Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 142
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62
OCR for page 143
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 HERBERT FRIEDMANN April 22, 1900-May 14, 1987 BY S. DILLON RIPLEY HERBERT FRIEDMANN, innovative museum director and long a productive zoological curator, was one of this country's most scholarly ornithologists. His technical specialties focused on the evolution of brood parasitism in birds and other aspects of bird behavior, avian taxonomy, cerophagy and wax digestion by honey guides, and the significance of animal symbolism in the art of the Renaissance and Middle Ages. Elected a member of the Academy in 1962, Dr. Friedmann was born in Brooklyn on April 22, 1900, and died, of cancer, at Saddleback Hospital in Laguna Hills, California, on May 14, 1987. He is survived by his wife, Karen Juul Vejlo, of Laguna Hills; one daughter, Karen Friedmann Beall (Mrs. Dale K. Haworth), of Northfield, Minnesota; and one brother, Ralph Friedman, of Manhattan. In his eighty-seven years, Herbert Friedmann never ceased his pursuit of intellectual challenges, offered by a broad range of interests. These overshadow his less well-known achievements in the field of museum administration. His reorganization of the Los Angeles County Museum is testament to his leadership abilities. Yet he will be best remembered as a thoughtful scholar. In the following pages I provide a brief outline of his life and his major accomplishments and hope to impart a little of his gentle charm
OCR for page 144
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 and wit, which I first came to know when, in 1941, I worked as an assistant curator under his benign tutelage at the then-named United States National Museum, in Washington, D.C. Herbert Friedmann spent his childhood in Brooklyn, where his father was a druggist. The elder Friedmann had left his native Lithuania as a young pharmacist in the early 1890s and was followed by his wife-to-be (a teacher) a couple of years later. Herbert was the second of four sons. The demands of a drugstore left little time for family outdoor activities, but the great resources of New York City served the sons well, not only the three who gravitated to professions in law, medicine, and finance but the future naturalist as well. In addition to the strictly educational resources, the young Friedmann enthusiastically took advantage of available standing room at the city's centers of performing arts and treasured forever his memories of such luminaries as Caruso, Melba, and Isadora Duncan. Friedmann's interest in birds developed gradually. By the time he was twelve years old, museums were his favorite haunts, in particular the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the American Museum of Natural History. In his high school years he and a brother joined a bird club, and he later started keeping detailed records of birds he saw in the parks of New York City and its vicinity. When he entered City College of New York at the age of sixteen, the thought of studying birds was taking shape. Summer jobs on a tobacco farm in Connecticut and a dairy farm in New Jersey gave him added opportunities to observe birds. Because the armistice was signed a few months after his enlistment in military service, his education was not delayed by overseas military service. His first serious ornithological study was carried out at the New York Zoological Society's Bronx Zoo and was later published under the title "Weav-
OCR for page 145
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 ing of the Red-Billed Weaver Bird in Captivity." This work so impressed Dr. William Beebe that he urged Friedmann to seek a scholarship to Cornell University to study birds. In three postgraduate years at Cornell, Friedmann completed his doctorate. His dissertation addressed the behavior of brood parasitism by cowbirds. The study was enlarged through field work abroad and appeared later in book form—The Cowbirds: A Study in the Biology of Social Parasitism, a work that after six decades continues to be cited as a key reference on this subject. After teaching a summer course at the University of Virginia in 1923, Friedmann was affiliated with Harvard University as a postdoctoral fellow of the National Research Council, under the tutelage of William Morton Wheeler. Much of this fellowship was spent in the field, in Argentina (1923-24), on the Mexican border (May 1924), and then in Africa (1924-25). He made extensive zoological collections during his overseas expeditions (a tree with its remarkable composite nest of colonial weaver birds is still at the American Museum), and the African fauna in general captivated his imagination. Decidedly his primary interest, however, was bird behavior reflected in the social habits of the weaverbirds and brood parasitism of cuckoos, honey guides, and weavers. Following his postdoctoral studies, Friedmann taught in the Biology Department at Brown University (1925-26) and at Amherst College (1927-29). While at Amherst he scheduled his teaching so that he could spend several days each week working at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. During this period his research centered on African ornithology and brood parasitism. Friedmann's studies of African birds made his appointment as curator in the Division of Birds, U.S. National Museum, a logical step toward his goal of devoting full
OCR for page 146
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 time to ornithological research. His deep interest in museum research was evident from his close association with the American Museum of Natural History during his undergraduate years at City University and later his affiliation with the Museum of Comparative Zoology during his years in Massachusetts. Friedmann had barely settled in at the Smithsonian when the 1929 stock market crash occurred and the heavy hand of the Depression began to make itself felt. A contemplated expansion of work into areas of bird biology had to be largely abandoned, and the lack of funds also brought retrenchment of publication schedules for larger works. Friedmann's publication of seventy papers and several books during this period indicates the amount of energy that he dedicated to his various ornithological pursuits. In March 1942, on my own first day as an assistant curator of birds at the U.S. National Museum, I had the opportunity to meet Herbert Friedmann. As a new curatorial replacement for the late J. H. Riley, I shared a book-lined room with Herbert Deignan, and Friedmann himself, and began to learn the scope of my new position. The two Herberts showed me the Bird Division, its huge gallery of collections, and the windows that gave the best available natural light for examining bird specimens. Returning to Mr. Riley's old rolltop desk, I heard a dull rolling sound out in the corridor. The rolling sound stopped in the doorway, and I could see the dim shine of brass, in heaps on the platform of a large dolly. In came an extremely cheery man carrying a brightly polished spittoon. He approached my desk, bent down, and reverently placed the brass object in the exact center of a square of rubber that I had noticed and wondered about earlier that morning. The rubber was stamped with a concentric series of
OCR for page 147
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 circles, raised in the center. The man fitted the spittoon exactly into the center of the innermost circle. At that point, Herbert Friedmann exclaimed, "Oh no, Dillon, you don't want that thing." I noticed that his desk lacked the government-issue rubber squares. "What's it for?" I asked. "Riley chewed," explained Herbert. Riley, the former assistant curator, was an elderly tobacco-chewing Virginian. I asked the gentleman to leave the spittoon. At an annual salary of $2,600, it seemed to me that I had to grab whatever perquisites were offered, and so the spittoon stayed, refreshed each weekday until I departed the institution, with my doctoral thesis completed, three months later. In the latter part of the thirties and during the war years, Friedmann found opportunity to pursue his interest in art—he took evening classes in drawing, painting, and sculpture at the Corcoran School of Art—and he developed a particular interest in the symbolic use of animals in art, spending a great many evenings in a reserved cubicle at the Library of Congress. The result was his widely recognized book The Symbolic Goldfinch, published in 1946 by the Mellon-financed Bolligen Press. It was a matter of more than casual interest to him—in fact, a source of some delight—that the National Gallery of Art was growing up on the Mall next to the U.S. National Museum at this time. John Walker, its second director, in his 1963 book The National Gallery in Washington, D.C., describes the role Friedmann played in securing the Kress Collection for the gallery, one of only three collections to grace its walls when it opened in 1941. Dr. Friedmann was to remain closely associated with museum-based ornithological research for the thirty-six years between 1925 and 1961. He served as curator of birds
OCR for page 148
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 at the Smithsonian from 1929 to 1958 and was head curator of zoology from 1958 to 1961. The research work of Herbert Friedmann had a number of foci, and yet the scope of his interest was truly without limit, as evidenced by the appended listing of his major publications. He is perhaps best known for his work on the evolution of brood parasitism in birds, as practiced by the cuckoos, cowbirds, honey guides, and weaverbirds. A brood parasite builds no nest of its own, but instead lays its eggs in the nest of another species. The hatchling brood parasites are provisioned and raised by the host species, entirely without assistance from the biological parents. Once fledged, however, they soon cease to interact with the foster parent and join their own species. Friedmann detailed the morphological adaptations that allow the parasitic species to successfully reproduce in this remarkable manner. For the parasitic cuckoos, he delineated the striking polymorphism in pattern and coloration of eggs that mimicked those of the dominant host species in different parts of the brood parasite's range. In addition, he detailed the behavioral specializations that permit the parasitic nestling to prosper in the nest of the host, often at the expense of the true offspring of the nest owner. Friedmann's interest in nest parasitism led him to the study of honey guides (family Indicatoridae). After extensive research in European museums during the summer of 1950, he spent the fall and early winter of 1950-51 studying the guiding habit of the bird—by which it leads humans to bees' nests—by direct field observations supplemented by interviews with naturalists and other local observers of birds in South Africa and Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). In twenty-three successful guiding trips supplemented by interviews with local observers, he established that this astonishing habit is not native myth but fact. After the sym-
OCR for page 149
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 biont opens the nest and removes some of the honey, the bird, Friedmann found, feeds on the wax comb, and not as formerly assumed on honey. This study, in turn, led to his interest in the remarkable relationship between these birds and the wax combs of bees' nests. The honey guide is unique in its consumption of beeswax, which forms a considerable part of the bird's diet. Since wax was thought to be indigestible by vertebrates, Friedmann, after he returned to Washington, set out to determine the process by which honey guides achieved this metabolic feat. With the help of contacts he had established in South Africa and Uganda, birds were trapped and, courtesy of Pan American Airlines, sent to Washington. With assistance from experts in bacteriology and biochemistry, whose interest he engaged, the problem was studied during the following years. It was discovered that the bird possesses a digestive enzyme that aids in wax breakdown and that the bird also has had a species of gut microbe that is capable of wax digestion. Together, the bacterium and the alimentary enzyme are able to extract as much as 50 percent of the lipid content of the beeswax, which is then mobilized for the bird's assimilation. Friedmann also discovered that the bacterium, which he named Micrococcus cerolyticus, inhabits wild combs and that presumably the birds obtain their wax-digesting microflora from the comb itself. The ability of the Micrococcus to break down wax has led to the study of its utility in combatting the bacillus that causes tuberculosis. That microbe is protected by a waxy cell wall, which now has been shown to be susceptible to attack from the Micrococcus. The manner in which Friedmann's work on nest parasitism led to the study of honey guides, which in turn led to a new understanding of wax breakdown, demonstrates the perspicacity and diligence of his
OCR for page 150
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 intellectual efforts. These faculties were also turned to his diligent studies in the realm of art history. With his interest in animal life in general and birds in particular, and his love of art, Friedmann noticed the frequent depiction of animals in the works of the Old Masters. Studying the occurrence of wild creatures and the symbolism involved, he came to see the artists as early observers of nature, a link in the development of scientific natural history out of the mystical and allegorical beliefs dominating European culture's view of the natural world. His field of study was the art of medieval and Renaissance Europe. Friedmann focused on animals for their intrinsic interest rather than as ornamentation in the exclusively religious works. A rich source of allegory for devotional art was St. Jerome and the ''scorpions and wild beasts" which, according to a letter from his hand, were his daily companions. In 1,100 such art objects that he studied, Friedmann found that fifty-nine different animals had been used symbolically, some with great frequency. To represent them successfully, the artist had to know their outer appearance. Friedmann hypothesized that the rise of the natural science of zoology could occur only after this transformation in perception had occurred among the artists and intellectuals of the culture. This research was able to satisfy his native love of art while at the same time stimulating his still-questing intellect. It bespeaks a mind that remained remarkably vigorous even into his latter years. As to the physical evidence of his intellectual efforts, Herbert Friedmann published seventeen book-length works, including The Cowbirds: A Study in the Biology of Social Parasitism (1929); Birds Collected by the Childs Frick Expedition to Ethiopia and Kenya Colony, Parts I and II (2 volumes, 1930, 1937); Notes on the Ornithology of Tropi-
OCR for page 151
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 cal East Africa (with A. Loveridge, 1937); The Symbolic Goldfinch (1946); The Honey-guides (1955); The Parasitic Weaverbirds (1960); The Host Relations of Parasitic Cowbirds (1963); The Evolutionary History of the Avian Genus Chrysococcyx (1968); and A Bestiary for St. Jerome (1980). His technical and scholarly papers numbered more than 300. These can be grouped into several general areas of interest: nest parasitism by cuckoos, weaverbirds, and cowbirds; the avifaunas of Africa and South America; the behavior and wax digestion of the honey guides; taxonomy of North American birds; subfossil birds of archeological deposits; and zoological motifs in art. This listing, however, does not do justice to the full breadth of his contribution to the study of birds. He collaborated extensively with dozens of other researchers and made published contributions touching on nearly every bird group. Dr. Friedmann was selected in 1961 to direct what was then the Los Angeles County Museum of Science, History and Art, succeeding another wonderfully knowledgeable and peripatetic ornithologist and aviculturalist, Captain Jean Delacour. At the time of his appointment, plans were nearly complete for separation of the art and natural history divisions into two museums. Subsequently, the Natural History Museum was granted a number of new positions—curators, exhibition staff, and so forth—and it inherited space vacated when art was moved out in 1965, offering great possibilites for expansion. Friedmann carried on the innovations of Delacour and further strengthened the museum's potential for scholarly research. As director he sought a series of research and facilities grants that helped make the institution a world-class organization. Already at the Smithsonian he had actively served on a committee for the modernization of exhibits, and the Los Angeles Museum offered scope for such
OCR for page 152
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 efforts. The list of accomplishments during this period is impressive: complete new halls for Pre-Columbian, South Pacific, and African ethnology as well as for geology, entomology, and vertebrate paleontology and in such diverse areas as the history of transportation and settlement of the American West. The hall of California history was renovated, eight new habitat groups were added to the mammal hall, dinosaurs were placed in the foyer, and many smaller exhibits were developed. In addition, expeditions were undertaken, a docent program was initiated, and the collections grew tremendously, partly as a result of the expeditions and partly from transfer of some university collections to the museum. With unflagging interest in the African fauna, Friedmann secured funds from the National Science Foundation for surveys of the fauna of little-known, isolated, dwindling forests in western Uganda in 1966-70, and the resulting collections further enriched the museum's holdings. During these years as director, he was also closely associated with the University of California, Los Angeles, where he had given the Leida Scott Brown lectures in 1957. The public lectures were a success, as were his seminars for the zoology faculty and students and also for the departments of bacteriology and art. After his return to Los Angeles he was appointed professor in residence in the Department of Zoology and later on (more briefly) in the Department of Art. In this capacity he participated in graduate seminars, presented guest lectures, and consulted with faculty and graduate students. Following his retirement from the museum in 1970, at age seventy, he was appointed by the National Science Foundation to evaluate biological research programs in Antarctica. Friedmann's scholarly, scientific, and administrative achievements were recognized by the award of a number of hon-
OCR for page 155
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1922 The weaving of the red-billed weaver bird in captivity. Zoologica 2(16):355-72. 1924 An island in the Parana. Bull. N.Y. Zool. Soc. 27:103-10. 1925 Notes on birds observed in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas during May, 1924. Auk 42:537-54. 1926 Notes on the big game of Africa and its preservation. Mammalogy 7: 305-10. Three new African birds. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:217-19. 1927 Testicular asymmetry and sex ratio in birds. Biol. Bull. 52:197-207. Notes on some Argentine birds. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 48:139-236. New birds from Tanganyika territory. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:3-7. With E. M. B. Naumberg. A new race of Molothrus bonariensis from Brazil. Auk 44:494. A revision of the classification of the cowbirds. Auk 44:495-508. A new babbler from the Belgian Congo. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:11. A case of apparently adaptive acceleration of embryonic growth rate in birds. Biol. Bull. 53:343-45. 1928 The origin of host specificity in the parasitic habit in the Cuculidae. Auk 45:33-38. A collection of birds from the Uluguru and the Usambara Mountains, Tanganyika territory. Ibis 4:74-79. The earliest restoration of Archaeopteryx. Sci. Mon. 26:178-79. Two new birds from Tanganyika territory. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:47-50. Notes on Parisoma bohmi with a description of a new race. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:51-53.
OCR for page 156
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Notes on Melierax with description of a new form. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 41:93-98. The genus Artisornis. Ibis (July):476-78. A new francolin from Abyssinia. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 18:408. Descriptions of a dove and a rail from Tanganyika territory. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:87-89. The South African form of the spotted crake. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:77-78. A new sand grouse and a new courser from Tanganyika territory. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:79-81. A new cuckoo from Tanganyika territory. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:83-84. The geographical variations of the crowned plover, Stephanibyx coronatus. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 10:91-97. Social parasitism in birds. Q. Rev. Biol. 3:554-69. Notes on east African birds with descriptions of two forms new to science. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 11:29-33. 1929 Two east African barbets. Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club 11:35-36. The scops owls of northeastern Africa. Auk 46:520-22. The gloriosa Race of Ixocncla madagascariensis. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 42:215-16. The Cowbirds: A Study in the Biology of Social Parasitism. Springfield, II.: Charles C. Thomas. 421 pp. 1930 A barbet new to science from Kenya colony. Auk 47:85-86. The forms of the orange-breasted bush-shrike, Chlorophoneus sulfureopectus (Lesson). Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:251-53. The caudal molt of certain coraciiform, coliiform and piciform birds. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 77(7):1-6. The sociable weaver bird of South America. Nat. Hist. 30:205-12. The new study of bird behavior. Bird-Banding 1:61-66. A lark new to science from southern Ethiopia. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:257-59. Notes on geographic variations in the genus Macronyx with description of two new races. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:263-66. A lark new to science from north-central Kenya colony. Auk 47: 418-419.
OCR for page 157
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Explorations of the Rev. David C. Graham in Szechuan China. Exploration and Field Work of the Smithsonian Institution, 1929 3060:85-92. Explorations of Dr. Hugh M. Smith in Siam. Exploration and Field Work of the Smithsonian Institution, 1929 3060:93-98. Notes on Sheppardia cyornithopsis with description of a new race. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:323-24. A rock thrush new to science from northern Kenya colony. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:325-26. The forms of the white-browed robin-chat, Cossypha heuglini Hartlaub. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:327-28. The geographic variations of Neocichla gutturalis (Bocage). J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 20(17):434. Social parasitism in birds. Smithsonian Report for 1929 3049:363-82. Birds collected in the Belgian Congo in the African Republic of Liberia and the Belgian Congo. Harvard African expedition of 1926-1927 2:749-68. Notes on the sharp-billed honey-guide, Prodotiscus regulus. The Bateleur 2:99-102. Birds Collected by the Childs Frick Expedition to Ethiopia and Kenya Colony, Part I. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 153:1-518. 1931 Additions to the list of birds known to be parasitized by the cowbirds. Auk 48:52-65. Explorations of the Rev. David C. Graham in Szechuan, China. Exploration and Field Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1930, pp. 77-82. Bird distribution and bird banding. Bird-Banding 2:45-51. The Tanganyikan form of Anthreptes orientalise. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:383-84. A weaver bird new to science from Urundi, Central Africa. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 44:117-18. The northern form of the cardinal dioch, Quelea cardinalis. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 44:119-120. The geographic forms of the Somali sparrow, Passer castanopterus Blyth. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:427-28. Observations on the growth rate of the foot in the mound birds of the genus Megapodius. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 80(1):1-4.
OCR for page 158
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1932 The parasitic habit in the ducks: A theoretical consideration. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 80(18):1-7. Two birds new to science from Great Namaqualand. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 45:65-66. On the supposed visual function of the nictitating membrane in the domestic pigeon. J. Comp. Psychol. 45:163-64. Additions to the avifauna of St. Lawrence Island. Bering Sea Condor 34:257. 1933 The Chinese cormorant on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Condor 35:30-31. With A. Wetmore. The California condor in Texas. Condor 35:37-38. The size and measurement of territory in birds. Bird-Banding 4:41-45. A collection of birds from Great Namaqualand, southwest Africa. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 82(10):1-12. With W. W. Bowen. Geographical variation in the yellow-billed shrike, Corvinella corvina. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46:121-23. Notes on Arment's cowbird. Ibis 13(3):492-94. A contribution to the life history of the crespin or four-winged cuckoo Tapera naevia. Ibis 13(3):532-39. Further notes on birds parasitized by the red-eyed cowbird. Condor 35:189-91. Critical notes on American vultures. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46:187-90. The Cuban race of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 46:199. Advances in life history work. Fifty years of progress in American ornithology, pp. 101-9. Notes on some birds of Goodnews Bay, Alaska. Condor 35:239-40. 1934 Bird bones from Eskimo ruins on St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 24:93-96. Thomas Aubury's observations on North American birds. Auk 51: 200-206. Additional notes on the birds victimized by the shiny cowbird. Ibis 13(4):340-47. The display of Wallace's standard-wing bird of paradise in captivity. Sci. Mon. 39:52-55. The hawks of the genus Chondrohierax. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 24: 310-18.
OCR for page 159
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Further additions to the list of birds victimized by the cowbird. Wilson Bull. 46:25-26, 104-14. The Siberian rough-legged hawk in Alaska. Condor 36:246. 1935 A hawk of the genus Leucopternis new to science. Auk 52:30. Avian bones from prehistoric ruins on Kodiak Island, Alaska. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 25:44-51. Die Balz von Semioptera wallacei halmaheae in Gefangenschaft. J. Ornihol. 83:283-86. Bird societies. In Handbook of Social Psychology. Pp. 142-84. Notes on differential threshold of reaction to vitamin deficiency in the house sparrow and the chick. Biol. Bull. 69:71-74. The birds of Kodiak Island, Alaska. Bull. Chicago Arad. Sci. 6(3):1-54. A new race of the crested eagle-Hawk, Spizaetus ornatus. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 25:450-51. 1936 With M. Davis. The courtship display of the flightless cormorant. Sci. Mon. 560-63. Notes on Alaskan birds. Condor 38:173. 1937 Further additions to the known avifauna of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Condor 39:91. Bird bones from archaeological sites in Alaska. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 27:431-38. Birds collected by the Childs Frick expedition to Ethiopia and Kenya Colony, Part II. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 153:1-506. With Arthur Loveridge. Notes on the ornithology of tropical East Africa. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 81:1-413. 1938 Additional hosts of the parasitic cowbirds. Auk 55:41-50. Further records from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Condor 40:88. 1939 The Amur barn swallow, a new bird for North America. Condor 41:37. With M. Davis. Left-handedness in parrots. Auk 55:478-80.
OCR for page 160
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1940 With H. G. Deignan. Notes on some Asiatic owls of the genus Otus with description of a new form . J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29:287-91. 1941 Bird bones from Eskimo ruins at Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 31:404-9. Continuation of Ridgway's ''Birds of North and Middle America," pt. IX. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50:1-254. 1942 Two little known birds from eastern Brazil. Auk 59:316-17. A new tanager from Venezuela. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 55:85-86. With H. G. Deignan. Notes on Tschudi's types of Peruvian birds. Zoologica 27:49-53. 1943 With J. W. Aldrich. A revision of the ruffed grouse. Condor 45:85-103. A new race of the sharp-tailed grouse. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 33:189-91. Further additions to the list of birds known to be parasitized by the cowbirds. Auk 60:350-56. A new honey-guide from Cameroon. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 33:249-50. A new wood quail of the genus Dendrortyx. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 33:272-73. Critical notes on the avian genus Lophortyx. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 33:36971. 1944 A review of the forms of Colinus leucopogon (Lesson). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 57:15-16. A new manakin from Cerro Yapacana Upper Orinoco Valley, southern Venezuela. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 57:99-100. 1945 Birds of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition 1939-1941. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 89(1):305-13. Pelagic birds from the west coast of South America. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 89(1):314-15. A new ant-thrush from Venezuela. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 58:83-89. Two new birds from the Upper Rio Negro, Brazil. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 58:113-16.
OCR for page 161
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 The genus Nyctiprogne. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 58:117-20. Cypseloides major in Bolivia. Auk 62:460. 1946 The red-spotted bluethroat of northwestern Alaska. Auk 63:434. Ecological counterparts in birds. Sci. Mon. 73:395-98. Continuation of Ridgway's "Birds of North and Middle America," pt. X. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50:1-484. The Symbolic Goldfinch, pp. 1-234. New York: Pantheon Books. 1947 A new wren from Chiapas, Mexico. Auk 64:178. The spotted rail, Pardirallus maculatus, in southern Mexico. Auk 69:460. Geographic variations of the black-bellied, fulvous and white-faced tree ducks. Condor 49:189-95. Colombian birds collected by Brother Niceforo Caldasia. 4(20):471-494. With W. E. C. Todd. A study of the gyrfalcons with particular reference to North America. Wilson Bull. 59(3):139-50. Cornaro's gazelle and Bellini's orpheus. Gaz. Beaux Arts 6(32):1522. The symbolism of Crivelli's Madonna and Child enthroned with donor in the National Gallery. Gaz. Beaux Arts 6(32):151-58. Bucchiacca's gathering of manna in the National Gallery. Gaz. Beaux Arts 6(32):151-58. 1948 Galen's tailless apes. Isis 38(3-4):265. Birds collected by the National Geographic Society's expedition to northern Brazil and southern Venezuela. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 97:373-569. A small collection of birds from Eritrea. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 38(4):137-42. The green-winged teal of the Aleutian Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 61:157-58. Mirandolle's forest falcon. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 3(1):1-4. 1949 Feather replacement in the macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus (Brandt). Auk 66:74-75. The status of the spotted rail, Pardirallus maculatus, of Chiapas. Auk 66:86-87.
OCR for page 162
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 The baer pochard, a bird new to the North American fauna. Condor 51:43-44. Additional data on victims of parasitic cowbirds. Auk 66:154-63. Additional data on African parasitic cuckoos. Ibis 91:514-19. A new heron and a new owl from Venezuela. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 3(9):1-3. The iconography of a madonna and child by Giovanni Baronzio in the Kress collection, National Gallery of Art. Gaz. Beaux Arts, 6th Ser. 35:345-52. (French translation, pp. 386-90.) The Parasitic Cuckoos of Africa, vol. 1, pp. 1-204. Washington Academy of Sciences Monograph. 1950 The forms of the black hawk-eagle. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 3(16): 1-4. With Foster D. Smith, Jr. A contribution to the ornithology of northeastern Venezuela. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 100:411-538. The breeding habits of the weaverbirds. A study in the biology of behavior patterns. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1949, pp. 293-316. Plant symbolism in Raphael's Alba Madonna in the National Gallery of Art, Washington. Gaz. Beaux Arts, Oct.-Dec. 1949 (Aug. 1951), pp. 213-20. (French translation, pp. 326-28.) Continuation of Ridgway's "Birds of North and Middle America," pt. XI. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50:1-792. With Griscom, Miller, and Moore. Distributional Check-list of the Birds of Mexico, pt. 1, pp. 1-202. 1952 The long-tailed sugarbird of eastern Rhodesia. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 42(1):31-32. Vestigial claws on the wings of the kiskadee flycatcher, Pitangus sulphuratus caucensis. Auk 69:200. 1954 With F. H. Glenny. Reduction of the clavicles in the Mesoenatidae, with some remarks concerning the relationship of the clavicle to flight-function in birds . Ohio J. Sci. 54(2):111-13. A revision of the classification of the honey-guides, Indicatoridae. Ann. Mus. Congo, Tervuren, Zool. 50:21-27.
OCR for page 163
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1955 A further contribution to the ornithology of northeastern Venezuela. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 104:463-524. Recent revisions in classification and their biological significance. Recent Studies in Avian Biology, pp. 23-42. The honey-guides. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 208:1-292. 1956 With J. Kern. The problem of cerophagy or wax-eating in the honey-guides. Q. Rev. Biol. 31:19-30. With J. Kern. Micrococcus cerolyticus nov. sp., an aerobic lipolytic organism isolated from the African honey-guide. Can. J. Microbiol. 2:515-17. Further data on African parasitic cuckoos. Proc. US. Nat. Mus. 106: 377-408. New light on the dodo and its illustrators. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1955 (1956), pp. 475-81. Symbolic meanings in Sassetta's "Journey of the Magi." Gaz. Beaux Arts (Dec.): 143-56. 1957 With Kern and Rust. The domestic chick; a substitute for the honey-guide as a symbiont with cerolytic microorganisms. Am. Nat. XCI:321-26. Aviculture and our knowledge of the parasitic weaverbirds. Avic. Mag. 63:158-60. The rediscovery of Tangavius armenti. Auk 75:93-95. With Griscom, Miller and Moore. Distributional Check-list of the Birds of Mexico, pt. 2, pp. 1-436. With Wetmore et al. Check-list of North American Birds, 5th ed. 691 pp. 1958 The status of Pteroglossus didymus P.L. Sclater. Auk 75:93-95. The status of the grey-breasted least honey-guides. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 71:65-68. Advances in our knowledge of the honey-guides. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 108:309-20. 1959 Identification of bird bones. Reed, E.K Excavations in Mancos Canyon, Colorado Anthropology Papers, University of Utah, 35:210-12. With Rand and Traylor. Birds from Gabon and Moyen Congo. Fieldiana, Zool. 41(2):221-411.
OCR for page 164
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1960 Changing environment of zoological research. Science 131:590-93. The parasitic weaverbirds. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 223:1-196. 1961 With W. J. L. Sladen. Antarctic ornithology. In Science in Antarctica, pp. 62-76. National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council. 1962 The problem of the Viduinae in the light of recent publications. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 145(3):1-10. The machris expedition to Tchad, Africa: Birds. Los Angeles Cty. Mus. Contrib. Sci. 59:1-27. Tchad birds and the Sahara problem. Sci. Hist. Alliance Q. 1:9-10. The vagaries of the small bird motif in art. Creative Crafts 3:17-19. 1963 Morphological data on two sibling species of small honey-guides. Los Angeles Cty. Mus. Contrib. Sci. 79:1-5. The host relations of the parasitic cowbirds. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. pp. 1-290. 1964 Evolutionary trends in the avian genus Clamator. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 146(4):1-127. A new swift from Mt. Moroto, Uganda. Contrib. Sci., Los Angeles Cty. Mus. 83:1-4. With Kenneth E. Stager. Results of the 1964 Cheney Tanganyikan expedition—Ornithology. Los Angeles Cty. Mus. Contrib. Sci. 84:1-50. 1965 With J. G. Williams. The pygmy honey-guide, Indicator pumilio Chapin, in East Africa. Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 85:21-22. Evolution of nest-building in the weaverbirds (Ploceidae). Auk 82: 515-16. The history of our knowledge of avian brood parasitism. Centaurus 10:282-304. 1966 Bartolome Bermejo's "Episcopal Saint." A Study in Medieval Spanish Symbolism. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 149(8):1-21.
OCR for page 165
Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 A fifteenth century French triptych in the North Carolina Museum of Art. Bull. N.C. Mus. Art 6(2-3):3-15. Additional data on the host relations of the parasitic cowbirds. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 149(11):1-12. The significance of the unimportant in studies of nature and of art. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 110:256-260. A contribution to the ornithology of Uganda. Bull. Los Angeles Cty. Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci. 3:1-55. 1967 Avian symbiosis. In Symbiosis, vol. 2, ed. S. Mark Henry, pp. 291-316. New York: Academic Press. Evolutionary terms for parasitic species. Syst. Zool. 16:175. With K. E. Stager. Results of the 1966 Cheney expedition to the Samburu District, Kenya. Ornithology. Los Angeles Cty. Mus. Nat. Hist. Contrib. Sci. 130:1-34. Alloxenia in three sympatric African species of Cuculus. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 124:1-14. With S. Keith and A. Twomey. A new subspecies of Apalis rufogularis (Fraser) from Uganda. Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 87:165-66. 1968 Additional data on brood parasitism in the honey-guides. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 124(3648):1-8. Parallel evolution in the small species of Indicator (Aves). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 125(3655):1-10. With J. G. Williams. Notable records of rare or little-known birds from western Uganda. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 77(1-2):11-36. The evolutionary history of the avian genus Chrysococcyx. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 265:1-137. Range and variation of the icterine bulbul in Uganda. Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 88:110-112. With S. Keith. First specimen of Otus scops turanicus (London) from Africa. Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 88:112. 1980 A Bestiary for Saint Jerome. Animal Symbolism in European Religious Art. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Representative terms from entire chapter: