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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 JOHN NATHANIEL COUCH October 12, 1896-December 16, 1986 BY PAUL J. SZANISZLO "HAVE YOU SEEN our latest book?" The question came from John Couch, my graduate professor and mentor from some twenty years earlier. This man was ninety years old, and he was signing and presenting me with a publication that was hot off the press! As we sat in his comfortable living room that pleasant afternoon in Chapel Hill, we discussed the book and his thoughts for the future. He asked about my work and students, and he questioned my daughter, who was entering the University of North Carolina as a freshman, to ascertain whether or not her father had given her an ample foundation in mycology! I was amazed at his sharpness and his continuing interest, and I thought as he talked how extensive this man's influence has been in his lifetime. He taught his first students in 1919, and here he was, nearly seventy years later, ready to search anew for a spark of interest in a college freshman. Indeed, his time and accomplishments span an even greater distance. From his birthplace in Prince Edward County, Virginia, in the fall of 1896 to his final resting place in the Old Chapel Hill Cemetery in the closing days of 1986, John Nathaniel Couch's life journey took him across the southern United States, through a Europe at war, to Long Island

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 and a young woman destined to share his life, to the steamy forests of the Caribbean and the cooler American Midwest, and back to his beloved South. In each of these destinations, another facet of John N. Couch—the gentle man, the curious scientist, the diligent teacher—would develop. A curiosity was sparked, and he followed it. The trail that he blazed during that life's journey leaves a plethora of knowledge about fungi from which the scientific community will continue to benefit and which Couch's students, and theirs, will carry through research and teaching into the next century. By then, the journey and influence of John Couch will have touched at least three centuries. John Couch contributed to a broad spectrum of professional activities during his long and distinguished career: research, teaching, administration, and service to professional organizations. He believed that one area related to the other and that activities in one benefited all. However, he is probably best known for his research in mycology through his work with numerous diverse fungi. His earliest major contribution was born out of his Ph.D. research in which he described for the first time the existence of physiologically distinct and separate male and female strains in an oomycete. In subsequent major research, Couch described, with his mentor W. C. Coker, the Gasteromycetes of the eastern United States and Canada. He then moved on to do extensive work with Septobasidium, a large genus of fungi which previously were thought harmless to the trees on which they grew and, in fact, beneficial because members destroyed infestations of scale insects on the trees. Couch found quite the opposite, that not only did Septobasidium and the scale insects have a mutually reliant relationship, but that together they destroyed the host tree. His treatise on Septobasidium, published in 1938, may remain to this day the most definitive

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 contribution related to these fungi and their symbiosis and pathogenesis. All types of fungi were of interest to John Couch, but particularly his interest in the aquatic fungi led to his inadvertent discovery of a new group of bacteria. He eventually established this group as a family, the Actinoplanaceae, which he included in the bacterial order Actinomycetales. This pioneering work at first appeared to establish a link between the ''higher bacteria" and the "lower fungi," but Couch remained skeptical. Later research conducted in his laboratory proved that, although morphological similarities exist between Actinoplanaceae and some fungi, the similarities are superficial and only reflect the parallel evolutionary trends that created the sporangial bacteria and fungi. In his later years, John's major research emphasis involved the potential role that fungi of the genus Coelomomyces might serve in biologically controlling mosquitoes by parasitizing and killing their larvae. The possibility of controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases with fungi held exciting prospects for a devoted bench scientist. His nearly fifty-year fascination with these fungi, commencing with studies in the 1940s and his early recognition of their blastocladiaceous affinities, culminated in 1985 with his last major research contribution, the publication of the edited volume with Charles E. Bland, The Genus Coelomomyces. Although deeply involved in research, Couch also found time to be a conscientious teacher and to serve his university, state, and nation. He first taught general biology at the secondary level and then botany and mycology at the university level for more than forty-five years. During this time he was recognized with numerous awards for his teaching abilities and dedication to students. Forty students received graduate degrees under his tutelage. During a major portion of this same time, Couch also served the University of

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 North Carolina as department chairman from 1944 to 1960. His success in this capacity, and the continuous support provided by his colleagues during such a long period of leadership, attests to the personal and professional traits of this gentleman and scholar. In these very active years, John Couch still found time and energy to serve several professional organizations as an officer, chair, or editor. He served as president of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society; secretary-treasurer, vice-president, and president of the Mycological Society of America; president of the North Carolina Academy of Sciences; vice-president of the Botanical Society of America; and chairman of its southeastern section. He also served as associate editor of Mycologia and as editor of the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society and was on the editorial board of Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata. His scholarship and research activities led to a variety of other honors, including his election to membership in the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.) in 1943, being named Kenan Professor of Botany at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1945, and being elected in 1955 an honorary foreign member of the National Academy of Sciences of India. THE EARLY YEARS: FAMILY AND EDUCATION John Nathaniel Couch was born in Prince Edward County, Virginia, on October 12, 1896, to John Henry and Sally Terry Couch. His father was a Baptist minister and his mother a teacher. One of seven children, John's early education was influenced at home by his mother, a disciplined and aggressive teacher, and at seven different public schools—his father following the calls of Baptist churches throughout several southern states. By John's high school years, the Couches resided in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, from where he traveled to Durham to attend high school.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Upon graduation in 1914, Trinity College in Durham (later to become Duke University) admitted John and, under a common practice at the time, provided a tuition-free education to him as the son of a minister. So, in the fall of 1914, as his parents moved on to another call, John the freshman moved in with an uncle in Durham and, with some financial help from home, began his higher education. For two years he studied mostly classical subjects— literature, history, language, and mathematics. He read widely and, like most college freshmen and sophomores, pondered where his interests and abilities lay. After narrowing his choices to law and medicine, John, during his third year at the university, had his first major exposure to natural science while studying biology and chemistry. His curiosity was awakened in Professor J. J. Wolfe's botany class and by a subsequent invitation to join the Biology Journal Club. A precursor of what ultimately would be John Couch's passion came with his first report to that club, "Edible and Poisonous Fungi." His interest in botany had become so keen that he asked to work in Professor Wolfe's laboratory for the summer, where his time was spent collecting and identifying freshwater algae under Wolfe's direction. His attraction to science now clear, John dropped thoughts of a career in law and transferred for his senior year to the University of North Carolina (UNC) in Chapel Hill. His goal was to prepare for admission to its medical school. However, at UNC his path crossed that of another botanist, this time the eminent botanist and mycologist W. C. Coker, whose work with fungi fascinated Couch. John's decision was made. Medicine, like law before, was no longer his choice. He would continue his education in graduate study with Professor Coker, and mycology would henceforth be forever enriched.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 THE INTERMEDIATE YEARS: GRADUATE TRAINING Battlefield, Laboratory, Classroom Events an ocean away deterred Couch's immediate plans for graduate school. World War I and Uncle Sam called. Service as a private with Company B, 56 Pioneer Infantry, took him to Belgium, France, and Germany from August 5, 1918, to July 27, 1919. However, while waiting to be mustered out and sent home after the Armistice, he managed to spend four months studying botany at L'Université de Nancy in France. Upon his return to Chapel Hill in 1919, John began his formal graduate work at UNC under Dr. Coker's supervision. In order to pay for and while continuing his studies, he also taught science at Chapel Hill High School and the following year at Alexander Graham High School in Charlotte. After finishing a master of arts degree in botany in 1922 with his thesis, "Spore Formation and Discharge in Some Genera of Water Molds," Couch became an instructor in the UNC Botany Department as he continued his Ph.D. studies. Thus began Couch's faculty association with the university and the department that was to continue for over half a century. The doctoral degree was conferred two years later. Couch's dissertation, "Sexual Reproduction and Variability in the Genus Dictyuchus," included the report of his discovery of the mode of sexual reproduction, called heterothallism, in the water mold Dictyuchus. Some believe that his dissertation may have been his most significant contribution to mycology. In it he described for the first time separate "male" and "female" strains in Dictyuchus. While studying the physiology of sex in some members of this genus, he observed that the male branches were attracted over relatively long distances by the female. This observation ultimately led to the discovery of sex hormones in Oomycota

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 by John R. Raper, one of Couch's first graduate students, whom Couch introduced to Achlya. Later still, hormone A, stored for years after Raper's initial research, was characterized as the first steroid hormone of nonanimal origin by another of Couch's students, Alma Wiffin Barksdale, and by Trevor McMorris at the New York Botanical Garden.1 The original work of Raper on Achlya contributed to his election to the National Academy of Sciences. The chain of events in this research exemplifies the multiplier effects of Couch's observations and the span of his influence. Except for the summer of 1923, when Couch studied with Professors E. M. Gilbert and C. E. Allen at the University of Wisconsin, all of his graduate work was done with Dr. Coker. The culmination of their years of collaboration, The Gasteromycetes of the Eastern United States and Canada, was published in 1928, although it is clear that as an instructor with Coker, Couch was an important contributor to The Saprolegniaceae, published in 1923. It was probably this latter effort that most imbued Couch with a lifelong love of the aquatic fungi. His initial work with Dictyuchus was so revolutionary for oomycetes at that time that he was awarded a National Research Council fellowship for postdoctoral work under the direction of A. F. Blakeslee at the Carnegie Institution at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York, for one year and with B. M. Duggar at the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis for an additional year. The stint with Blakeslee was particularly appropriate because it was Blakeslee and his colleagues who first showed just after the turn of the century that Mucorales were strictly homothallic or heterothallic. With Duggar he most assuredly was introduced to the intricacies of spore dormancy and germination phenomena. In the summer of 1926, between his two postdoctoral appointments, Couch jumped at the chance to spend two

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 months in Jamaica, British West Indies, with the Johns Hopkins Botanical Group directed by Duncan S. Johnson. Typical of his curiosity and love of observation, he wanted to go just to see what fungi he could find. It was there in the steamy forests of Jamaica that Couch became interested in Septobasidium, a group of fungi found in abundance growing on trees heavily infested with scale insects. Previous to Couch's intrigue with the characteristics of these fungi, the commonly accepted assumption was that species of Septobasidium killed scale insects, thereby preventing them from destroying the trees they infested, and that the phenomenon was unique to the tropics. Couch's research described, however, a mutually beneficial relationship between the fungus and the scale insects, which combined to destroy the host tree or shrub. He also demonstrated that this pathogenic and symbiotic existence was widespread beyond the tropics into temperate climates as well. His findings were published in 1929 and garnered considerable interest. Later, these subsequent and related findings were to result in a round of accolades, including highest honors bestowed by his university and by the United States scientific community. But we're getting ahead of his story … THE PROFESSIONAL YEARS: GENTLEMAN AND SCHOLAR It could be argued that John Couch was a professional scientist earlier than some magical date on which he received a degree or began a career as an academician. Clearly, his work on Dictyuchus and Septobasidium, and his work with Coker on the Saprolegniaceae and Gasteromycetes, was conducted with the curiosity, thoroughness, and integrity of a professional. His discoveries already uncovered in his preparative training could be envied by scientists twice his age. Formally, however, John Couch returned to the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill as an assistant professor in 1927. John's return from his postdoctoral studies was with more than a keen eye for new fungi. While at Cold Spring Harbor, his eyes had fallen on something else with attractive appeal and intellectual stimulation, which would keep his interest for the rest of his life. This young woman, whom John met and married, was Else Dorothy Ruprecht, a recent Wellesley graduate who had started her first job working at the Carnegie Institution studying animal genetics—mapping genes in fruit flies—with Dr. Charles Metz. Thus, John Couch, the gentleman, brought his gentle lady with him to Chapel Hill where he was to become, over the next fifty years, the scholar as he is known today. The partnership that was established between John and Else was strengthened during these years by her complementary interests, allowing her to understand and appreciate his long hours in the laboratory, absence from home, and enthusiasm for scientific discovery. Mrs. Couch's skills in foreign language were periodically put to use in translating papers for Couch and many of his students. Her artistic skills are reflected in many of his publications that she helped illustrate. With his formal training complete, and his home established, Professor Couch embarked on forty additional years of teaching and research, advancing to associate professor in 1929 and to full professor in 1932. The first students to receive graduate degrees under his direction, Andrew G. Lang, Ph.D., and John R. Raper, M.A., completed their work in 1936. In 1937, Couch began a long history of service to the several professional organizations to which he belonged by serving as president of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society and as an associate editor of Mycologia. Also commenc-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 ing in 1937 was what was to become a steady stream of awards, with receipt of the Jefferson Medal and Poteat Award from the North Carolina Academy of Sciences. In 1938, Couch received the Walker Prize of the Boston Society of Natural History for his contribution to clarifying and correcting the natural history of the fungi/scale insect/host relationship in his work on Septobasidium. This was a fitting tribute to Couch's efforts and correlated with the publication of his classic book, The Genus Septobasidium, which represented the culmination of over ten years of research that elucidated the fungus-host-plant relationships, redescribed about ninety known species, and described for the first time eighty-two new species. The semidiagrammatic transverse sectional view, depicted by Couch in 1931, of the mycelial mat of S. burtu parasitizing a scale insect that in turn is parasitizing the cambial tissue of a tree continues to this day to be a standard illustration in most mycology textbooks. The ten-year span between 1935 and 1945 was packed with increasing activity, responsibility, and honors for Couch. Yet he continued to carry on in his modest way, eager to contribute directly and indirectly to mycology in whatever way he could. By 1940, Couch was serving as secretary-treasurer of the Mycological Society of America, a track that would take him through the vice-presidency to president in 1943. He also served that year as a special adviser to the chairman of the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development and was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences. In 1945 the University of North Carolina named him Kenan Professor of Botany. It was mainly during this period that Couch made a series of observations that ultimately led to a complete rethinking of the relationships existing among the diverse organisms known collectively at the time as the Phycomycetes or the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 measure that this last philosophical approach, as reflected by his scientific accomplishments, was adhered to by Dr. Couch, either purposely or by accident, and was enormously successful. THE LATER YEARS: RETIREMENT Though John Couch officially retired from the University of North Carolina in 1968 at the age of seventy-two, "retired" was not the way most of us would have described him. He was, in fact, active until his death at the age of ninety. Except that he was weaker and unable to keep long hours, his mind remained active and creative. He was an editor, with Charles Bland, of his final publication in 1985, The Genus Coelomomyces, and even remarked to Chuck after its completion, "Now that we have gotten Coelomomyces out of the way, we need to get started on a revision of The Genus Septobasidium.3 Like the latter, The Genus Coelomomyces represented a retrospective review of years of his own work and work by colleagues and students. In addition to his recognition of the blastocladiaceous affinities of Coelomomyces, Couch was responsible for establishing the family Coelomomycetaceae, describing numerous new species and varieties, possibly maintaining for the first time in the laboratory mosquitoes infected with C. punctatus, and making innumerable additional observations that helped other investigators clarify the life cycle of Coelomomyces. Even after retirement the honors continued. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) awarded Couch an honorary doctor of science degree in 1973, and the Mycological Society of America recognized him with the Distinguished Mycologist Award in 1981. In 1979 the Department of Botany at UNC-CH named its library in honor of Dr. Couch who, over the years, had generously provided

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 books, subscriptions, and other support for its collections. And he continued to return the favors in his retirement as he had throughout his career, culminating with the John N. Couch Professorship in Botany established in 1984 by Dr. and Mrs. Couch. The Couches shared sixty years of marriage and enjoyed a son, a daughter, three grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. His wife, Else, remains in Chapel Hill, where she has maintained her late husband's tradition of giving by establishing a memorial fund in the UNC-CH Department of Biology (botany and zoology merged into one department in 1982) to be used for a John N. Couch Undergraduate Award for Scholarship in the Plant Sciences. Their son, John Philip, is a professor of romance languages at UNC-Greensboro. Their daughter, Sally Couch Vilas, an artist and wife of UNC-CH professor of bacteriology Harry Gooder, lives in Chapel Hill. As those who knew him will attest, John Couch was a modest man who took his many honors as results of contributions he could make, rather than as personal accomplishments. He believed in hard work, in frugality, and in leaving no possibility unexplored. He carried his personal and professional life in his modest way, with curiosity in the lead, with intensity of purpose and attention to detail close behind, and always with integrity and kindness. His life's journey has touched many, and its influence will continue into generations ahead. ACKNOWLEDGMENT IS MADE TO earlier articles honoring John Couch, including "The Career of John Nathaniel Couch," by Leland Shanor, published in Mycological Studies Honoring John N. Couch, a special issue of the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 84:1-280, 1968, edited by

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 W. J. Koch, and work done by William R. Burk of the Couch Library at UNC-CH and Chuck Bland, Couch's last graduate student and collaborator, of the Department of Biology, East Carolina University, culminating in 'John Nathaniel Couch, 1896-1986," Mycologia, 81:181-89, 1989. I am grateful to Else Couch and Sally Couch Vilas for their stories and insights, affirmations, and corrections. I thank Susan J. Szaniszlo for her research, editing comments and suggestions, and some of the typing associated with preparation of this paper. I also thank Susan B. Crossland for typing the final drafts. Their help is very much appreciated. NOTES 1.   "John Robert Raper (1911-74)." In Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences, vol. 57, pp. 347-70. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 2.   "John Nathaniel Couch," Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society (Spring, 1968):4. 3.   William R. Burk and Charles E. Bland, "John Nathaniel Couch, 1896-1986," Mycologia 81(1989):185.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1920 With W. C. Coker. A new species of Achlya. J. Elisha Mitchell Sri. Soc. 36:100-101. 1921 Science in the high school. A review of science teaching in the high schools of North Carolina for 1920-21. High School J., 5:211-16. 1922 With W. C. Coker. The Gasteromycetes of North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38:231-43. With W. C. Coker. A new species of Thraustotheca. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 39:112-15. 1924 With W. C. Coker. Revision of the genus Thraustotheca, with a description of a new species. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 40:197-202. Some observations on spore formation and discharge in Leptolegnia, Achlya, and Aphanomyces. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 40:27-42. 1925 A new dioecious species of Choanephora. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 41:141-50. 1926 Heterothallism in Dictyuchus, a genus of the water moulds. Ann. Bot. (London) 40:849-81. Notes on the genus Aphanomyces, with a description of a new semiparasitic species. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 41:213-27. 1927 Some new water fungi from the soil, with observations on spore formation. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 42:227-42. 1928 With W. C. Coker. The Gasteromycetes of the Eastern United States and Canada. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1929 A monograph of Septobasidium. Part I. Jamaican species. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 44:242-60. 1931 Observations on some species of water molds connecting Achlya and Dictyuchus. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 46:225-30. Micromyces zygogonii Dang., parasitic on Spirogyra. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 46:231-39. The biological relationship between Septobasidium retiforme (B. & C.) Pat. and Aspidiotus osborni New. and Ckll. Q. J. Microscop. Sci. 74:383-437. The biological relationship between Septobasidium and scale insects. In Report of Proceedings, Fifth International Botanical Congress, eds. F. T. Brooks and T. F. Chipp, pp. 369-70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1932 Rhizophidium, Phlyctochytrium and Phlyctidium of the United States. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 47:245-60. Gametogenesis in Vaucheria. Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 94:272-96. The development of the sexual organs in Leptolegnia caudata. Am. J. Bot. 19:584-99. 1933 Basidia of Septobasidium (Glenospora) curtisii. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 49:156-62. 1935 New or little known Chytridiales. Mycologia 27:160-75. Septobasidium in the United States. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 51:1-77. A new saprophytic species of Lagenidium, with notes on other forms. Mycologia 17:376-87. An incompletely known chytrid: Mitochytridium ramosum. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 51:293-96. 1937 Notes on the genus  Micromyces. Mycologia  29:592-96. A new fungus intermediate between the rusts and Septobasidium. Mycologia 29:665-73.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 The formation and operation of the traps in the nematode-catching fungus, Dartylella bembicoides Drechsler. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 53:301-9. 1938 The genus Septobasidium. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. A new chytrid on Nitella: Nephrochytrium stellatum. Am. J. Bot. 25:507-11. A new species of Chytridium from Mountain Lake, Virginia. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 54:256-59. 1939 A new Conidiobolus with sexual reproduction. Am. J. Bot. 26:119-30. Technic for collection, isolation and culture of chytrids. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 55:208-14. Heterothallism in the Chytridiales. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 55:409-14. Further studies on infection of scale insects by Septobasidium. In Abstracts of Communications, Third International Congress for Microbiology, New York, pp. 217-18. Baltimore: Waverly Press. With J. Leitner and A. Whiffen. A new genus of the Plasmodiophoraceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 55:399-408. Review of H. C. I. Gwynne-Vaughan and B. Barnes. The Structure and Development of the Fungi. 2nd and revised ed. Science 89:295-96. 1941 A new Uredinella from Ceylon. Mycologia 33:405-10. The structure and action of the cilia in some aquatic Phycomycetes. Am. J. Bot. 28:704-13. 1942 A new fungus on crab eggs. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 58:158-62. With A. J. Whiffen. Observations on the genus Blastocladiella. Am. J. Bot. 29:582-91. 1944 The yeast Nadsonia in America. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 60:11-16.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1945 Observations on the genus Catenaria. Mycologia 37:163-93. Revision of the genus Coelomomyces parasitic in insect larvae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 61:124-36. Review of J. S. Karling. Simple holocarpic biflagellate Phycomycetes. Mycologia 37:794-95. Review of J. C. Gilman. A manual of soil fungi. Science 102:385. 1946 Two species of Septobasidium from Mexico with unusual insect houses. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 62:87-94. 1947 With H. R. Dodge. Further observations on Coelomomyces, parasitic on mosquito larvae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 63:69-79. 1949 A new species of Ancylistes on a saccoderm desmid. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 65:131-36. A new group of organisms related to Actinomyces. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 65:315-18. The taxonomy of Septobasidium polypodii and S. album. Mycologia 41: 427-41. 1950 Actinoplanes, a new genus of the Actinomycetales. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 66:87-92. 1951 Review of A. R. Childs, ed. The Private Journal of Henry William Ravenel. Garden. J. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 1:188-89. 1953 The occurrence of thin-walled sporangia in Physoderma zeae maydis on corn in the field. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 69:182-84. 1954 The genus Actinoplanes and its relatives. Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 16:315-18. With V. D. Matthews. Williams Chambers Coker. Mycologia 46: 372-83.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 With H. R. Totten. William Chambers Coker. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 70:116-18. 1955 A new genus and family of the Actinomycetales, with a revision of the genus Actinoplanes. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 71:148-55. Actinosporangiaceae should be Actinoplanaceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 71:269. The family Actinoplanaceae. Bacteriol. Rev. 19:272. 1957 Actinomycetales [and] Actinoplanaceae. In Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 7th ed. pp. 694-95, 825-29. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co. A new horizon in soil microbiology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India (Section B) 37:69-73. 1958 Taxonomic criteria in Actinoplanaceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 74:95. 1959 With C. E. Miller. Lyophilization of the Actinoplanaceae. Mycologia 51:146-50. 1960 Actinoplanaceae. In McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, vol. 1, p. 57. New York: McGraw-Hill. (2nd ed., 1966; 3rd ed., 1971; 4th ed., 1977; 5th ed., 1982.) Some fungal parasites of mosquitoes. In Biological Control of Insects of Medical Importance, pp. 35-45. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences. 1962 Validation of the family Coelomomycetaceae and certain species and varieties of Coelomomyces. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 78:135-38. 1963 Some new genera and species of the Actinoplanaceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 79:53-70.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 With C.J. Umphlett. Coelomomyces infections. In Insect Pathology, an Advanced Treatise , ed. E. A. Steinhaus, vol. 2, pp. 149-88. New York: Academic Press. 1964 The name Ampullaria Couch has been replaced by Ampullariella. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon. 14:137. A proposal to replace the name Ampullaria Couch with Ampullariella. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 80:29. 1967 Sporangial germination of Coelomomyces punctatus and the conditions favoring the infection of Anopheles quadrimaculatus under laboratory conditions. In Proceedings of the Joint U.S.-Japan Seminar on Microbial Control of Insect Pests, Fukuoka, pp. 93-105. Fukuoka: United States-Japan Committee on Scientific Cooperation. 1968 With C. E. Bland. Observations on the chromatinic bodies of two species of the Actinoplanaceae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 53:95-100. 1972 Mass production of Coelomomyces, a fungus that kills mosquitoes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69:2043-47. 1973 With C. E. Bland. Scanning electron microscopy of sporangia of Coelomomyces. Can. J. Bot. 51:1325-30. With S. V. Romney. Sexual reproduction in Lagenidium giganteum. Mycologia 65:250-52. 1974 With C. E. Bland. Actinoplanaceae [and] genus I. Actinoplanes— genus V. Ampullariella [and] genus X. Kitasatoa. In Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, eds. R. E. Buchanan and N. E. Gibbons, 8th ed., pp. 722-23. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. With S. V. Romney and B. Rao. A new fungus which attacks mosquitoes and related Diptera. Mycologia 66:374-79.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1977 With R. E. McNitt. Coelomomyces pathogens of Culicidae mosquitos [sic]. Bull. W.H.O. 55(Suppl. 1):123-45. 1979 With R. V. Andreeva, M. Laird, and R. A. Nolan. Tabanomyces milkos (Dudka and Koval) emended, genus novum, a fungal pathogen of horseflies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:2299-2302. 1981 With C. E. Bland. The family Actinoplanaceae. In The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on Habitats, Isolation and Identification of Bacteria, eds. M. P. Starr et al., vol. 2, pp. 2004-10. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. With C. E. Bland and S. Y. Newell. Identification of Coelomomyces, Saprolegniales and Lagenidiales. In Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980, ed. H. D. Burges, pp. 71-162. New York: Academic Press. 1982 With A. W. Sweeney and C. Panter. The identity of an Australian isolate of Culicinomyces. Mycologia 74:162-65. 1985 With C. E. Bland, eds. The Genus Coelomomyces. Orlando: Academic Press. With C. E. Bland. Introduction [and] structure and development [and] taxonomy. In The Genus Coelomomyces, eds. J. N. Couch and C. E. Bland, pp. 1-8, 23-80, 81-297, respectively. Orlando: Academic Press.

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