Table 3a How Selling the Utilization of Products Rather than the Products Themselves Affects Liability of Economic Actors

 

Alternative Utilization and Commercialization Opportunities

Examples of Economic Actors

Alternative Liability Carriers "product quality" and "utilization"

Producer

Fleet Manager

User

SALE

Owner is user

Durable product is sold (cash or credit)

• cars

• white goods

• clothes

• computers

Individuals

Risk of warranty (6/12 months)

All risks for an unlimited time period (except warranty)

RENTAL

Owner is fleet manager

Product is rented

• cars

System is rented

• apartment

• hotel room

Service is rented

• taxi

Companies and individuals offering service

• shops

• Hertz, Avis

• investors

• hotels

• taxi owners

Risk of warranty

All risks for the full utilization period (except warranty)

none

SELLING SYSTEM UTILIZATION

Owner is fleet and maintenance manager

System utilization is sold

• transport

• telecom

• clothes

Fleet managers

• railways

• airlines

All risks for a period of time determined and negotiated between producer and fleet manager

none

Owner is producer, fleet and maintenance manager

Manufacturers

• Aia-Geveert AG

• Xerox

All risks for an unlimited period of time

 

none

System utilization (goods and services) is sold

• photocopies

 

Producer is also fleet manager

 

 

 

SOURCE: Börlin and Stahel (1987)



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