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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems
for people transferring from one installation to another include a session on the environmental program at their new base. The Defense Systems Management Course (DSMC), which provides basic education required for all acquisition of-ricers, includes a section on the environmental impact of acquisition programs. However, it must be expanded to emphasize pollution prevention opportunities and to show how to incorporate pollution prevention into acquisition programs.
In addition to educating the workers, the Air Force has focused on educating leadership at all levels through a unique course called the Environmental Leadership Course, conducted by a general officer. Between 1990 and 1992, 15 courses were conducted for commanders and their staffs, and attendance exceeded 800. With only nine major commands and approximately 100 installations, coverage was very good. Each course included a presentation on the Pollution Prevention Program to explain why it is important to commanders, the financial benefits of a successful program, and tips for commanders to use to assess the health of their programs. This one- to two-day course had a significant effect on the attention commanders give to their pollution prevention programs.
The Environmental Comprehensive Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) and opportunity assessments are additional tools for educating installations about their pollution prevention opportunities. Installations conduct an ECAMP self-assessment once a year using internal staff, and once every three years using external independent assessors. The assessment team uses a series of protocols to evaluate every aspect of the installation environmental program. The results of the ECAMP are for commanders to use to improve their programs. Opportunity assessments are detailed installation surveys conducted by local pollution prevention staffs and external pollution prevention experts. The surveys provide each installation with a roadmap for achieving the goals of the program.
Changes in the way installations pay for environmental compliance have also provided an incentive for changing internal behavior. Installation commanders are responsible for operating their installations within an operations and maintenance (O&M) budget. Until 1991, waste disposal costs were paid from a central account, not from the commanders' O&M account. Now, all hazardous material, hazardous waste, and municipal solid waste disposal costs are paid from the commanders' O&M account. This change in accounting procedures internalizes these costs to the installation and provides a financial incentive to reduce waste generation. This incentive becomes even more significant when considering that national regulations governing hazardous waste disposal have become more stringent and have driven the unit disposal costs up tenfold over the past five years. Pollution prevention offers commanders an opportunity to reduce the impact of this "must-pay" bill on their budget. This has prompted many installations to manage