the test of time. Against this background, it is clear that no external review committee, however menacing or powerful, could function better than the mechanisms by which we biomedical scientists already police ourselves. The presumption of the committee, therefore, was that the biomedical scientific enterprise is basically healthy, sound, and honest. Thus, the task at hand was to provide useful suggestions on maintaining and promoting the prevailing spirit of integrity.
A previous report prepared by the University of Michigan Joint Task Force on Integrity in Scholarship in 1984 (Steneck Report) already has addressed many important areas pertaining to the ethical conduct of research (see Appendix I [of that report]). It defined the ethical obligations of a scholar and the pressures that can discourage integrity in scholarship. Moreover, it articulated specific procedures to be followed when misconduct is alleged. In this document, we have chosen to focus our attention on promoting the best qualities of the scientific environment so as to discourage misconduct at its source. Since the essentials of appropriate conduct in science should be taught by the mentor to his pupils, we begin our report by identifying the responsibilities of mentorship and then continue with a discussion of the appropriate handling of data. Authorship defines our output as scholars; thus this important subject, as well as the related area of peer review, is covered in considerable detail. A consideration of the rules of proper conduct in the general discussion of the academic environment, the responsibilities of the institution to its faculty members, and guidelines for academic advancement are presented.
Initial Stages of Training
Make certain that the mentor's particular laboratory is appropriate for the trainee and his1 goals.
Make an effort to provide sufficient funding, instrumentation, and space for the conduct of the trainee's research.
Have a plan for the overall training of the fellow/student as well as an outline for a research project.