Element or Compound

Species

Age

Chemical Form

Toxic Concentration (ppm)a

Toxic Effects

References

Nickel

Chicken

Immature

NiCl

400

Reduced growth

Hill, 1979

Nitrate

Turkey

Immature

NaNO3

900b

Reduced growth; mortality

Adams et al., 1967

Nitrate

Turkey

Immature

NaNO3

450(N)b

No effect on meat color

Mugler et al., 1970

Nitrite

Chicken

Immature

KNO2

658(N)

Decreased vitamin A in liver and thyroid enlargement

Sell and Roberts, 1963

Selenium

Chicken

Immature

Na2SeO3 + Se in wheat

10

Reduced growth

Carlson and Leitis, 1957

Selenium

Chicken

Immature

Na2SeO3

10

Reduced growth

Jensen, 1975a

Selenium

Chicken

Immature

Na2SeO3

20 (+1,000 Ca)

Reduced growth

Jensen, 1975a

Selenium

Chicken

Laying hen

Se in wheat

10

Reduced hatchability

Moxon and Wilson, 1944

Selenium

Chicken

Adult

Na2SeO3

5

Decreased hatchability

Ort and Latshaw, 1978

Silver

Chicken

Immature

AgSO4

200

Reduced growth

Hill et al., 1964

Silver

Chicken

Immature

AgNO3

900

Exudative diathesis (prevented by Se or vitamin E)

Peterson and Jensen, 1975a

Silver

Chicken

Immature

AgNO3

900

Anemia, enlarged hearts

Peterson and Jensen, 1975b

Silver

Turkey

Immature

Ag acetate or nitrate

900

Anemia, enlarged hearts, and muscular dystrophy prevented by Cu + Se)

Jensen et al., 1974

Sodium

Chicken

Immature

Na glutamate

8,900c

Reduced growth

Nesheim et al., 1964

Sodium

Chicken

Laying hen

Na2SO4

12,000b

Reduced egg production

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Chicken

Immature

NaCl

7,000b

Reduced growth; mortality

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Chicken

Laying hen

NaCl

10,000b

Reduced egg production

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Chicken

Adult

NaCl

40,000–60,000

Reduced egg production

Damron and Kelly, 1987

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Immature

NaCl

4,000b

Reduced body weight; mortality

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Immature

NaCl

27,000

Lung congestion; enlarged kidneys; mortality

Morrison et al., 1975

Sodium chloride

Duck

Immature

NaCl

4,000b

Reduced body weight

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Mature

NaCl

60,000

Reduced growth

Roberts, 1957

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Immature

NaCl

40,000

Reduced growth; pendulous crop

Harper and Arscott, 1962

Strontium

Chicken

Immature

SrCO3

6,000

Reduced growth

Weber et al., 1968

Sulfate

Chicken

Immature

K2SO4, Na2SO4, CaSO4

14,000

Reduced growth

Leach et al., 1960

Sulfate

Chicken

Laying hen

Na2SO4

8,100

Reduced egg production

Krista et al., 1961

Tungsten

Chicken

Immature

Sodium tungstate

500

Reduced growth

Teekell and Watts, 1959

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NH4VO3

8

Reduced growth

Berg, 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

Ca3(VO4)2

30

Reduced growth

Romoser et al., 1961

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

Ca3(VO4)2

200

Mortality

Romoser et al., 1961

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NH4VO3 or VOSO4

25

Reduced growth; mortality

Hathcock et al., 1964

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NaVO3

5

Reduced growth

Hill, 1974

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NH4VO3

10

Reduced growth

Summers and Moran, 1972

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

V in dicalcium phosphate

6

Depressed albumin quality

Sell et al., 1982

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

15

Depressed albumin quality

Berg et al., 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

20

Depressed albumin quality; reduced body weight

Berg et al., 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

30

Depressed egg production

Berg et al., 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

50

Depressed hatchability

Berg et al., 1963

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnSO4, ZnCO3

1,500

Reduced growth

Roberson and Schaible, 1960

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnO

3,000

Reduced growth

Johnson et al., 1962

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnO

800

Reduced growth; bone ash (sucrose-fish meal diet)

Berg and Martinson, 1972

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnSO4

2,000

Exudative diathesis; muscular dystrophy

Jensen, 1975b

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnSO4

3,000

Reduced growth (0.5 ppm Se in diet)

Jensen, 1975b

Zinc

Turkey

Immature

ZnO

4,000

Reduced growth

Vohra and Kratzer, 1968

a Dietary concentrations of the elements unless specified otherwise.

b In water.

c Diet low in Cl- ion.



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