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Index Acromegaly, 94, 96 Addison's disease (hyperadrenocorticism), 93, 95-96 Adenovirus, 54-57 Adipose tissue, 26 Aging, 79-81 Alaria cants, 62 Albumin, 106 Alpha-2 agonists, 67 Amebas, 58, 59 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, 115 American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Panel on Euthanasia, 70-71 Ameroid, 88-89 Analgesics anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal, 67 euthanasia, 70-71 opioid, 66-67 pain alleviation, 63-68 postsurgical, 68-69 Ancylostoma spp., 44, 59-61 Anemia, 100 Anesthesia and anesthetics alleviation of pain, 64-68 Anestrus, 41, 81 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), 87- 88, 91 Animal Welfare Act, 1, 11 Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs) cross referenced, 131 - 132 defined, 1-2 Antigens, 5, 120 Antibiotics, 69 Arthritis, 5, 79 Artificial insemination, 37-39 Ascarids (Toxocara cants; Toxascaris leonina), 58-60 Association of American Feed Control Officials, 24, 42 Attachment formation, 44-45 Auscultation, 85 Autoimmune diseases, see Immunologic diseases; and specific diseases Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, 102- 104 Autoimmune (lymphocytic) thyroiditis, 102- 104 Babesia spp., 62-63 euthanasia, 70-71 Babesiosis, 62-63 gene therapy, 120, 122 Bacterial diseases, see specific diseases general, 64-66, 69 inhalants, 64, 71 injectable drugs, 64-65, 70-71 local, 66 hypothermia, 17 neuromuscular blocking agents, 65-66 presurgical, 69 133 Balantidium spp., 58-59 Barbiturates, 70 Bedding and resting apparatus, 11, 26-27, 30, 113 Behavior aging, 79 aggressive, 5, 23, 30, 45-46, 67, 70 blindness and ocular pain, 115- 116

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34 fearful, 23, 45-46, 53, 67-68 herding, 5 maladaptive, 22, 53, 67 necrologic disorders, 108- 109 record-keeping, 46 selection of experimental animals, 7-9 socialization, 7-9, 11, 22-24, 44-46, 53 see also Stressors and distress Benzodiazepines, 67-68 Biohazards, 119 Bioimplants, 85 Bladder disorders, 81 Bleeding disorders, 99-101 Blindness, 114-115 Blood glucose monitoring, 94 Blood pressure, 89-90 Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 89 Body size, 7, 25-26, 30 Body weight, 7, 25-26, 30, 39-40, 42-43, 67, 80, 95, 99, 117 Bone marrow transplantation, 107, 117, 120- 121 Bordetella bronchiseptica, 54-56 Breeding colonies deworming, 43-44 infectious diseases, 40-41, 55-56 neonatal care, 39-47, 56 nutritional requirements, 42-43 record-keeping, 46-47 reproduction, 35-41, 83-84 socialization, 44-46 specific-pathogen-free, 57 vaccination, 43-44, 55-56 see also Specific-pathogen-free animals; Reproduction; Vaccines . . . and vaccination INDEX Decapitation, 71 Degenerative joint disease, 79 Demodex cants, 58 Dental diseases, 25, 79-80, 100 Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA), 88 Deworming, 43-44 Diabetes mellitus, 5, 94-95 Diarrhea, 59, 61 Diazepam, 67-68 Digoxin, 80-81 Dipylidium caninum, 62 Dirofilaria immitis, 5, 59, 61 Dirofilariasis, 5, 59, 61 Distemper, 5, 54-57 Distress, see Stressors and distress DLA (major histocompatiblity complex), 5 Drainage, 14- 15 Drugs, see Analgesics; Anesthesia and Anesthetics; Injectable drugs; and specific drugs Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, 110- 111 Dysesthesias, 113 Dystocia, 41-42 Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), 58 Echinococcus spp., 62 Echocardiography, 85, 87 Ectoparasites, 57-58; see also Parasitic diseases; and specific ectoparasites Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 12, 91-92 Ehrlichia cants, 62-63 Ehrlichiosis, 62-63 Electrocardiography, 69, 85, 87 Electrocution, 71 Embryo-transfer technology, 57 Emergency, weekend, and holiday care, 29 Endocrinologic diseases, 79, 93-97 clinical features, 93-94 husbandry and veterinary care, 94-97 Cages and pens, 19-20, 30-31 see also specific diseases Calcium derangements, 93-97 Endoparasites, 44, 58-63; see also Parasitic Carbon dioxide, 71 diseases; and specific endoparas~tes Carbon monoxide, 71 Entamoeba spp., 59 Cardiovascular diseases, 5, 61, 70, 80-87; see also Hypertension; and specific diseases Catheterization, 69, 85-87, 89, 113 Cheyletiella yasguri, 58 Chemoprophylaxis, 59, 61 Code of Federal Regulations, defined, 1-2 Colostrum, 43, 104 Common variable immunodeficiency, 102 104 Complement (C3) deficiency, 105-106 Complete blood counts (CBCs), 86-87 Congenital heart defects, 81-84 Conotruncal defects, 82 Cornification, 39 Cryptosporidium spp., 58-59 Cyanosis, 83-84 Cyclic hematopoiesis, 98, 100 Brucella cants, 37, 55 Brucellosis, 37, 55 Environmental controls, see environmental conditions under Housing Environmental enrichment, 11, 21-24 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, 37, 41 Erythrocyte phosphofructokinase deficiency, 98, 100-101 Esophageal nematode (Spirocerca lupi), 62 Estrus, 23, 30, 35-39, 41, 81, 95-96 Euthanasia cardiac defects, 83, 86 ethics, 72 human considerations, 71-72 inhalation methods, 71 injection methods, 70 lysosomal storage diseases, 108-110 muscular dystrophy, 111-112 necropsy examination, 40

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INDEX physical methods, 71 radiation injury, 119 Exercise, see under Housing Exsanguination, 71 Factor X deficiency, 98, 101 False estrus, 41 Fearful behavior, 23, 45-46, 53? 68 Filaroides spp., 58-59 Fleas, 58, 62 Food and nutrition aging, 79-80 bleeding disorders, 99-100 body size, 25-26 body weight, 25-26, 43 cardiovascular diseases, 85 conditioning, 53 contaminants, 26 deprivation, 78 diabetes, 95-96 feeding programs, 25-26 hypertension, 90-91 labels, 24 lysosomal storage diseases, 109- 110 muscular dystrophy, 111 neonatal, 42-43 necrologic diseases, 113 nutritional content, 24-25 organ transplantation, 107 orthopedic diseases, 117 pregnancy and lactation, 42 restraint training, 78 transportation, 29-31 Forms, 28-29 Fucosidosis, 108-109 Gases, 19, 31 Gene therapy, 79, 119- 122 Genetic factors, and selection of experimental animals, 5-7, 79 Genetic mapping, 5-6 Geriatrics, 79-81 Geriatrics and Gerontology, 81 Giardia spp., 58-59 Glucocorticosteroids, 117 Good Laboratory Practice Standards, 2 Granulocytopathy, 102- 104 Granulomatous pneumonia, 111 Growth hormones, 96, 102- 104 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), defined, 1-2 Hair-follicle mites (D emodex cants), 5 8 Hazards, and selection of experimental animals, 5 Health Research Extension Act of 1985, 1 Hearing loss, 79 Heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), 5, 59, 61 Helminths, 58-63 Hematologic diseases, 97-98 bleeding disorders, 99- 101 clinical features, 6, 97-98 135 cyclic hematopoiesis, 100 husbandry and veterinary care, 99 101 reproduction, 101 see also specific diseases Hematopoietic stem cells, 120- 121 Hemophilia, 97, 101, 121 Hepatitis, 54-57 Herpesvirus, 54-56 Heterodoxus spiniger, 58 Hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.; Uncinaria stenocephala), 44, 59-61 Housing aging, 80 chemicals and toxic substances, 19 criteria for design and construction, 12 14 drainage, 14- 15 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 92 environmental conditions, 16- 19, 31, 44-46, 104 exercise, 11-12, 21-22, 83, 95, 111 hematologic diseases, 99- 101 holding areas, 31-32 hypertension, 91 immunodeficiency diseases, 104- 106 indoor facilities, 14- 15 lysosomal storage diseases, 109 muscular dystrophy, 111 necrologic diseases, 113 noise, 19, 39 necrologic diseases, 113 outdoor facilities, 14, 16 postoperative, 85 power and lighting, 18 primary enclosures, 19-20, 30-31 quarantine facilities, 54-55 radiation injury, 119 sheltered housing facilities, 14- 16 solitary, 22 space recommendations, 20-21 temperature and humidity, 16- 17, 31, 40, 80 ventilation, 17-19, 30-31, 119 whelping facilities, 39-40 Husbandry, see Bedding and resting apparatus; Emergency, weekend, and holiday care; Environmental enrichment; Food and nutrition; Housing; Identification and records; Record-keeping; Sanitation; Water and watering devices Hyperadrenocorticism (Addison's disease), 93, 95-96 Hypercalcemia, 93-97 Hypertension, 87-91 Hypoadrenocorticism, 93-96 Hypocalcemia, 93-96 Hypothermia, 17, 26-27 Hypothyroidism, 93 Hypoxia, 71

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136 IATA, see International Air Transport Association Identification and records, 11, 27-30 IgA deficiency, 102- 104 IgM deficiency, 102- 104 Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 102- 104 Immunologic diseases acquired, 102 autoimmune, 5, 101-105 clinical features, 6, 101-107 complement deficiency, 105- 106 husbandry and veterinary care, 104- 107 organ transplantation, 106- 107 primary immunodeficiency, 101 - 105 see also specific diseases Immunoprophylaxis, 43 Inbreeding, 37 Induced heart defects, 84-87 Infectious diseases, 5, 53-57, 80; see also specific pathogens and specific d iseases Inhalant anesthetics, see under Anesthesia and anesthetics Injectable drugs, 64-65, 70-71 Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC), 29, 76-78 Instrument implantation, 70 Instruments, artificial insemination, 38-39 Insulin, 94-95 Interleukin-6 dysregulation, 102- 105 International Air Transport Association (IATA), 2, 31 Interstate and International Certificate of Health Examination for Small Animals (USDA), 29 Intestinal fluke (Alaria cants), 62 Isospora spp., 58-59 Kennel cough, 54-56 Leishmania spp., 62 Le ishmanias is , 62 Leptospirosis, 55-56 Lethal injection, 70-71 Lice (Linognathus setosus; Trichodectes cants; Heterodoxus spiniger), 58 Linognathus setosus, 58 List of Licensed Dealers, 52 Lung diseases, 60, 80 Lung fluke (Paragonimus kellicotti), 61-62 Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), 6, 107- 110; see also specific diseases Major histocompatibility complex (DLA), 5 Male-female ratio, 37 Mange (Sarcoptes scabei), 58 Mating, see Reproduction Measles, 56 Metabolic bone diseases, 25, 43 Microsatellite probes, 6 Microsporum spp., 54 INDEX Mites, 58 Mitotane, 95-96 Models, canine, 6 Monitoring, 17, 53 Motor deficits, 113 Mucopolysaccharidosis, 108- 110 Muscle mass, 26 Muscular dystrophy, 110- 112 Musculoskeletal diseases, 6 Mycoplasma spp., 54 Nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum), 58 National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, 55 Nematodes, 59, 61-62 Neonatal care, see under Breeding colonies Neurologic diseases, 5, 6, 112-114; see also specific diseases Neuromuscular blocking agents, 65-66 Neutropenia, 118 Nicotine, 71 Nitrous oxide, 64 Nutrition, see Food and nutrition Ocular defense mechanisms, 115-116 Ocular pain, 114, 116 Oocysts, 59 Ophthalmologic diseases, 114-116; see also specific diseases Organ transplantation, 106-107 Orthopedic diseases, 5, 116- 117; see also specific diseases Otodectes cynotis, 58 Ownership transfer, 28 Packs, 7-8, 23 Pain, 63-67, 114, 116; see also Analgesics; Anesthesia and anesthetics; Stressors and distress; Surgery Paragonimus kellicotti, 61-62 Parainfluenza, 54-56 Parasitic diseases, 5, 8-9. 37, 44, 55, 57-63; see also specific parasites and specific diseases Particulate contaminants, 31 Parturition, see Reproduction Parvovirus, 5, 54-56 Patent ductus arteriosus, 81-83 Pathogens, see Infectious diseases; and specific pathogens Pentatrichomonas spp., 59 Persistent truncus arteriosus, 82 Pharmacologic therapy, 87 Phenothiazines, 67-68 Pheromones, 37 Photoperiod, and reproductive cycle, 36 Physaloptera spp., 62 Physical fitness and enclosure size, 20 Physiologic monitoring and testing, 53 fecal and blood tests for endoparasites, 63

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INDEX implantation of instruments, 70 inadequately socialized dogs, 45 induced heart defects, 85-86 pregnancy tests, 39-40 renal function in hypertensive dogs, 88- 89 surgical and postsurgical, 69 Pneumonyssoides caninum, 58 Polyps, 81 Pregnancy, see Reproduction Procurement, 52-53 Prostatic disorders, 81 Proteinuria, 106 Protocol review, 76-78 Protozoa, 58-63 Pseudopregnancy, 41 Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy), 1-2 Pulmonary valve dysplasia, 83 Purpose-bred animals, 52, 54, 57-61, 63, 68 Pyometra, 81 Pyruvate kinase deficiency, 98, 100 Quarantine facilities, 54-55 Rabies, 9, 54-56 Radiation injury, 117- 119 Radiation pneumonitis, 118 Radioactive-waste disposal, 118 Radiography, as pregnancy test, 39 Radionuclides, 118- 119 Random-source animals, 52-55, 57-58, 63 Record of Disposition of Dogs and Cats (USDA), 29 Record of Dogs and Cats on Hand (USDA), 29 Record-keeping animal-care staff, 28 federal regulations, 28-29 reproduction, 38, 46-47 Reinforcement techniques, 78 Renal diseases, 80, 87-89, 91, 106 Retinal degeneration, 6, 79, 88, 90-91 Reproduction acromegaly, 96 aging, 81 anestrus, 41, 81 artificial insemination, 37-39 cardiovascular diseases, 83-84 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 92 estrus, 23, 30, 35-39 ,41, 81. 95-96 false estrus, 41 hematologic dieseases, 101 immunologic diseases, 105- 106 lysosomal storage diseases, 110 muscular dystrophy, 112 natural mating, 37-38 necrologic diseases, 114 ophthalmologic diseases, 116 137 orthopedic diseases, 117 pregnancy and parturition, 39-41, 114 pseudopregnancy, 41 radiation, 119 record-keeping, 38, 46-47 reproductive cycle, 35-37, 46, 81 semen, 38-39 see also Breeding colonies Research protocols, 76-78 Respiratory diseases, 55, 113; see also specific diseases Restraint methods, 78 Restriction-fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 6 Rheumatoid arthritis, 102- 104 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 57-58, 62 Ringworm (Microsporum spp.), 54 Roundworm (Toxocara cants), 44, 58-60 Sanitation, 14-15, 19, 26-27, 30, 58-63, 68- 69, 119 Sarcoptes scabei, 58 Scent-marking, 37 Semen, 38-39 Sensory deficits, 113 Septicemia, 102, 107 Serum creatinine concentration, 89 Serum urea nitrogen, 106 Severe combined immunodeficiency, 102-104 Sjogren's syndrome, 102- 104 Skin keratinocytes, 121 Smooth muscle transplantation, 121 - 122 Social contact and interaction, 7-9, 11, 22- 24, 44-46, 53, 117 Sodium-to-potassium ratio, 95-96 Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) animals, 57, 59-61, 63 Spirocerca lupi, 62 Spondylosis, 79 Sterilization, surgical instruments, 68-69 Stomach nematode (Physaloptera spp.), 62 Stressors and distress allevation, 64-68 blindness, 115 blood-glucose response, 95 environmental, 21-22, 53, 67-68, 95-96 hypertension measurement, 90 non-pain-induced, 67-68 pain-induced, 63-64 parturition, 41 recognition, 63-64, 67 signs of pain, 64 sleep, 22 transportation, 29-30 treatment, 67-68 vocalization, 44-45, 63-64 see also Analgesics; Anesthesia and anesthetics; Behavior; Pain; Surgery Strongyloides stercoralis, 59-60 Strychnine, 71 Subaortic stenosis, 81-83

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138 Surgery cardiovascular diseases, 84-87 gene therapy, 120- 122 hypothermic recovering dogs, 17 pain, 63-67 postsurgical care, 69-70, 85, 91, 107 presurgical preparation, 68-69, 107 record-keeping, 28 renal failure, 89 see also Analgesics; Anesthesia and anesthetics; Pain; Stressors and distress Systemic lupus erythematosus, 102- 104 Taenia spp., 62 Tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum; Echinococcus spp.; Taenia spp.), 62 Tattoos, 27-28 Testicular atrophy, 81 Tetralogy of Fallot, 82 Thrombocytopenia, 118 Thrombopathia, 98, 101 Thyrogastric disease, 102- 104 Thyroid atrophy, 79 Thyroiditis, 102- 104 Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), 57-58, 62 Total-body irradiation (TBI), 107, 117, 119- 121 Total serum protein, 106 Toxascaris leonina, 58-60 Toxocara cants, 44, 58-60 Tracheobronchitis, 54-55 Tranquilizers, 66-68, 70; see also specific tranquilizers Transplantation studies, 57 Transponders, 28 Transportation environmental conditions, 31 health certificates, 31-32 holding areas, 31-32 food and water, 29-31 primary enclosures, 30-31 stress, 29-30 Trichodectes cants, 58 Trichomonas spp., 59 Trichuris vulpis, 59, 61 Truncus arteriosus, persistent, 82 Trypanosoma cruzi, 62 Ultrasonography, 39 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 11, 21, 27-28, 32, 52 U.S. Government Principles for Utili7ation and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training, 63-64 Uncinaria stenocephala, 44, 59-61 INDEX Vaccines and vaccination animal-care personnel, 9, 62 bleeding disorders, 101 breeding colonies, 43-44, 55-56 development, 5, 57 hematologic disorders, 101 multivalent, 55-56 schedule for pups, 56 social and behavioral factors, 8-9, 78 Vaginal cytology, 36-37, 39, 81 Vasodilators, 91 Venipuncture, 7-9, 70, 78 Ventricular septal defects (VSDs), 82 Vermin, 13, 15-16, 18-19 Veterinary care aging, 80-81 cardiovascular diseases, 83, 85-86 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 92 emergency, 29 endocrinologic diseases, 97 health certificates, 31-32 hematologic diseases, 99-101 immunologic diseases, 104- 107 infectious-disease control, 53-57 lysosomal storage diseases, 109- 110 muscular dystrophy, 111 - 112 neurologic diseases, 113 ophthalmologic diseases, 115 orthopedic diseases, 116- 117 pain and distress, 63-68 parasitic-disease control, 57-63 parturition, 40 procurement, 52-53 record-keeping, 28 surgery and postsurgical care, 68-70 see also Euthanasia; Surgery; Vaccines and vaccination; and specific diseases Viral diseases, see Infectious diseases; and . r. 7. spec~;zc a~seases von Willebrand's disease, 97-98, 101 `'Walking dandruff" (Cheyletiella yasguri), 58 Warts, 54 Washing facilities, 15 Water and watering devices, 26-27, 29-31, 53, 78, 80, 95, 99, 109, 111, 113 Weaning, 42-43, 46 Well-being definition and measurement, 21 exercise, 22 Whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), 59, 61 X rays, 118 xmd dogs, 110-112 Zoonoses, 8-9, 37, 55, 62

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