (Appendix B). In fact, the literature is so enormous that it would require a separate and extensive inquiry to catalogue and review materials cited by the Chinese. With few exceptions, work identified by the panel was restricted to China and connections with the rest of the earth system such as telecommunications with global climate anomalies remain to be made. The fundamental objectives of this work have been summarized by the CNCIGBP (Ma 1991): Reconstruction of past climate change and environmental variation, especially covering the last 2,000 years, through the enormous Chinese historical writings on climate and environmental descriptions, especially in eastern China. Development of multiproxy data from tree-ring chronologies, archaeological studies, and ice core and sedimentary analyses to supplement written records.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Study of glacial-interglacial cycles in the Late Quaternary Period, with special attention toward rapid and abrupt changes in order to better understand future global changes. Establishment of an historical proxy data bank in China. Performance of some historical analyses on particularly critical areas of China. The January 1990 Report of the Chinese National Committee for IGBP (CNCIGBP 1990a) describes an element of a core project titled, "Studies of Historical Evolution of Environment." This is elaborated on more completely in the September 1990 report (CNCIGBP 1990b), which lists a number of objectives based mainly on the organization developed by IGBP. A focus on PAGES research is prominent, including three definite activities: (1) pilot assessment of the current state of the life-supporting environment in China; (2) study of the historical evolution of life-supporting environment in China; and (3) impacts of paleoclimate change on underground water resources in the Late Pleistocene Epoch and trends of climate change in arid and semiarid areas. The second activity, in particular, has numerous studies listed. Other historical analyses are imbedded in the GCTE section of that document. As mentioned in the introduction of the CNCIGBP (Chapter 2), the Bulletin of the CNCIGBP, (CNCIGBP 1991) lists three focal areas for past global change research. Under "Ongoing research projects ...," several might incorporate historical analyses although it is not explicitly stated. The final section of this bulletin gives an overview of pilot studies conducted between 1988 and 1991 that clearly put climate change in an historical perspective. Research Highlights This pervasive consciousness of the variable past has elevated paleoenvironmental studies to a much higher relative level of priority in the Chinese global change program than in the United States or Europe. Every institute or laboratory that panel members visited included a paleoenvironmental component in its overall global change program. The range of records being studied included everything from the analysis of Chinese Imperial Court records at the CAS Institute of Geography (Appendix A) to the study of isotopic time series from ice cores from mid-latitude glaciers at the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology (Appendix A) and loess deposits by the CAS Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology (Appendix A). In each of these cases, American researchers are collaborators.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration This research also demonstrates the unique paleoenvironmental records in China that are a crucial resource for the global PAGES community. The quality of scholarship and skill in this area seemed very high. The relatively modest cost and technological level required for many paleoenvironmental studies undoubtedly aid in the success of these programs. But this research is also well-supported with sophisticated instrumentation at the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology and the CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology (Appendix A), two key institutions for research on paleoenvironments. A major project, "The Origin, Evolution, Environmental Change, and Ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau," is funded by State Science and Technology Commission, with contributions from participants (20 units from CAS and universities are involved). This project is notable for its scale, multidisciplinary scope, and the cross institutional organization of research. This project has four components: (1) structure, evolution of lithosphere and geodynamics (lead principal investigators (PIs): Pan Yushen, CAS Institute of Geology and Kong Xiangru, CAS Institute of Geophysics), (2) environmental changes during the Late Cenozoic Era (Shi Yafeng, CAS Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology and Li Jijun, Lanzhou University), (3) monitoring and prediction of recent climate change and its environmental impact (Tang Maocang and Cheng Guodong, CAS Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology), and (4) the structure, function, evolution, and differentiation of ecosystems (Zheng Du, CAS Institute of Geography and Zhang Xinshi, CAS Institute of Botany). The project is headed by Sun Honglie, CAS vice president, and is scheduled to run from 1992 to 1996. Although research design details were not available to the panel, this combination of scope and topics shows a welcome opportunity to couple the past, present, and future. Summary of PAGES Research Historical analyses that could be related to the PAGES Core Project are replete in past and planned Chinese research efforts. This is an area where China already has made significant contributions to the study of paleoclimate; the physical and historical resources available for analysis are substantial. The Chinese have a strong tradition in this approach, and the Chinese global change program is building on this foundation. The major study of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a good example of progress being made to expand and integrate work
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration on paleoenvironments. Chinese efforts could be further strengthened by considering the relationship between past changes and the broader global system that may have driven some of these phenomena. Historical analysis is voluminous, and integration with prospective research (designed to provide projections of and scenarios for future climate, land use, and other important environmental changes) will further enhance their contributions in this area. GLOBAL CHANGE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE) is an IGBP core project to develop the capability to predict the effects of changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and land use on terrestrial ecosystems and how these changes can lead to feedbacks to the physical and chemical climate system. China's Vegetation and Climate The vegetation zones in China range from tropical rainforest and monsoon forests in southern China to boreal forests in the north, and from east to west the vegetation grades from humid forests and intensive agriculture to temperate steppes and extreme deserts, with agriculture confined to areas where water for irrigation flows from the high mountains. The topography dominated by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau not only provides large expanses occupied by alpine vegetation, permafrost, and ice, but the plateau itself also plays an important role in modifying the atmospheric circulation and climate over the surrounding area; it is an obstacle causing the westerly jet stream to be diverted to northern China. This strongly affects the development of monsoons in southern China and the aridity of western China. The climate of western China is strongly continental and may be among the most sensitive areas of the globe to possible feedbacks on the physical climate system from changes in terrestrial ecosystems. Extensive anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover have occurred and are still occurring due to overgrazing, logging, irrigation, and conversion of marginal lands to agriculture. In addition to widespread land degradation and soil erosion, clear evidence from lake levels and climate records show that a drying and warming trend in the arid western parts of China has occurred in the past few decades. In contrast to the prevalent attitude in the West that the climate may be considered to be in a steady state, and, therefore, constant until
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration proven otherwise, the prevailing attitude in China is that the climate is always changing, as has been amply recorded in China's long history. Research Highlights The panel identified outstanding research projects on natural vegetation at the CAS Institute of Botany and one on agricultural systems at the CAS Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology. CAS Institute of Botany Under the leadership of Zhang Xinshi, director of the CAS Institute of Botany, very sophisticated information systems used to study climate-vegetation interactions in China have been developed at the Laboratory for Quantitative Vegetation Analysis. Databases on climate, topography, soils, land use, and vegetation cover have been integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) developed at the institute. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) vegetation index data received and processed by the National Satellite Meteorological Center are being used by institute researchers. The computer facilities are principally advanced microcomputers with modern software. Vegetation zonation has been analyzed by using several classification schemes that are widely used for world-wide comparison and study of climate-vegetation interactions, including Thornwaite's and Holdridge's classifications, Budyko's radiative dryness index, and potential annual net primary productivity (NPP). In addition, multivariate methods have been used to rank and classify climate zones according to their climatological and geographical parameters. This work provides a very strong foundation for studies of the effects of climate and CO2 change on terrestrial vegetation. Work is in progress to extend the use of remotely sensed vegetation index imagery in studies of vegetation dynamics and to use radiative transfer approaches to model NPP. Models of ecosystem physiology and coupling of physiological processes to the physical climate system are needed to link these studies to general circulation model (GCM) simulations of alternative climate scenarios and to examine continental-scale vegetation feedbacks on the climate system. The technological level of the facilities at the CAS Institute of Botany, especially the computer equipment, is not high by Western standards. Nevertheless, the creative use of resources and intellectual sophistication of the approach make this a world-class effort.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Scientific Themes The Chinese propose four central scientific themes for the EAWEP network. Impact of global change on sustainable development. This theme focuses firstly on regional climate and environmental responses to global warming, including impacts of warming on the monsoon system, sea level, water resources, and ecosystem structure and function. A second area of study is the impact of global change on economic development, in particular the impact on agriculture in coastal zones (including islands). The third area of study is the impact on human society. Regional problems of global significance. Five research areas are put forward: (1) the role of the changing monsoon system in the global hydrological cycle and global climate; (2) methane from rice paddy production; (3) changing land use patterns, for example, the deforestation and renewability of tropical monsoon forests; (4) land-ocean interactions in the coastal zone; and (5) past global change studies from records of the Qinghai-Tibet and Loess Plateaux, deep sea cores, and proxy data from Chinese literature. Development of human resources. The Chinese want to establish an international school for global change to address all types of educational and training needs (Chapter 3). They have approached the Pacific Science Association, which currently is headed by CAS President Zhou Guangzhao, for assistance in funding a fellowship program for global change education. Policy and strategies for global environmental issues. This theme was not very well articulated in the March version of the proposal. No specific approaches or policy areas were identified, although mention was made of promoting sustainable development and North-South cooperation on global environmental issues. Network Organization In general, the Chinese proposal follows the organizational and operational outlines recommended for START at the Bellagio meeting. One modification is the proposed subcenter for Pacific Islands, located on an unnamed Pacific island, that would assist the RRC by dealing specifically with issues particular to those islands. The EAWEP RRC would be located in the National Center for Global Change Research, which CAS is proposing to establish, and which would be administered by a secretariat. CAS would host the RRC because of its leadership role in basic sciences and because of its
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration strong scientific infrastructure. CAS also hosts the China Center for the ICSU Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) and is the secretariat for the ICSU World Data Center (WDC)-D, and five of the nine WDC-D subcenters13 are in CAS. Furthermore, CAS is in the process of upgrading its ecological stations into a network for long-term studies. Summary of the CNCIGBP Proposal The draft CNCIGBP proposal to the START Standing Committee demonstrates the large and multidisciplinary research enterprise that CAS offers to the study of environmental and climate change. The proposed scientific themes closely reflect the current Chinese research agenda. Overall, this proposal will be further strengthened when details are added concerning multilateral links in the proposed EAWEP region. Of the developing countries, China offers one of the most advanced scientific infrastructures. Furthermore, it is an important site for research in many of the global change topics. A strong role for China in START would be beneficial to China, the region, and the three major international global change programs. DATA AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR THE IGBP Data and Information Systems (DIS) for the IGBP was established to provide global data needed by core projects and, eventually, to provide data management and information services (IGBP 1990). Since its inception, DIS has been open to China's active involvement, for example, in the development of a 1 km global AVHRR data set and in having a site for one of the DIS land cover change pilot studies. Under the leadership of Fu Congbin, who is from the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics and a representative from China to the SC-IGBP, the Chinese global change program has two relevant activities using Chinese AVHRR data. First, Fu has used AVHRR data to produce a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the country. Second, and most recently, in collaboration with the State Meteorological Satellite Center on a national project of the Eighth 5-Year Plan, the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics will produce 1 km AVHRR data sets for the first time in China. In IGBP Report No. 12 (1990), listed under DIS are various sites around the world for land cover change pilot studies, one of them being the Gansu Grassland Project. In 1990, the Gansu Grassland Ecological Research Institute was named as the lead institute for a
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration national grasslands monitoring project to be funded by MOA. At the time, it seemed that this project, headed by Chen Quangong, would fit nicely into the DIS agenda. However, attempts to have Chen attend IGBP Land Cover Change Working Group meetings have not been successful. At the IGBP Asian Planning Meeting in December 1991, one of the DIS recommendations would promote linkage between DIS and regional and national centers responsible for data (IGBP 1992a). China has national data centers at CAS, SMA, and NEPA that could be more strongly linked to DIS activities. Data management and accessibility are very important issues in science. In China, data often are not well managed and can be considered commodities at the institutional and agency levels, and, therefore, are not easily available. Chinese participation in international programs would prompt better management and improve data accessibility. While DIS will primarily address global data needs in support of core projects, the Chinese can pursue their data and information needs and interests by increasing their participation in programs such as START and GAIM. HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE PROGRAM According to NSFC, China plans to participate in the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (HD/GEC) Program that is sponsored by the International Social Science Council. The goals of the HD/GEC program are consistent with China's research priorities; in fact, the study of the impact of human activities is evident to one degree or another in many current research agendas. However, this area of the global change research agenda often requires interdisciplinary research, which challenges the way most Chinese research is organized (Chapter 3). In the mid-1980s, CAS carried out some research that has resulted in some published reports and articles: ''Survival and Development,'' "On a Sustained and Harmonious Development of National Economy," "Current Status, Causes, and Strategies of China's Ecological Environment," and "Study of Chinese Population Development." The purpose of these works was to report on the interactions between humans, natural resources, and development. The CAS Institute of Geography has compiled a map of land resources in China (1:1,000,000) and national, regional, provincial, and county maps of land use in China (1:1,000,000) that will be important to research on land use change and human dimensions of global change.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Research Highlights An example of the type of research that the Chinese are considering under the human dimensions rubric is a CAS project, "Analysis in China's National Conditions: Research on Harmonious Development of China's Population, Resources, Environment, and Economy," led by Zhou Lisan, CAS Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology. Also participating are the Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources (CISNAR), RCEES, and the CAS Institute of Systems Science. This 2-year project is scheduled for completion in 1992. The study will examine population, resources, environment, economies, and differences in regional development in order to develop long-term strategies for overall economic development. Additional examples of projects can be found in Appendix B. Summary of HD/GEC Research The highly applied nature of much of China's science fosters and often demands that relationships between man and nature be investigated. Unfortunately, like most countries, China's scientific and educational infrastructures and funding mechanisms are not organized in a way to promote substantive and prolonged interdisciplinary work. Still, given China's resource consumption patterns, natural resource base, population growth, and settlement patterns, it probably stands to gain more than most countries from actions to promote the HD/GEC agenda and, with it, the justification and basis for interdisciplinary work. CHINESE ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH NETWORK The IGBP has provided further justification of and context for long-term ecological research, and CAS has capitalized on this link in promoting its Chinese Ecological Research Network (CERN) as a distinct component of China's national global change program. As it is recognized in the IGBP, the value of global change research will depend on a structure allowing data to be shared and analysis to be carried out at different scales. The plan for CERN seeks to establish such a structure for Chinese ecological data and analysis. CAS first started to organize CERN in 1987 to reorganize and improve the way ecological research and data collection could be undertaken at its 52 ecological and monitoring stations located throughout the country. An internal review of ecological work showed a lack of standardization of methodologies, data management, and of requisite equipment (Zhao 1990). While CERN's mandate supports global change research, its main
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration mission supports governmental national resource development policies, which seek the maximum exploitation of natural resources. The CERN research program emphasizes local and regional human impacts on the environment, improved agricultural production, resource management and development, and long-term environmental monitoring. Organization of the Network Over the next five years, CAS will implement CERN by upgrading 29 of its 52 ecological research and monitoring stations. In the Eighth 5-Year Plan, CAS has budgeted 45 million yuan ($8.2 million) for construction and equipment and 10 million yuan ($1.8 million) for CERN-related research. In addition, CAS is applying for a $16 million World Bank loan for equipment and training. CERN is organized into three parts: (1) a network of demonstration sites, which would show land use and reclamation practices, low-input agricultural production techniques, and other "optimization" production techniques; (2) a research network, which would conduct studies on 10 core topics in the ecological sciences, atmospheric sciences, and agronomy; and (3) monitoring networks consisting firstly of a "basic observing system" that will measure meteorology, hydrology, and biology and at all 29 CERN stations, and secondly of a network that will measure trace gases, wet and dry deposition of heavy metals, and other variables at a limited number of stations. Synthesis Center The Synthesis Center, which is in the planning phase, will be located at CISNAR. CISNAR already houses the Integrated Research Center for Natural Resources and Agricultural Development (established in 1990 and sponsored jointly with the National Commission for Agricultural Regional Planning) and World Data Center-D for Renewable Resources and Environment, as well as various other large-scale (regional and national) databases based on CISNAR survey projects over the years. Synthesis Center research will focus on regional and national scales and interdisciplinary studies, with an emphasis on natural resource management and policy questions. Subcenters Four institutes have been named to coordinate and validate data collected at CERN stations. These subcenters are organized by disci-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration pline: soil (CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science), hydrology (CAS Institute of Geography), atmosphere (CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics), and botany and zoology (CAS Institute of Botany) (Appendix A). While the packaging of data along traditional disciplinary lines is not ideal for many global change issues, the subcenter institutes are centers of excellence for global change research. For example, the CAS Institute of Botany is a leader in ecological modeling and is well placed to develop variable-scale analyses. The subcenters will concentrate on disciplinary studies. Field Stations Of the 29 CERN stations initially chosen to be included in the network, 11 have been designated "leading" stations. These stations have been selected based on their superior research and on the strength of their research staff, physical plant, and equipment relative to other stations. These stations will have expanded research and monitoring agendas and will be sites for remote sensing and regional monitoring studies. The remaining stations have been chosen based on criteria similar to those employed for "leading" stations. A selection process was employed in part because of administrative and financial considerations. CAS has determined that each field station should have a minimum of five basic maps: topography, soil, vegetation, geomorphology, and remote sensing imagery. Beginning in 1992, CAS will initiate a plan to install one personal computer and GIS software at each field station in order to digitize these maps. CERN Information System The key to CERN's success will be its ability to produce valid, well documented, and accessible data. CAS officials are well aware of the importance of improving research data management capabilities and of making data available nationally and internationally. To this end, CAS is investing heavily in data and information management over the next five years. And, eventual links to the CAS computer network will further improve the CERN Information System. CERN planners have devised an index system of structure and function variables for ecosystems that will be the basis of six databases to be set up. Database I will include basic ecological and environmental data that will be collected by all 29 CERN stations and sent to the Synthesis Center for analysis. Database II will contain process-oriented data collected at certain specified sites, for example,
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration from the specialized research assigned to "leading" stations. To date, three sets of standardized methodologies (forest, agriculture, and grasslands), along with one book of international standard methodologies, have been produced to meet field station needs. Database III and its subsets relate primarily to field stations: (1) background information on field stations, including natural environment, resources, and energy, (2) social and economic data (probably up to county level), (3) management data for individual research projects (at least metadata such as methodologies, main results, and principal investigator), and (4) station administration. Database IV will contain data collected from other projects that may be of use to CERN. Database V will contain data on large-scale data bases collected by the four subcenters. Database VI will contain social and economic data. Databases at the Synthesis Center will be considered permanent, which includes long-term monitoring data and data from structure and function research and demonstration projects. Social, economic, and natural resource data will also be permanent. Data from process-level studies are not considered permanent and will be managed by researchers until they are finished (in approximately 5 years) analyzing their results. Regardless, scientists will not be forced to relinquish data. Once the process or ecosystem study is complete, data will be stored at the subcenters or Synthesis Center, depending on the CERN research needs and the type of research undertaken. CERN Research Core Projects The first experiment to be conducted under CERN auspices, the "Structure and Function of Major Ecological Systems in China and Demonstration of Their Optimum Managerial Models," was begun in 1989. Currently called the "Network Study on Ecosystems in China: Study on the Structure and Function of Main Ecosystems in China and Approaches to Increasing Their Productivity (1991–1995)," it outlines standardized research organized by four major ecosystems: agroecology, forest, grassland, and aquatic field stations. The study outline can be found in Appendix D. CERN's ten core projects are listed below: Study of the impact of climate change and human activities on ecosystem degradation Monitoring and prediction of natural disasters
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Study of the impact of climate change and human impacts on fragile ecotones Study of NPP on a national scale and its relationship to climate change and human activities Study of geographic divergence of water cycling and water balance Study of the geographic divergence of the energy cycle Study of the geographic divergence of biogeochemical cycling Study of crops Study of the rules of ecosystem succession Development and use of optimized management models Within these projects, certain basic research will be conducted on such topics as those listed below: The hydrological cycle, including precipitation, surface water, soil moisture, and ground water models The nutrient cycle, including the prediction of soil nutritional levels and research on the role of soils in the carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles Trace gases fluxes and their generation, transportation, and transformation in various ecosystems The decomposition, accumulation, and transport of organic chemical pollutants and heavy metal elements The energy flow process Cooperative Links Between CERN and the U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research Network Chinese and American scientists in the U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network have been involved in successful ecological cooperative projects both in the United States and in China, including coarse woody debris studies (H.J. Andrews LTER, Oregon State University), modeling (Virginia Coast Reserve, University of Virginia; Central Plains Experimental Range, Colorado State University), and data management (Sevilleta LTER, University of New Mexico; H.J. Andrews LTER). CERN stations involved in these types of collaboration include Changbaishan, Xilingele, and Dinghushan (Appendix D). Support for this work has come from various sources such as the National Science Foundation and UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program. These links to American LTER scientists and sites have been major avenues for the introduction—on a project-by-project basis—of new research techniques and tools such as modeling and GIS, which have positively influenced the development of CERN (Leach 1990).
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration In 1990, CAS asked the CSCPRC to help strengthen these cooperative links. Specifically, CERN planners were interested expanding their knowledge of how LTER is organized and LTER data are managed. In May 1991, a CERN delegation led by Sun Honglie, CAS vice president and CERN chairman, visited five LTER stations and the LTER Network office. Of particular interest to the delegation was intersite cooperation, data management, network communications, and site management.14 In September 1991, a delegation of LTER scientists, led by James Gosz (Sevilleta LTER), went to China, where they visited CERN stations in forest, grassland, desert, and agricultural ecosystems and discussed possibilities for cooperative studies at these sites (Gosz and Leach 1992).14 While they were there, LTER scientists were also part of a World Bank team that reported to the Bank on the state of CERN plans (Leach et al. 1992). Participation in the MAB Program Chinese participation in the MAB program is financed by CAS and has a secretariat of six persons located in the CAS Bureau of Resources and Environmental Sciences, which also administers CERN. The chairman of the China MAB Committee is Sun Honglie, who is also a CAS vice president, director of the Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, chairman of CERN, and a member of CNCIGBP. China MAB has a budget of about 130,000 yuan per year. The Chinese MAB program has no particular mandate to fulfill any part of the global change research plan. The most important function is the maintenance of biosphere reserves that will be important sites for the monitoring of ecosystem changes. China has eight biosphere reserves, and four of them are also CERN sites: Changbai Mountain, Jilin Province (temperate forest, World Heritage Site, and a CERN site); Dinghu Mountain, Guandong Province (CERN site); Fanjing Mountain, Guizhou Province; Wuyi Mountain, Fujian Province; Tianchi Lake, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (glacial lake, alpine forest, and meadow and a CERN site); Wolong, Sichuan Province; Xilingele, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (grassland; CERN site); and Shennongjia, Hubei Province. Like cooperative research with LTER scientists, the MAB program has been an important avenue for the introduction of new ecological concepts, techniques, and training. Examples of projects include the Cooperative Ecological Research Project, which was carried out with Hans Brunig of Hamburg University and others on ecosystem processes at the Xiaoliang station of the CAS South China Institute of Botany, an ecosystem restoration project with Sandra Brown at the
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration University of Illinois at the CAS South China Institute of Botany, and a project on the comparison of broadleaved forests at Changbai Mountain for which Orie Loucks, Miami University (Ohio), is the American PI. Summary of CERN CERN is an ambitious and important commitment by CAS to improve the way it conducts ecological research. The large information and data management requirements will demand closer attention to quality assurance, documentation, and standards. The scope of this undertaking has significant implications for the types of contributions China can make to ecological studies and international scientific programs. NOTES 1. The four tasks of the DOE-CAS Joint Research on the Greenhouse Effect are carried out by scientists at the State University of New York at Albany and at Stony Brook, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the U.S. side and by the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics and the CAS Institute of Geography on the Chinese side. See also details in Appendix C. 2. The Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology (Appendix A) and the University of Rhode Island are conducting a bilateral comparative study (Appendix C) on atmospheric transport of soils that is based on CHAASE research. 3. The Chinese did not participate in the aircraft experiments and many difficulties were encountered in trying to use China as a base for aircraft operations. After much negotiation, the NASA aircraft was allowed a short stopover in Shanghai and only on the condition that all scientific instruments be shut off. This is a good example of the type of challenges that can arise in bringing China fully into some of the international experimental programs. 4. Liu Tungsheng, director of the Xi'an Laboratory for Loess and Quaternary Geology, is a member of the PAGES Scientific Steering Committee. 5. Eric Smith, Florida State University, and Kuo Nan Liou, University of Utah are developing a land-surface climatology collaborative project with CAS. The experiment site would be at the Inner Mongolia Grassland Experiment Station, about 70 km south of Xilinhot, in a temperate, semi-arid continental steppe zone of typical grassland vegetation. Currently, plans call for experiments to begin in 1996. If funded and carried out, this project would complement the HEIFE experiment by contrasting water and energy fluxes in an irrigated environment with those fluxes in a dryland environment. 6. Li Wenhua, Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, is a member of the committee. 7. RRNs and RRCs should organize around five objectives: (1) a focus on data and information management, accessibility of data, data exchange with international programs, and coordination with IGBP DIS, WCRP, and HD/GEC data programs; (2)
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration research, analysis, and modeling to facilitate interdisciplinary research, analysis, and modeling at the regional level; (3) policy outreach to encourage the transfer of findings into policy, which will be accomplished in part by involving policy makers in network activities; (4) training to develop indigenous scientific capabilities through training, collaborative research, and scientific and technical cooperation; and (5) scientific cooperation and access through exchange and collaboration among RRNs and through dissemination of database directories and information about projects and network activities (IGBP 1992a). 8. Actual delineations of regional boundaries will be determined by "regional needs and desires, through discussions with appropriate representatives from the nations involved" (IGBP 1991). 9. The Global Environment Facility is a multilateral fund set up by governments, the World Bank, the United Nations Environment Program, and the United Nations Development Program to finance grants and low-interest loans to developing countries for projects related to global environment, for example, greenhouse gas response strategies, biodiversity action plans, and technology transfers. 10. China is not a member of ASEAN, and, consequently, will not receive funds from this particular GEF proposal to participate in Tropical Asian Monsoon regional efforts. However, China is welcome to participate in this region through other avenues, and these are being actively explored. 11. Original signatories to the agreement establishing the institute are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama, Peru, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 12. Information for this section is based on the March version of the draft "Proposal to the IGBP START Standing Committee to Establish a Global Change Regional Research Network for East Asia and Western Pacific Region" (CNCIGBP 1992). Since then, much progress has been made in developing and strengthening the proposal and in defining ways China can contribute to START. Discussions are ongoing with the START secretariat, including a recent visit to China by Thomas Rosswall, acting director of the secretariat. 13. Databases are maintained at the following WDC-D subcenters: earthquake data at the Department of Science and Technology, State Seismology Bureau; oceanography data at the Institute of Marine Scientific and Technological Information, SOA; atmospheric data at the Information Office, National Meteorological Center, SMA; geology data at the Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources; renewable resources and the environment data at CISNAR, CAS; astronomy data at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, CAS; glaciology and geocryology data at the Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, CAS; geophysical data at the Institute of Geophysics, CAS; and space science data at the Research Center for Space Science and Applications. 14. These exchanges were organized in close cooperation with the U.S. LTER Network. The CERN delegation's visit was jointly funded by the NSF U.S.-China Program and the NSF LTER Program.
Representative terms from entire chapter: