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Fat Content and Composition of Animal Products PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM Washington, D.C. December 12-13, 1974 BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES Commission on Natural Resources and FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD Assembly of Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1976

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee respon- sible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Fat content and composition of animal products. Includes bibliographies. 1. Animal food-Fat content Congresses. I. National Research Council. Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources. II. National Research Council. Food and Nutrition Board. TX555.F37 664'.907 76-6496 ISBN 0-309-02440-4 A bailable f ram Printing and Publishing Office, National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America 80 79 78 77 76 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Preface This symposium, held on the occasion of the regular 1974 annual meeting of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council, represents the culmination of a 2-year effort of that Board and the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources. As such it recognizes both the agricultural and the human nutrition aspects of the general issue of the quantity and composition of fats in foods of . amma ongm. The program was developed by an organizing committee representing the interests of both Boards to assess the need for change in fat quantity and composition, production and marketing factors bearing thereon, and certain aspects of human nutrition and dietary habits. These issues are addressed in the context of widespread recognition of hunger in many places, reduction in world food reserves, increased costs of animal feeds, the interplay of market forces, the energy costs of converting plant materials to animal tissue, and the shifts in diet that commonly ac- company increasing affluence. . . .

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Symposium Organizing Committee G. A. LEVElLLE, Michigan State University, Co-Chairman E. C. NABER, Ohio State University, Co-Chairman B. R. BAUMGARDT, Pennsylvania State University J. P. BOWLAND, University of Alberta Z. E. CARPENTER, Texas A&M University W. H. HALE, University of Arizona L. M. HENDERSON, University of Minnesota R. R. OLT]EN, Agricultural Research Service, USDA B. S. SCHWEIGERT, University of California M. L. SUNDE, University of Wisconsin v

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES Sylvan H. Wittwer, Chairman James S. Bethel Lawrence Bogorad Marion Clawson Tony J. Cunha Paul R. Eberts Robert P. Hanson Clifford M. Hardin Clarence P. Idyll Carl H. Krieger Roy L. Lovvorn Thomas C. Nelson Charles E. Palm John A. Pino Gustav A. Swanson D. Wynne Thorne Cecil H. Wadleigh C O M MI T T E E ON ANI M A L N U T RI T ION Tony J. Cunha, Chairman John P. Bowland Charles W. Deyoe William H. Hale John E. Halver Edward C. Naber Robert R. Oltjen Loris H. Schultz Richard G. Warner V1

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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD ( 1974) Lloyd J. Filer, Jr., Chairman H. N. Munro, Vice-Chairman Richard H. Barnes Harry P. Broquist Doris H. Calloway James P. Carter David B. Coursin E. M. Foster Helen A. Guthrie Robert M. Kark Gilbert A. Leveille Jean Mayer Robert O. Nesheim Daniel I. Padberg Theodore B. Van Itallie . ~ V11

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Contents Introductory Remarks L. J. Filer, Jr. Overview of the Role of Animal Products in Human Nutrition C. Edith Weir Health-Related Aspects of Animal Products for Human Consumption H. N. Munro The Consumer's Desire for Animal Products A. M. Pearson Altering Fat Content of Animal Products through Genetics, Nutrition, and Management Sylvan H. Wittwer Genetics of Fat Content in Animal Products R. L. Willham Nutrition and Management Aspects of Ruminant Animals Related to Reduction of Fat Content in Meat and Milk John A. Marchello and William H. Hale Nutrition and Management Aspects of Nonruminant Animals Related to Reduction of Fat Content in Meat Gerald F. Combs . . vail 24 45 80 85 101 116

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Eliminating Excess Fat in Meat Animals 143 T. J. Cunha Eating Quality of Meat Animal Products and Their Fat Content 147 G. C. Smith and Z. L. Carpenter The Federal Grading System for Animal Products 183 John C. Pierce Market Implications of Changing Fat Content of Milk and Dairy Products 1 89 Truman F. Graf Status Report on the Alteration of Fatty Acid and Sterol Com position in Lipids in Meat, Milk, and Eggs Joel Bitman Commentary Gilbert A. Leveille Commentary E. C. Naber Participants 1X 200 238 240 245

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