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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration CHINA AND GLOBAL CHANGE OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION Panel on Global Climate Change Sciences in China Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China Office of International Affairs National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration NOTICE: The program of studies of Chinese science was begun in 1990 to inform the scholarly community about the current state of science inside and outside of China. The program was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. It was supported under Master Agreement Number 8618643 between the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences and Contract Number INT-8506451 between the National Science Foundation and the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People’s Republic of China (CSCPRC). Founded in 1966, the CSCPRC represents American scholars in the natural and engineering sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities, including Chinese studies. The Committee is composed of scholars from all of these fields. In addition to administering exchange programs, the CSCPRC advises individuals and institutions on scholarly communication between the United States and China. Administrative offices of the CSCPRC are located in Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 92-62952 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04841-9 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 B-062 Copyright 1992 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration PANEL ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCES IN CHINA JAMES N. GALLOWAY, Chairman, University of Virginia JOSEPH A. BERRY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford University ROBERT E. DICKINSON, University of Arizona C.S. KIANG, Georgia Institute of Technology SHAW C. LIU, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WILLIAM A. REINERS, University of Wyoming DAVID S. SCHIMEL, National Center for Atmospheric Research NIEN DAK SZE, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. WEI-CHYUNG WANG, State University of New York, Albany JOHN W. WINCHESTER, Florida State University Staff Beryl Leach, Program Officer
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration COMMITTEE ON SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION WITH THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA JAMES D. EBERT, Chairman, Marine Biological Laboratory NICHOLAS R. LARDY, Vice Chairman, Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington MARY BROWN BULLOCK, The Wilson Center, Smithsonian Institution ELLIS B. COWLING, North Carolina State University GERALD P. DINNEEN, National Academy of Engineering HARRY HARDING, The Brookings Institution CHARLES E. HESS, University of California, Davis DWIGHT H. PERKINS, Harvard Institute for International Development, Harvard University E. PERRY LINK, Princeton University ROBERT B. OXNAM, The Asia Society JAMES B. WYNGAARDEN, Institute of Medicine Staff Robert Geyer, Director
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Preface Human impacts on the environment transcend political and geographic boundaries. For example, atmospheric emissions from one country can impact ecosystems half-way around the world from it. The scale of these impacts has given rise to the term "global change." However, scientific understanding of these global change processes is very limited, and better understanding and timely responses will depend on international cooperation. To this end, the International Council of Scientific Unions has established the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program and, with the World Meteorological Organization, the World Climate Research Program. The active involvement and contributions of developing countries to the study of global change are crucial. And China, by virtue of having 22 percent of the world's population and being a significant contributor to carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbon, and other greenhouse gas emissions, is one of the most important of these countries. China's emissions are already having a profound impact locally, and regional and global impacts are of growing concern. Moreover, because of China's projected population growth and reliance on high-sulfur coal for 75 percent of its energy needs, a potential exists for substantially greater impacts in the future. The main purpose of this report is to provide detailed information on Chinese global change research in order to facilitate collaboration that will increase understanding of China's impact on global
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration change and the impact of global change on China. Furthermore, Chinese geography, such as the Loess and Qinghai-Tibet Plateaux and extensive coastline provide fertile territory for investigating processes that regulate the Earth's environment. A wealth of unique historical proxy data offers a unique and significant contribution to studies of past global changes. Most importantly, China has a community of scientists who recognize the importance of global change studies and who are committed to improving our understanding of China and global change. The study of global change sciences in China was itself a collaborative effort between the panel and our colleagues in China. Without their assistance in gathering information, their patient and extensive explanations of their work and priorities, and their openness and collegiality—the spiritual backbone of this effort—the study would not have been possible. As this report shows, the Chinese global change program is extensive, so I am not able in this space to thank all of the Chinese scientists to whom we are indebted. We sincerely appreciate the efforts and support of Ye Duzheng, chairman of the Chinese National Committee for the IGBP, Lin Hai of the National Natural Science Foundation, Fu Congbin, Shi Yafeng, Chen Panqin, Wang Hui, Cheng Erjin, and An Jianji from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ding Yihui of the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, and Liu Chunzheng of the Ministry of Water Resources. To the institute directors and the scientists at the institutions the panel visited, named and unnamed in the report, we very much appreciate your hospitality and cooperation. The production of this report required the efforts of many individuals. I am deeply appreciative to the panel members who found time in already overcommitted schedules to travel to China and tackle the job of sorting through the extensive body of information the panel compiled. In particular, my thanks to Dave Schimel and Shaw Liu for organizing Chapter 5. The panel is indebted to the substantial support received from the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC), which was absolutely essential for the completion of a successful report. John Olsen, Gao Xing, Keith Clemenger, and Yuan Xiansheng of the National Academy of Sciences/CSCPRC Beijing Office proved time and again the value and necessity of having a local presence in China in carrying out such a study. Jim Reardon-Anderson, former CSCPRC director, should be thanked for believing in the importance of global change issues and in convening a panel to increase our knowledge of Chinese efforts in this area. Beryl Leach, staff officer for the panel, made key contributions to this report: her insights into the organization of
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Chinese institutions and extensive knowledge of Chinese research agendas helped guide the panel when it otherwise might have gone astray; her written contributions were valuable to the panel; and her ability to put scientific jargon into a readable form make this report what it is. As chairman, I especially valued her motivation for excellence and her humor when the going got tough. The panel was also assisted by contributions from Kathleen Norman, project assistant for the panel during part of its work, who ably researched and compiled the information contained in Appendix C and who organized the administrative and logistical details of panel meetings. Extensive and helpful literature reviews were carried out Fan Songmiao, Liang Jinyou, Fu Jimeng, and Kate LeJeune. Marc Abramson, CSCPRC summer intern, conducted background research on Chinese global change efforts that helped launch initial panel efforts. I would also like to thank Alice Hogan, program manager for the U.S.-China Program at the National Science Foundation, for the funding from the Division of International Programs that supported the panel's work. Although space does not permit thanking individuals by name, we greatly appreciated the cooperation of the international program officers in U.S. government agencies who kindly provided the panel with information about their agencies' work with China. This report provides a road map through the Chinese global change program and identifies opportunities for collaborative research. The report will be a success if collaboration increases between the Chinese and U.S. global change communities, and I have no doubt that great potential exists for such an increase. However, global change research requires a change in how collaborative research is supported. As this report shows, most collaborative projects to date are short-term, and by their nature, produce primarily short-term benefits. To obtain the depth of understanding required for global-scale issues, sustained support is required. It is critical that mechanisms be developed to support such efforts in order to take advantage of the opportunities offered to the world by China and its scientists in the arena of global change research. James N. Galloway, Chairman Panel on Global Climate Change Sciences in China Charlottesville, Virginia October 1992
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration This page in the original is blank.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 15 China's Role in Global Environmental Change, 15 Purpose and Structure of the Study, 16 2 CHINA'S RESPONSES TO GLOBAL CHANGE 23 China's View of Global Change, 23 Chinese Global Change Program, 24 3 OVERVIEW OF INSTITUTIONS RELEVANT TO GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH 37 Organization, 37 Funding, 39 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 40 National Environmental Protection Agency, 42 National Natural Science Foundation of China, 43 State Education Commission, 45 State Environmental Protection Commission, 49 State Meteorological Administration, 49 State Oceanographic Administration, 49 State Planning Commission, 50 State Science and Technology Commission, 51
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration 4 CHINESE PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAMS 53 Introduction, 53 International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, 56 Past Global Changes, 59 Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems, 62 Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle and Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment, 65 Programs on Marine Environments, 69 Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling, 78 System for Analysis, Research, and Training, 79 Data and Information Systems for the IGBP, 81 Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Program, 82 Chinese Ecological Research Network, 83 5 SELECTED TOPICS 91 Introduction, 91 Atmospheric Chemistry, 92 Trace Gases and Oxidants, 93 Aerosols, 95 Stratospheric Ozone, 96 Atmospheric Deposition, 96 Physical and Ecological Interactions of the Atmosphere and Land Surface, 98 Hydrology, 98 Biotic Controls on Trace Gases, 102 Climate Change Effects on Land Cover Change Dynamics, 108 6 SUMMARY 119 Introduction, 119 Contributions to International Research Programs, 121 Prospects for Collaboration, 123 REFERENCES 125 APPENDIXES A Overviews of Selected Institutions 135 Introduction, 135 Beijing Normal University, 135 China Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station, 136
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, 138 Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, 139 Guangzhou Institute of Geography, 141 Institute of Atmospheric Physics, 141 Institute of Botany, 143 Institute of Geography, 144 Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, 147 Lanzhou Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics, 150 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, 152 Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, 152 Nanjing Institute of Soil Science, 154 Nanjing University, 155 Northwest Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, 156 Peking University, 157 Qingdao Institute of Oceanology, 159 Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, 160 Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, 163 South China Institute of Botany, 165 South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, 167 Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, 168 Xinjiang Institute of Biology, Pedology, and Desert Research, 170 Zhongshan University, 171 B Global Change Projects Listed by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 173 C Selected Bilateral and Multilateral Global Change Projects 181 D Ecological Stations of the Chinese Academy of Sciences 197 E Contact Information for Selected Institutions 203 F Abbreviations and Acronyms 209 MAPS 4-1 Sino-Japanese Atmosphere-Land Surface Processes Experiment FIGURES 2-1 Linkages among biological, chemical, and physical processes critical to the understanding of global change on a decade-to-century time scale 2-2 Organization of the Chinese National Committee for the IGBP 2-3 Organization of the Chinese national climate research program
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration 3-1 Simplified organization of institutions involved in Chinese global change research, policy, or funding TABLES 3-1 Global change project funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, 1986–1992 3-2 Project awards in the Department of Earth Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, 1987–1989