Index

A

Acceptable daily intake (ADI), 132, 315, 324-326

Accidental poisoning, 313

Acephate, 244

Acetaminophen, 57

Acetylcholinesterase, 54, 310, 341

inhibitions by organophosphates, 347

Acrodynia, 347

Acute exposure and effects, 50-53, 103, 104, 271

of aldicarb, 287-288

and daily intakes, 6, 11, 315, 317

of neurotoxins, 63-64

pharmaceutical studies, 54-60

testing of, 130, 133, 136

and tolerances, 8, 18

see also Cholinesterase inhibition

Acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), and parental exposure, 307

Additive background model, cancer risk 328-330

Adolescence, see Age-related differences

Adults, see Age-related differences

Adverse effect, definition, 327

Age groups, in data analyses, 5, 6, 315

Age-related differences, 2-7, 11-12, 19, 105-107

carcinogenesis, 75, 351

cholinesterase inhibition, 53-54

dermal absorption, 77-78

dietary composition, 4, 38, 103, 181-187, 193-194, 196

gastrointestinal absorption, 82

metabolism, 38-39, 55-57

pharmacokinetics, 55-59, 106

physiology, 3, 36, 37, 39-43

protein binding, 85-86

pulmonary exposure, 79-80

risk assessment, 7, 11-12, 344-345

Agricultural application, see Application rates and methods;

Field trials

Agricultural Marketing Service, 216



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Index A Acceptable daily intake (ADI), 132, 315, 324-326 Accidental poisoning, 313 Acephate, 244 Acetaminophen, 57 Acetylcholinesterase, 54, 310, 341 inhibitions by organophosphates, 347 Acrodynia, 347 Acute exposure and effects, 50-53, 103, 104, 271 of aldicarb, 287-288 and daily intakes, 6, 11, 315, 317 of neurotoxins, 63-64 pharmaceutical studies, 54-60 testing of, 130, 133, 136 and tolerances, 8, 18 see also Cholinesterase inhibition Acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), and parental exposure, 307 Additive background model, cancer risk 328-330 Adolescence, see Age-related differences Adults, see Age-related differences Adverse effect, definition, 327 Age groups, in data analyses, 5, 6, 315 Age-related differences, 2-7, 11-12, 19, 105-107 carcinogenesis, 75, 351 cholinesterase inhibition, 53-54 dermal absorption, 77-78 dietary composition, 4, 38, 103, 181-187, 193-194, 196 gastrointestinal absorption, 82 metabolism, 38-39, 55-57 pharmacokinetics, 55-59, 106 physiology, 3, 36, 37, 39-43 protein binding, 85-86 pulmonary exposure, 79-80 risk assessment, 7, 11-12, 344-345 Agricultural application, see Application rates and methods; Field trials Agricultural Marketing Service, 216

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Agricultural Research Service (ARS), 209-210, 216 Airborne exposure indoor, 309-311 outdoor, 308-309 Alachlor, 246 in water, 228-229, 230, 232 Albumin, 86-87 Alcohol exposure, 61, 77 Aldicarb, 227, 246, 270, 287 cholinesterase inhibition, 53, 287-288 dietary exposure, 288-296 immunotoxicity, 66-67, 69 testing for, 253 in water, 226 Aldrin, 14. See also Dieldrin Alveolar epithelium, 79 Aminocarb, 67 Amphetamines, pesticide interactions, 348 Androgens, 28 Anemia animal studies, 29-30 aplastic, 311 and poverty, 343 Anesthetics, 56 Animal models and studies, 107, 360, 362 acute effects, 50-53, 130, 133, 136, 334-335, 344 brain development, 25, 26, 60 carcinogenesis, 34, 41-42, 70-75, 145-146, 334-338, 344-345 chronic effects, 145-146, 154 developmental toxicity, 4, 9, 29-32, 43-44, 146-147 end points, 52, 153 extrapolation of, 20, 25, 43, 76-77, 96-102, 110, 324-328, 335-338, 360, 361 guidelines, 109, 129-131, 152-156 immunotoxicity, 9, 66-68 LD50 studies, 50-53, 334-335, 344 metabolism, 150-151, 153 mutagenicity, 128, 150 neurotoxicity, 9, 65-66, 128, 151-152, 155-156 reproductive toxicity, 9, 128, 147-149, 155 scaling, 96-102, 97-99, 110, 337 subchronic effects, 130, 137, 144-145 TD50 studies, 334-335 uncertainty factors, 9, 325-328, 360, 361 Anticancer drugs, 57-59, 75 Anticonvulsants, 56-57 Antihistamines, pesticide interaction, 348 Aplastic anemia, and chlordane, 311 Apples, 248, 254, 256 juices, 249, 353-357 pesticide use, 273, 275 processed products, 259 Application rates and methods, 13, 14-16, 203-204 aerial, 308-309 and exposure estimates, 317, 318 geographic variations, 204-206, 228, 317 and sampling variation, 224, 226-227 see also Field trials Arsenicals, 14 Arylesterase, 54, 346 Atherosclerosis, 344 Atrazine, 246 in water, 228, 229, 230, 232 Autocrine mechanisms, 28 Average daily intakes, 6, 11, 271-272, 315, 317 Azidothymidine (AZT), 59-60 Azinphos, 273 B Bananas, aldicarb residues, 289-296 Behavioral function, 24, 32, 62 low-level exposure and effects, 63-64, 65 Benchmark dose, 338, 362 Benomyl, 244, 246, 269, 277

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children dietary exposure, 278-287 in infant foods, 254 testing for, 253 Benzenehexachloride (BHC), 14 Bilirubin, 94-95 neurotoxicity, 24, 37, 50, 61 Bioaccumulation, of chlorinated hydrocarbons, 15 Bioassay protocols, 12 Birth defects, and parental exposure, 307-308 Blood-brain barrier, 89-90 Blood formation, 34 Blood vessels, age-related sensitivity, 39-40 Body composition, 24-27, 35-36. See also Extracellular fluid volume Body size and proportions, 28 and scaling, 97-99, 337 Bone, 35, 76 Brain blood-brain barrier, 89-90 cancer, 76 development, 25, 26, 28, 32, 34, 60 water composition, 36 see also Neurotoxicity Breast cancer, 30-31 Breastfeeding, 182, 188-192, 340-341, 358-359 and lanolin, 313 residue levels in milk, 239-244, 261 Bronchitis, and chlordane, 311 Butyl mercapatan, 309 C Caffeine, 91, 92 California residue monitoring program, 219-220 Telone ban, 308 Captan, 246, 274 immunotoxicity, 67 in infant foods, 248, 254 potency factors, 335 Carbamates, 15, 16, 246 cholinesterase inhibition, 52-53, 298, 309-310 in home-use products, 309-310, 313 neurotoxicity, 63-64, 341 see also Aldicarb Carbaryl, 257 Carcinogenesis and neoplasms, 70, 76, 333, 349-351 age-related differences, 75, 351 animal studies, 34, 41-42, 70-75, 128, 129, 137, 145-146, 334-338, 344-345 benomyl, 277 and cell proliferation, 29, 30-32, 71, 75, 352-353 and functional development, 34, 41-42 lifetime risk, 351-357 and metabolism, 71, 75 and parental exposure, 307-308 risk assessment, 11-12, 323-324, 325, 328-338, 344-345, 349-357, 362 Telone, 308 Cell proliferation, 29, 34 and carcinogenesis, 29, 30-32, 71, 75, 352-353 Cell size, 29, 36, 352 Central nervous system, see Brain; Neurotoxicity Cereals, 259-260 Certification of field in inspectors, 21 of labs, 222 Cervical cancer, 31 Chloramphenicol, 3, 50, 55 Chlordane home use, 310-311 in human milk, 242 Chlordimeform, 335 Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, 14-15 in ambient air, 309 in human milk, 239-241 Chlorpyrifos and arylesterase, 346 home use of, 310, 311

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children in infant formula, 234 as reference standard, 301-304 Cholesterol intake, 344 Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, 52-54, 108 by aldicarb, 53, 287-288 and asthmatics, 347 by carbamates, 52-53, 298, 309-310 and drug interactions, 347, 348-349 and genetic polymorphism, 346 and multiresidue exposure, 316 and neurotoxicity, 301, 341 by organophosphates, 52-53, 297, 298-302, 309-310, 347 as residue test, 212 uncertainty factors, 325-326 Chronic exposure and effects, 4, 7, 104, 270-271 and daily intakes, 6, 11, 315, 317 risk assessment, 6, 11-12, 315 testing, 12, 145-146, 154 and tolerances, 8, 18 see also Carcinogenesis and neoplasms; Low-level chronic exposure; Neurotoxicity Cisplatin, 34 Clonal expansion model, 362 Cognitive function, 24, 39, 62 Congenital rubella, 29 Consumption, see Daily intakes; Dietary composition; Dietary exposure; Food consumption surveys; Milk; Water consumption Continuing Surveys of Food Intakes of Individuals (CFSII), 160, 164 164, 167, 170, 172 Convolution, see Statistical convolution Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS), 209, 216 Corn, 15 Cotton, 15, 309 Crops, see Application rates and methods; Field trials Cyanazine, in water, 228, 229, 232 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), 40 Cyclodienes, in human milk, 242-243 Cyclophosphamide, 59 Cytochrome P-450, 345, 347-348 D Daily intakes, 6, 11, 271-272, 315, 317 acceptable, 132, 315, 324-326 and surveys, 161-162, 166-168, 271-272 Data bases of residue tests, 10, 217, 222, 223, 261 statistical convolution of, 5-6, 268, 275-277 Data collection and reporting, 4, 5, 7, 11, 107, 224-227, 260-261, 268, 314. See also Data bases; Field trials; Food consumption surveys; Laboratory analyses; Risk assessment; Samples and sampling methods; Testing methods and protocols; Uncertainty factors Daunomycin, 58 DDT, 14-15 in human milk, 240-241 Deet, 312, 346 DEF, 309 Definitions of adverse effect, 327 of developmental toxicology, 49 of pesticides, 14 Degradation products, 10, 206-207 Dental enamel dysplasia, 3 Dermal exposure, 77-79, 307 age-related differences, 77-78 and drug interactions, 349 playground equipment, 312 topical treatment, 312-313 Detection limits, see Limit of detection Development, see Age-related differences; Behavioral function; Body composition; Developmental toxicity; Emotional development; Fetal development; Functional development; Physical growth

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Developmental toxicity, 3-4, 9, 19, 24-25, 49 animal studies, 4, 9, 29-32, 43-44, 146-147 and organs, 34, 36 Diary surveys, 163 Diazepam, 55, 87, 88 Diazinon, 313 Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), in water, 228 Dibutyl disulfite, 309 Dicarboximide fungicides, 15 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 15, 230 1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-D), 228 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) (Telone), 227, 308 Dichlorvos, 310 Dicrotophos, 244 Dieldrin, 14, 52 in human milk, 241 immunotoxicity, 67 Dietary composition, 10 age-related differences, 4, 38, 103, 181-187, 193-194, 196 infantile, 192-193, 246-247 intra-age group variation, 195 see also Food consumption surveys Dietary exposure, 19, 267-270, 275-277, 314-315, 317-319 aldicarb, 288-296 benomyl, 278-287 of infants, 248-260 passim organophosphates, 302-307 peak levels, 6, 272, 317 see also Breast-feeding; Daily intakes; Dietary composition; Food consumption surveys; Gastrointestinal absorption; Infant formula; Water consumption Dietary Residue Evaluation System (DRES), 178-180 N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet), 312, 346 Diethylstilbestrol, 37 Digoxin, pesticide interactions, 348 Dimethoate, 248 Distribution factors, 85-90 Disulfiram, drug interactions, 348 DNA damage, see Mutagenicity Dose-response curves and models of carcinogenesis, 329-332, 33, 338 Drugs acute effects, 55-60, 344 pediatric use, 54-55 pesticide interactions, 347-349 Dursban, 310 Dust, as exposure source, 307 E Economic Research Service (ERS), 204 Emotional development, 24 Encephalopathy, of Deet, 346 Endocrine mechanisms, 28 Environmental factors, and functional development, 37 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 15, 216 cancer risk estimation, 328, 335-336 and dose calculations, 326-327 inert ingredient regulation, 342-343 nondietary exposure study, 307 registration of pesticides, 16, 17-18, 127-128 residue testing data, 217 testing criteria and guidelines, 9, 127-156 and tolerances, 1, 5, 8, 18, 216 well water survey, 229 Enzymes, 92-94. See also Cholinesterase inhibition Estrogens, 28-29 Ethoprop, 309

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), 15, 17, 246 in foods, 244, 248, 255 testing for, 253 Ethylene dibromide (EDB), 348 in water, 228 O-Ethyl O-p-nitrophenyphenylphosphonothioate (EPN), 342 ETU, 246, 248, 253 Excretion, 95-96, 330 Exposure, see Acute exposure and effects; Airborne exposure; Chronic exposure and effects; Dermal exposure; Dietary exposure; Low-level chronic exposure; Nondietary exposure; Pulmonary exposure Extracellular fluid volume, 35, 36 and chemical distribution, 87-89 and sensitivity, 41 F Fat, body composition, 24, 27, 35 Fat intake, 344 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 1, 13, 17 tolerances under, 5, 8, 18 Federal Government, see Environmental Protection Agency; Food and Drug Administration; U.S. Department of Agriculture Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 1, 13 , 14, 17, 127, 208 Females body composition, 35 water consumption, 173, 177 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 61 Fetal development and effects, 20, 23, 61, 360, 361 pharmacokinetic models, 12, 339-341 Field trials, 10, 208, 269, 315-316, 317 benomyl 280-281 and tolerances, 2, 8, 18 Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 216-217 Fish-eye disease, 346 Flea control products, 309, 311 Florida, residue monitoring program, 220 Flour, in infant foods, 259-260 Foggers, 309, 311 Food, see Daily intakes; Dietary composition; Dietary exposure; Food consumption surveys; Infant formula; Milk; Processed foods; Raw agricultural commodities; Water consumption Food additives, 65 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 216 benomyl monitoring, 283 Dietary Residue Evaluation System, 178-180 drug approval, 54-55 maximal permitted intake, 326 monitoring programs, 5, 10, 161, 212, 216, 217-219, 244-254, 262 Food consumption surveys, 4-5, 10, 159-161, 197 analysis, 167-168 design, 164-167 limitations of, 5, 11, 169-170 methodology, 161-164 sampling methods, 165-167 validation, 168-169 Food Contam, 221 Food processing, see Processed food Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), 216, 219 Fruit, 15, 194, 195 residue levels, 249, 250, 254, 255, 256, 258 Functional development, 23, 24, 36-38, 43 and carcinogenesis, 34, 41-42 metabolism, 28, 35, 36-38 organs, 34, 39-41

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Fungicides, 14, 15, 16-17, 204-206. See also specific compounds G γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), 25 γ-Benzene hexachloride, 78 γ-Globulin, 86 Gas chromatography, 212, 215, 218 Gastrointestinal absorption, 80-85 age-related differences, 82 of heavy metals, 82-84 Genetic susceptibility, 345-347 Genotoxicity, see Mutagenicity Geographic variations food consumption survey results, 165, 166 in pesticide use, 204-206, 228, 317 in water consumption, 177 Gerber Products Company, 161, 170-172 Glomerular filtration, 95-96 Glyphosate, 335 Gonads, 28 Good laboratory practices (GLPs), 223 Gray baby syndrome, 3, 55 Groundwater residue levels, 228-230, 359 Growth, see Physical growth Growth hormone (GH), 28 Guidelines, testing methods, 109, 127, 129-131, 152-156 H H1 antagonists interactions with pesticides, 348 Head lice treatment, 312-313 Heart, 28 medications interactions with pesticides, 348-349 Heavy metals and blood-brain barrier, 89 gastrointestinal absorption, 82-84 see also Lead Hematopoietic system, 34 Hepatotoxicity acetaminophen, 57 benomyl, 277 and drug interactions, 349 Heptachlor in human milk, 242-243 Herbicides, 15, 16, 204, 205 in water, 228-232 Hexachlorobenzene, 241-242 Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), 241 Hexachlorophene, 55 dermal absorption, 77, 78 Hodgkin's disease, 76 Home-use insecticides, 309-311 accidental poisoning, 313 Hormones, 28-29 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 59-60 Human Nutrition Information Service (HNIS), 160 Hyperactivity, 65 Hyperplasia, see Cell proliferation Hypersensitivity, 68, 70 Hypertrophy, 29, 36, 352 Hypothalamus, 28 I Illegal pesticide use, 7 Immunoassays, 212 Immunotoxicity, 66, 108, 110 aldicarb, 66-67, 69 hypersensitivity, 68, 70 TCCD, 68, 69 testing, 9, 66-68, 155 Indicine N-oxide, 59 Individual daily intakes, 6, 11, 316, 317 Indoor pesticide use, 309-311 Inert ingredients, 342-343 Infant formula, 173, 180-181, 192 residue levels, 232-239, 261 soy-based, 236-239 Infant Nutrition Survey, 170 Infants, 3, 26, 28, 29, 37, 106, 108 body composition, 24, 27, 35-36 chemical distribution factors, 87-88

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children chlorpyrifos exposure, 310 dermal absorption, 77-79 dietary composition, 192-193, 246-247 and dietary surveys, 170-172 diethylstilbestrol exposure, 37 drug toxicity, 55-56 hematopoietic system, 34 kidney development, 39, 95-96 metabolism, 38, 55, 90-94 neurotoxicity, 61, 89, 108 oral exposure, 80-96 passim pulmonary exposure, 79 residues in food, 248-260 passim water consumption, 173, 177 see also Age-related differences; Breastfeeding; Infant formula Inhalation, see Pulmonary exposure Insect bioassays, 212 Insecticides, 14-15, 16, 205, 212 home-use products, 309-311 see also Carbamates; Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides; Organophosphates; specific compounds Insect repellants, 312-313 Integrated pest management, 15, 227 Interregional Project Number 4 (IR-4), 209, 212 Intestinal tract, see Gastrointestinal absorption Iron deficiency, and lead poisoning, 84 Isoproterenol, 40 J Juices, 194, 350-351 residue levels, 249 K Kidneys, 24, 28, 32, 36, 39, 95-96 cancer, 30, 76 infantile, 39, 95-96 L Labeling, 17 drugs, 54-55 Laboratory analyses, 211-215 and certification programs, 222 quality control, 223-224, 262 of samples, 5, 211-215, 223-226, 318 standardized reporting of, 10, 261-262 variations among, 5, 212, 214, 223-224, 226-227 see also Animal models and studies; Testing methods and protocols Lanolin, 313 Latency periods, 4, 7 LD50 studies, 50-53, 334-335, 344 Lead gastrointestinal absorption, 82-84 neurotoxicity, 3, 37, 62-63, 89 Leukemia, 75, 76 and chlordane, 311 and parental exposure, 307, 308 Lice treatment, 312-313 Lifetime average daily dose (LADD), 351-356 Lifetime equivalent constant dose (LECD), 351 Limit dose, 131 Limit of detection (LOD), 207, 213-214 Limit of quantification (LOQ), 213-214, 225, 273-274, 316, 318 Lindane in human milk, 241 immunotoxicity, 67 neurotoxicity, 312-313 in topical applications, 312-313 Linear extrapolation, 328-330, 331-332 Lipid solubility and human milk, 239, 358-359 and pulmonary absorption, 80 and tissue distribution, 88, 89 Liquid chromatography, 212, 218

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Liver, 28, 34, 36, 39, 94-95 and metabolism, 91, 101-102 see also Hepatotoxicity Log homes, PCP treatment, 311 Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL), 327 Low-level chronic exposure carcinogens, 328-330, 331-332 neurotoxins, 63-65, 109 M Malaria, 14-15 Malathion, 51, 52 on apples, 273 immunotoxicity, 67-68 in processed foods and formulas, 235, 237-238, 257 synergistic interactions, 342, 348 in topical applications, 313 Males body composition, 35 water consumption, 173, 177 Mammary tumors, 30-31 Manufacturers field trials, 2, 8, 10, 18, 208, 269, 315-316, 317 toxicity testing, 4, 127-128, 207-209, 211-212, 316 Market basket surveys, 10, 161, 218-219, 262, 273 benomyl, 281, 283 Mass spectrometry, 215 Maturation, see Age-related differences; Behavioral function; Functional development; Physical growth Maximal permitted intake (MPI), 326 Maximum tolerated dose (MTD), 57-59, 107, 130,1 45, 330, 334-335, 338 Mechanism of action, 3-4, 11-12, 19, 105-107 and multiple residue exposure, 7, 11, 316, 318-319 Mercury poisoning, 347 Metabolism, 19, 41, 51-52, 76-77, 151, 153 age-related differences, 38-39, 55-57, 105 and carcinogenesis, 71, 75 and cholinesterase inhibition, 53 development, 28, 35, 36-38 of drugs, 36, 55-57, 59, 91 genetic polymorphism, 345-346 infantile, 38, 55, 90-94 and scaling, 98, 99, 101-102, 337 Metabolites, testing of, 10, 128, 150-151 Methodology, see Animals models and studies; End points; Food consumption surveys; Limit of detection; Limit of quantification; Models; Multiresidue methods; Probability distribution; Reference doses; Risk assessment; Samples and sampling methods; Scaling; Statistical convolution; Testing methods and protocols; Uncertainty factors Methylmercury, 84 Methylphenidate, pesticide interactions, 348. See also Ritalin Metolachlor, in water, 228, 229, 230, 232 Migraine, and chlordane, 311 Milk, 173, 182, 193, 194 and heavy metal absorption, 83-84 residue levels, 249, 250, 253 water content, 180-181 see also Breastfeeding; Infant formula Model-free procedures, 332 Models additive background, 328-330 dose-response, 329-332, 338 multistage, 328-330, 332-334, 345 pharmacokinetic, 12, 330-331, 339-340, 361

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children see also Animal models and studies Modifying factor (MF), 326-328 Molecular dosimetry, carcinogens, 331 Monitoring and surveillance programs, 215, 268, 272-273, 315-316, 317-318 Federal, 215-219 food processors, 221-222 private labs, 222 state, 219-221 testing and analysis, 212, 273-274 see also Samples and sampling methods Monsato Company, 228 Monte Carlo procedure, 276-277 Motor development, 24 Multiple pesticide exposure, 7, 316, 361 mechanism of action, 7, 11, 316, 318-319 risk assessment, 6-7, 11, 316, 318-319, 341-342 Multiresidue methods (MRMs), 209, 212-213, 318 FDA, 217-218, 253 quality assurance, 223-224 Multistage models, cancer risk, 328-330, 332-334, 345 Multistage samples, food consumption surveys, 165 Muscle, 28, 36 Mutagenicity, 37-38, 70, 330, 331, 333-334 testing, 128, 150 see also Carcinogenesis and neoplasms MVK model, 333-334 Myelination, 28, 34-35 N National Alachlor Well Water Survey, 228-229 National Cancer Institute (NCI), 172-173 National Center for Health Statistics, 160 National Food Processors Association (NFPA), 221-222, 223 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 160, 161 National Residue Program, 219 National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water Weels, 229 Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (NFCS), 160, 161, 164, 165, 167, 169-170 use in dietary exposure assessment, 177-179 Neoplasms, see Carcinogenesis and neoplasms Neuroblastoma, and chlordane, 311 Neuronal tissue, 28, 34 Neurotoxicity, 39, 60-61, 63-64, 89, 108, 341 bilirubin, 24, 37, 50, 61 and blood-brain barrier, 89-90 and cholineterase inhibition, 54, 301, 341 Deet, 312, 346 dose levels and duration, 63-65 of lead, 3, 37, 62-63, 89 of lindane, 312-313 and neuronal development, 34-35 testing, 9, 61-62, 63, 65-66, 128, 151-152, 155-156 Newborns, see Infants N-Nitrosomethylurea (NMU), 30, 42 No-effect level (NEL), 326 Nondietary exposure, 17, 77, 307-313, 314, 316, 319, 358, see also Airborne exposure; Pulmonary exposure Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 76 Nonlinear dose-response, 330-331 Nonoccupational Pesticide Exposure Study (NOPES), 307, 310 Nonstochastic processes, 323-324

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children No-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), 132, 338 No-observed-effect level (NOEL), 9, 103, 132, 325 chlorpyrifos, 310 O Occupational exposure, 313 of parents, 307-308, 316 Oral exposure, see Dietary exposure; Gastrointestinal absorption Organochlorines, see Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides Organophosphates, 7, 15, 16, 52, 246, 297-298 in ambient air, 309 cholinesterase inhibition, 52-53, 297, 298-302, 309-310, 347 drug interactions, 347 and genetic polymorphism, 346 in home-use products, 309-310, 313 neurotoxicity, 63-64, 341 Organs functional development, 34, 39-41 physical growth, 32-35 water composition, 36 see also specific organs and effects Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) deficiency, 346 Outdoor air, exposure from, 308-309 Ovaries, 32 Oxidant stress, 38 Oxychlordane, in human milk, 242 P Paracrine mechanisms, 28 Paraoxon, 345, 346 Parathion cholinesterase inhibition, 52-53 metabolic polymorphism, 346 in processed foods, 257 Parental occupational exposure, 307-308, 316 Peanuts, 15 Pediculocides, 312-313 Pentachlorophenol (PCP), 311, 312 Pesticide Analytical Manual, Volume II (PAM-II), 208-209, 211-212, 217 Pesticide Assessment Guidelines, 127 Pet flea control products, 311 Pharmacokinetics, 3, 76-77, 107, 110 acute toxicity studies, 54-60 age-related differences, 55-59, 106 distribution factors, 85-90 models, 12, 330-331, 339-340, 361 nonlinear dose-response, 330-331 physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, 339-340, 361 pregnancy, 339-341 see also Gastrointestinal absorption; Metabolism Phenobarbital, pesticide interactions, 347-348, 349 Phenotype, 37 Phenoxy herbicides, 15. See also specific compounds Phenylhydrazine (PHZ), 29-30 Phenylmercuric acetate, 347 Phenytoin, 86-87, 91-92 pesticide interactions, 347-348 Physical growth, 23-29, 35 organs, 32-35 and timing of toxic exposure, 29-32 Pica, 358 Pinocytosis, 82 Pituitary glands, 28 Plasma cholinesterase, see Cholinesterase inhibition Plasma protein binding, 85-87 Playground equipment, wood preservatives use, 311, 312 Poisoning, see Cholinesteraseinhibition Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), 64 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 64-65

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children Polymorphism in metabolism, 345-346 Potassium, 35 Potatoes, 204, 206, 309 aldicarb residues, 289, 290, 294-296 Potency factors, carcinogens, 334-336 Poverty, and exposure, 343-344 Pregnancy, pharmacokinetics, 339-341 Premature infants body composition, 35-36 dermal absorption, 78 metabolism, 91-92 Prenatal effects, see Fetal development and effects Probability distributions, 11, 317. See also Statistical convolution Processed foods, 5, 7, 10, 196 conversion to raw commodities, 178, 196-197 effects on residues, 238-239, 255, 257-259, 261, 316 monitoring programs, 221-222 tolerances, 8, 18, 19, 221 Propranolol, pesticide interactions, 348, 349 Prospective survey methods, 163-164 Protein, body composition, 35 Protein binding, 85-87 Pseudocholinesterase, 54 Puberty, growth during, 28-29 Pulmonary exposure, 79-80, 309 Pyrethroids, see Synthetic pyrethroid compounds Q q1 potency factor, 335-336 Quality assurance and control, lab protocols, 223-224, 262 Quantification limits, see Limit of quantification Quantitation, 212 Questionnaires, 162-163 R Radiation, 30, 39 Raw agricultural commodities (RACs), 5, 207 conversion from processed foods, 178, 196-197 in dietary exposure assessment, 178-180 tolerances, 8, 18, 19 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) as intake data reference, 167-168 Reference doses (RfDs), 8, 9, 18, 132, 315, 357-358, 361 calculation of, 326-327, 338 Regional differences, see Geographic variations Registration of pesticides, 10, 15, 16, 17-18, 208 testing requirements, 127-128, 208 see also Field trials Regression analysis, 102-105 Regulation, 1-2, 5, 7, 12, 13, 14, 17-18 of drugs, 54-55 of inert ingredients, 342-343 see also Registration of pesticides; Tolerances Renal system, see Kidneys Repellants, 312-313 Reproductive toxicity diethylstilbestrol, 37 testing, 9, 128, 147-149, 155 Residues, see Dietary exposure; Monitoring and surveillance programs; Samples and sampling methods; Testing methods and protocols; Tolerances Resistance, to chlorinated pesticides, 15 Respiratory exposure, see Pulmonary exposure Retinoblastoma, 75-76 Retrospective survey methods, 161-164 Risk assessment, 6-7, 12, 20, 323-328, 359-363

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children acute exposure and effects, 6, 11, 315 and age differences, 7, 11-12, 344-345 carcinogenesis, 11-12, 323-324, 325, 328-338, 344-345, 349-357, 362 chronic effects, 6, 11-12, 315 daily intakes, 6, 11, 271-272, 315, 317 multiple pesticide exposure, 6-7, 11, 316, 318-319, 341-342 neurotoxicity, 341 nondietary sources, 11 pharmacokinetics, 12, 330-331, 339-340, 361 and regression analysis, 102-103 water consumption, 11 Ritalin, pesticide interactions, 348. See also Methylphenidate Ross Laboratories, 161 Rural areas, and airborne exposure, 309 S Safe levels, see Acceptable daily intake; Tolerances Safety factor (SF), 325, 326. See also Uncertainty factors Salicylates, 344 Samples and sampling methods, 210-211, 315-316 analysis, 211-215, 223-224, 318 food consumption surveys, 165-167 variation and bias in, 5, 224-225, 226 Scaling, 96-102, 110, 337 Schools, pesticide use, 310 Sensitivity factors, 41 end points, 52, 108, 109 Simazine, in water, 228, 229, 230 Single residue methods (SRMs), 211-212, 213, 253 Sinusitis, and chlordane, 311 Skin, see Dermal exposure Social development, 24 Socioeconomic status and breastfeeding, 190 and exposure, 343-344 Somatomedins, 28 Soy-based infant formula, 236-239 Soybeans, 15 Spleen, 32, 34 State Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAES), 209 State monitoring programs, 219-221 Statistical convolution, of distributions, 5-6, 268, 275-277, 314-315, 362-363 Steroids, and metabolism, 94 Stochastic processes, 323-324 Stratified samples, food consumption surveys, 165 Subchronic studies, 130, 137, 144-145 Suburbs, and airborne exposure, 309 Sulfur compounds, 14 Surface contamination, 311-312 Surface water, residue levels, 230-232 Surveillance, see Monitoring and surveillance programs Surveys, see Food consumption surveys Synergistic interactions, 341-342 with drugs, 347-349 Synthetic organic compounds, 14-15 Synthetic pyrethroid compounds, 15, 16 T Tangier's disease, 346 TD50 studies, 334-335 Telone (1,3-D), 227, 308 Teratogenicity, 49, 103. See also Developmental toxicity Termiticides, 310-311 Testes, 32 Testing methods and protocols, 19-20 carcinogenesis, 128, 129, 137, 145-146 guidelines, 127, 129, 152-156

OCR for page 373
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children manufacturers, 4, 127-128, 207-209, 211-212, 316 neurotoxicity, 61-62, 63 statistical analysis, 132 see also Animal models and studies; Bioassay protocols; Field trials; Multiresidue methods; Samples and sampling methods; Single residue methods 2,3,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester (DCPA), 229 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 68, 69 Theophylline, 92, 93 Theoretical maximum residue contributions (TMRCs), 8, 18, 357-358 processed foods, 238-239 Therapeutic orphan problem, 54 Thiourea, 50 Thiram, drug interactions, 348 Thresholds, see Acceptable daily intake Thymus, 32 Thyroid, 154-155 Tolerances, 1-2, 5, 18, 19, 208, 214 calculation of, 177-179 Total Diet Study (TDS), 161, 218-219 Toxaphene, 14 Triadimefon, 78 Triazine herbicides, 228 Tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), 309 Trichloroethylene, 340-341 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), 15 Trihalomethanes (THMs), 233 Tumors, see Carcinogenesis and neoplasms U Uncertainty factors (UF), 9, 325-328, 360, 361 Urban areas and airborne exposure, 309 pollution, 343-344 U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA) food consumption surveys, 160, 164 monitoring programs, 216, 219 pesticide use and testing data, 204, 209-210 Uterus, 32 cancer, 30-31 V Vaginal cancer, 30-31 Validation of food consumption survey data, 168-169 of residue analyses, 215 Vegetables, 15, 194, 195 residue levels, 249-252 Vincristine, 59 Vinyl chloride, 31 Visual system studies, 152, 156 W Water, body, 24, 27, 35-36. See also Extracellular fluid volume Water consumption, 4, 35, 173, 176-182 passim, 196 calculation, 172-173 and residue levels, 227-232, 261, 307, 359 sources, 173, 174-175, 194 Watermelons, aldicarb poisoning outbreak, 53, 268 Weight, 97, 325, 337 Weighting factors, food consumption surveys, 167 Well water residue levels, 228-230 Wheat, 15 Wood preservatives, 311, 312