6
Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail

As was true for geese and ducks, little information is available on the nutrient requirements of the game birds that are most frequently considered part of the poultry industry—Ring-necked pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail. Although these species do not constitute a major share of the poultry industry, there are an increasing number of specialized farms involved in their production.

RING-NECKED PHEASANTS

Information available on the nutrient requirements of the Ring-necked pheasant indicates that diets of relatively high nutrient concentrations are needed during the starting period (Table 6-1). Protein and amino acid needs, where documented (Appendix Table A-7), resemble those of turkeys. Also, pheasants are especially prone to leg disorders and abnormal feather growth when certain key nutrients such as niacin, riboflavin, choline, manganese, and zinc are inadequate (Sunde and Bird, 1957; Scott et al., 1959). Pheasant chicks are especially vulnerable to undefined dietary factors that impair leg development, and including extra zinc in diets has been shown to reduce the impact of these factors (Cook et al., 1984). A high level of calcium, as in a breeder ration, can cause leg problems and high mortality if fed to pheasant chicks (Woodard et al., 1979).

All nutrient requirements listed for female pheasants in egg production except for protein are tentative. Data presented by Monetti et al. (1982, 1985) indicate that dietary protein concentration should be maintained so that percentage of protein per megacalorie MEn/kg of diet does not exceed 5.6.

Often, pheasants are fed diets designed to produce birds for use on game-release farms. Diets relatively high in protein and low in energy may be used to encourage the development of lean pheasants suitable for release.

JAPANESE QUAIL

Japanese quail are used for commercial specialty meat and egg production and also are valued research animals. Consequently, the nutrient requirements of Japanese quail have been documented to a greater extent than have those of other game bird species. Few definitive data have been published since 1984, when the previous edition of this report was published and

TABLE 6-1 Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)

Nutrient

Unit

0 to 4 Weeks; 2,800a

4 to 8 Weeks; 2,800a

9 to 17 Weeks; 2,700a

Breeding; 2,800a

Protein and amino acids

Protein

%

28

24

18

15

Glycine + serine

%

1.8

1.55

1.0

0.50

Linoleic Acid

%

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Lysine

%

1.5

1.40

0.8

0.68

Methionine

%

0.50

0.47

0.30

0.30

Methionine + cystine

%

1.0

0.93

0.6

0.60

Protein

%

28

24

18

15

Macrominerals

Calcium

%

1.0

0.85

0.53

2.5

Chlorine

%

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

Nonphytate phosphorus

%

0.55

0.50

0.45

0.40

Sodium

%

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Trace minerals

Manganese

mg

70

70

60

60

Zinc

mg

60

60

60

60

Water soluble vitamins

Choline

mg

1,430

1,300

1,000

1,000

Niacin

mg

70.0

70

40.0

30.0

Pantothenic acid

mg

10.0

10.0

10.0

16.0

Riboflavin

mg

3.4

3.4

3.0

4.0

NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For nutrients not listed or those for which no values are given, see requirements of turkeys (Table 3-1) as a guide.

a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet.





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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 6 Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants, Japanese Quail, and Bobwhite Quail As was true for geese and ducks, little information is available on the nutrient requirements of the game birds that are most frequently considered part of the poultry industry—Ring-necked pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail. Although these species do not constitute a major share of the poultry industry, there are an increasing number of specialized farms involved in their production. RING-NECKED PHEASANTS Information available on the nutrient requirements of the Ring-necked pheasant indicates that diets of relatively high nutrient concentrations are needed during the starting period (Table 6-1). Protein and amino acid needs, where documented (Appendix Table A-7), resemble those of turkeys. Also, pheasants are especially prone to leg disorders and abnormal feather growth when certain key nutrients such as niacin, riboflavin, choline, manganese, and zinc are inadequate (Sunde and Bird, 1957; Scott et al., 1959). Pheasant chicks are especially vulnerable to undefined dietary factors that impair leg development, and including extra zinc in diets has been shown to reduce the impact of these factors (Cook et al., 1984). A high level of calcium, as in a breeder ration, can cause leg problems and high mortality if fed to pheasant chicks (Woodard et al., 1979). All nutrient requirements listed for female pheasants in egg production except for protein are tentative. Data presented by Monetti et al. (1982, 1985) indicate that dietary protein concentration should be maintained so that percentage of protein per megacalorie MEn/kg of diet does not exceed 5.6. Often, pheasants are fed diets designed to produce birds for use on game-release farms. Diets relatively high in protein and low in energy may be used to encourage the development of lean pheasants suitable for release. JAPANESE QUAIL Japanese quail are used for commercial specialty meat and egg production and also are valued research animals. Consequently, the nutrient requirements of Japanese quail have been documented to a greater extent than have those of other game bird species. Few definitive data have been published since 1984, when the previous edition of this report was published and TABLE 6-1 Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter) Nutrient Unit 0 to 4 Weeks; 2,800a 4 to 8 Weeks; 2,800a 9 to 17 Weeks; 2,700a Breeding; 2,800a Protein and amino acids Protein % 28 24 18 15 Glycine + serine % 1.8 1.55 1.0 0.50 Linoleic Acid % 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Lysine % 1.5 1.40 0.8 0.68 Methionine % 0.50 0.47 0.30 0.30 Methionine + cystine % 1.0 0.93 0.6 0.60 Protein % 28 24 18 15 Macrominerals Calcium % 1.0 0.85 0.53 2.5 Chlorine % 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 Nonphytate phosphorus % 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 Sodium % 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Trace minerals Manganese mg 70 70 60 60 Zinc mg 60 60 60 60 Water soluble vitamins Choline mg 1,430 1,300 1,000 1,000 Niacin mg 70.0 70 40.0 30.0 Pantothenic acid mg 10.0 10.0 10.0 16.0 Riboflavin mg 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.0 NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For nutrients not listed or those for which no values are given, see requirements of turkeys (Table 3-1) as a guide. a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet.

OCR for page 44
Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 6-2 Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail (Coturnix) as Percentages or Units Per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter) Nutrient Unit Starting and Growing; 2,900a Breeding; 2,900a Protein and amino acids Protein % 24.0 20.0 Arginine % 1.25 1.26 Glycine + serine % 1.15 1.17 Histidine % 0.36 0.42 Isoleucine % 0.98 0.90 Leucine % 1.69 1.42 Lysine % 1.30 1.00 Methionine % 0.50 0.45 Methionine + cystine % 0.75 0.70 Phenylalanine % 0.96 0.78 Phenylalanine + tyrosine % 1.80 1.40 Threonine % 1.02 0.74 Tryptophan % 0.22 0.19 Valine % 0.95 0.92 Fat Linoleic acid % 1.0 1.0 Macrominerals Calcium % 0.8 2.5 Chlorine % 0.14 0.14 Magnesium mg 300 500 Nonphytate phosphorus % 0.30 0.35 Potassium % 0.4 0.4 Sodium % 0.15 0.15 Trace minerals Copper mg 5 5 Iodine mg 0.3 0.3 Iron mg 120 60 Manganese mg 60 60 Selenium mg 0.2 0.2 Zinc mg 25 50 Fat soluble vitamins A IU 1,650 3,300 D3 ICU 750 900 E IU 12 25 K mg 1 1 Water soluble vitamins B12 mg 0.003 0.003 Biotin mg 0.3 0.15 Choline mg 2,000 1,500 Folacin mg 1 1 Niacin mg 40 20 Pantothenic acid mg 10 15 Pyridoxine mg 3 3 Riboflavin mg 4 4 Thiamin mg 2 2 NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For values not listed for the starting-growing periods, see requirements for turkeys (Table 3-1) as a guide. a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet. Shim and Vohra (1984) presented a comprehensive review. Data appearing since 1984 have supported the values listed in the 1984 edition for protein (Sinha and Verma, 1984; Steigner, 1990) and for total sulfur amino acids (TSAA; Shrivastav and Panda, 1987) for the starting and growing period. In the instance of protein, however, TABLE 6-3 Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter) Nutrient Unit 0 to 6 Weeks; 2,800a After 6 Weeks; 2,800a Breeding; 2,800a Protein and amino acids Protein % 26 20.0 24.0 Methionine + cystine % 1.0 0.75 0.90 Fat Linoleic acid % 1.0 1.0 1.0 Macrominerals Calcium % 0.65 0.65 2.4 Nonphytate phosphorus % 0.45 0.30 0.70 Sodium % 0.15 0.15 0.15 Trace minerals Chlorine % 0.11 0.11 0.11 Iodine mg 0.30 0.30 0.30 Water soluble vitamins Choline mg 1,500.0 1,500.0 1,000.0 Niacin mg 30.0 30.0 20.0 Pantothenic acid mg 12.0 9.0 15.0 Riboflavin mg 3.8 3.0 4.0 NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For values not listed for the starting-growing periods, see requirements for turkeys as a guide. a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet. Steigner (1990) reported that a strain of Japanese quail selected for rapid growth required a greater dietary protein concentration than did random-bred quail. Similarly, information provided by Shim and Lee (1984, 1988) and by Shim and Chen (1989) showed that the dietary requirements for lysine and TSAA for breeding quail in the 1984 edition were appropriate in relation to the stated metabolizable energy contents of the diet. The lack of data to further define requirements or to corroborate single sets of observations (Appendix Table A-8) on requirements of Japanese quail, especially breeding quail, necessitates the continued listing of a large number of tentative requirement values in Table 6-2. BOBWHITE QUAIL The committee has made few changes in the nutrient specifications for Bobwhite quail (Table 6-3). Its reevaluation of the data (Appendix Table A-9) used to establish the previous requirements resulted in some modifications in protein, TSAA, calcium, and phosphorus recommendations for starting-growing Bobwhite quail. As with other game birds reared commercially, Bobwhite quail grown for game-release farms should be fed diets of relatively low energy content during the growing period to prevent excessive fattening.