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REFERENCES Aardema, M.~., D.P. Gibson, and R.A. LeBoeuf. 1989. Sodium fluo- ricle-incluced chromosome aberrations in different stages of the cell cycle: A proposed mechanism. Mutat. Res. 223: 19 ~ -203. Aasenclen, R. 1974. Fluoride concentrations in the surface tooth enamel of young men and women. Arch. Oral Biol. 19:697-701. Adair, S.M. 1989. Risks and benefits of fluoride mouthrinsing. Pedia- trician 16:161-169. Al-Alousi, W., D. Jackson, G. Crompton, and O.C. Jenkins. 1975. Enamel mottling in a fluoride and in a non-fluoricle community. Br. Dent. I. 138:9-15, 56-60. Albanese, R. 1987. Sodium fluoride and chromosome damage (in vitro human lymphocyte and in vivo micronucleus assays). Mutagenesis 2:497-499. Alm, P.E. 1983. Sodium fluoride-evoked histamine release from mast cells: A study of cyclic AMP levels and effects of catecholamines. Agents Actions 13: 132-137. Ames, B.N. 1991. Response to 'Carcinogens ant! human health: Part 2' [letter]. Science 251: 12-13. Angmar-Mansson, B., ant! G.M. Whitford. 1982. Plasma fluoride levels ant! enamel fluorosis in the rat. Caries Res. 16:334-339. Angmar-Mansson, B., and G.M. Whitford. 1984. Enamel fluorosis related to plasma F levels in the rat. Caries Res. 18:25-32. Angmar-Mansson, B., and G.M. Whitford. 1985. Single fluoride doses and enamel fluorosis in the rat. Caries Res. 19:145-152. 135

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136 Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride Angmar-Mansson, B., and G.M. Whitford. 1990. Environmental and physiological factors affecting dental fluorosis. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Issue):706-713. Angmar-Minsson, B., Y. Ericsson, and O. Ekberg. 1976. Plasma fluoride and enamel fluorosis. Calcif. Tiss. Res. 22:77-84. Angmar-Mansson, B., U. Lindh, and G.M. Whitford. 1990. Enamel and dentin fluoride levels and fluorosis following single fluoride doses: A nuclear microprobe study. Caries Res. 24:258-262. Araibi, A.A.A., W.H. Yousif, and O.S. Al-Dewachi. 1989. Effect of high fluoride on the reproductive performance of the male rat. I. Biol. Sci. Res. 20:19-30. Arends, I., and I. Christoffersen. 1990. Nature and role of loosely bound fluoride in dental caries. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Tssue):601-605. Ariauskas, A., R.S.U. Baker, A.M. Bonin, R.K. Tandon, P.T. Crisp, andI. Ellis. 1985. Mutagenicity of metal ions in bacteria. Environ. Res. 36:379-388. Arnold, F.A., Ir., H.T. Dean, and I.W. Knutson. 1953. Effect of fluoridated public water supplies on dental caries prevalence. Public Health Rep. 68:141-148. Arnold, F.A., Jr., F.~. McClure, and C.~. White. 1960. Sodium fluoride tablets forchildren. DentalProg. ~:~-12. Ast, D.B., and H.C. Chase. 1953. The Newburgh-Kingston caries fluorine study. TV. Dental findings after six years of fluoridation. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 6:~14-123. Ast, D.B., D.~. Smith, B. Wachs, and K.T. Cantwell. 1956. New- burgh-Kingston caries-fluorine study. XIV. Combined clinical and roentgenographic dental findings after ten years of fluoride experience. I. Am. Dent. Assoc. 52:314-325. Aulerich, R.~., A.C. Napolitano, S.~. Bursian, B.A. Olson, and I.R. Hochstein. 1987. Chronic toxicity of dietary fluorine to mink. I. Anim. Sci. 65:1759-1767. Austen, K.F., M. Dworetzky, R.S. Farr, G.B. Logan, S. Malkiel, E. MiddIeton, Ir., M.M. Miller, R. Patterson, C.E. Reed, S.C. Siegel, P.P. van Arsdel, Ir. 1971. A statement on the question of allergy to fluoride used in the fluoridation of community water supplies. ]. Allergy 47:347-348.

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References 137 Backer Dirks, O. 1967. The relation between the fluoridation of water and dental caries experience. Int. Dent. I. 17:582-605. Backer Dirks, O., B. Houwink, and G.W. Kwant. 1961. The results of 6 I/2 years of artificial fluoridation of drinking water in The Netherlands: The Tiel-Culemborg experiment. Arch. Oral Biol. 5:284-300. Vellum, V., O. Fejerskov, F. Manji, and M.~. Larsen. 1987. Daily dose of fluoride and dental fluorosis. TandI~gebladet 91~452-456. Bagramian, R.A., S. Narendran, and M. Ward. 19X9. Relationship of dental caries and fluorosis to fluoride supplement history in a non-fluoridated sample of schoolchildren. Adv. Dent. Res. 3: 161-167. Bale, S.S., and M.T. Mathew. 1987. Analysis ofchromosomal abnor- malities at anaphase-telophase induced by sodium fluoride in vitro. Cytologia 52:~89-X93. Barnhart, W.E., 1~.K. Hiller, G.~. Leonard, and S.E. Michaels. 1974. Dentifrice usage and ingestion among four age groups. I. Dent. Res. 53: 1317-1322. Baxter, P.M. 1980. Toothpaste ingestion during toothbrushing by schoo! children. Br. Dent. ]. 148: 125-128. Beals, T.~., G.H. Anderson, R.D. Peterson, G.W. Thompson, and I.A. Hargreaves. 19XI. Between-meal eating by Ontario children and teenagers. I. Can. Diet. Assoc. 42:242-247. Beary, D.F. 1969. The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur. Anat. Rec. 164:305-316. Bell, R.A., G.M. Whitford, I.T. Barenie, and D.R. Myers. 1985. Fluoride retention in children using self-appliect topical fluoride prod- ucts. Clin. Prev. Dent. 7~3~:22-27. Beltran, E.D., and B.A. Burt. 1988. The pre- and posteruptive effects of fluoride in the caries decline. I. Public Health Dent. 48:233-240. Black, G.V., and F.S. McKay. 1916. MottIed teeth: An endemic developmental imperfection of the enamel of the teeth heretofore unknown in the literature of dentistry. Dent. Cosmos 58: 129-156. Bohaty, B.S., W.A. Parker, N.S. Seale, and E.R. Zimmerman. 1989. The prevalence of fluorosis-like lesions associated with topical and systemic fluoride usage in an area of optimal water fluoridation. Pectiatr. Dent. 11:125-128.

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138 Health Elects of Ingested Fluoride Bowden, G.H.W. 1990. Effects of fluoride on the microbial ecology of dental plaque. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Issue):653-659. Brunelle, I.A. 1989. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in U.S. chil- dren, 1987 [abstract]. I. Dent. Res. 68(Spec. Issue):995. Brunelle, I.A., and I.P. Carios. 1990. Recent trends in dental caries in U.S. children and the effect of water fluoridation. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Issue):723-727. Bruun, C., and A. Thylstrup. 1988. Dentifrice usage among Danish children. I. Dent. Res. 67:~14-~17. Bucher, I.R., M.R. Hejtmancik, I.D. Toft IT, R.L. Persing, S.~. Eustis, and I.K. Haseman. 1991. Results and conclusions of the National Toxicology Program's rodent carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride. Int. I. Cancer 48:733-737. Buchi, R., and K. B6rki. 1975. The origin of chromosome aberrations in mature sperm of Drosophila: Influence of sodium fluoricle on treatments with trenimon anci I-phenyI-3,3-climethy~triazene. Arch. Genet. 48:59-67. Burt, B.A. 1992. The changing patterns of systemic fluoride intake. I. Dent. Res. 71(Spec. Issue):1228-1237. ButIer, W., V. Segreto, and E. Collins. 198Sa. Describing the severity of mottling in a community: A different approach. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. ~ 3 :277-280. Butler, W.~., V. Segreto, and E. Collins. 1985b. Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities. Am. ~ . Pub] ic Health 75: ~ 408- ~ 4 ~ 2. Carriere, D., E.M. Bird, and I.W. Stamm. 1987. Influence of a diet of fluoride-fed cockerels on reprocluctive performance of captive American kestrels. Environ. Pollut. 46: IS I- lS9. Caspary, W.~., B. Myhr, L. Bowers, D. McGregor, C. Riach, anct A. Brown. 1987. Mutagenic activity of fluorides in mouse lymphoma celIs. Mutat. Res. ~ 87: ~ 65- ~ 80. Caspary, W.~., R. Langenbach, B.W. Penman, C. Crespi, B.C. Myhr, and A.D. Mitchell. 1988. The mutagenic activity of selected com- pounds at the TK locus: Rodent vs. human celIs. Mutat. Res. 196: 61-81. Cauley, I.A., P.A. Murphy, T. Riley, and D. Black. 1991. Public health bonus of water fluoridation: Does fluoridation prevent osteo

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References 139 porosis and its related fractures [abstract]? Am. I. Epidemiol. 134: 768. Chandra, S., R. Sharma, V.P. Thergaonkar, and S.K. Chaturvedi. 1980. Determination of optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water in an area in India with dental fluorosis. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 8:92-96. Chao, E.S.M., G.H. Anderson, G.W. Thompson, I.A. Hargreaves, and R.D. Peterson. 1984. A longitudinal study of dietary changes of a sample of Ontario children. Il. Food intake. I. Can. Diet. Assoc. 45:~12-~. Chen, P.S., Ir., F.A. Smith, D.E. Gardner, I.A. O'Brien, and H.C. Hodge. 1956. Renal clearance of fluoride. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92:879-~83. Chibole, O. 1987. Epidemiology of dental fluorosis in Kenya. I. R. Soc. Health 107:242-243. Chow, L.C. 1990. Tooth-bound fluoride ant! dental caries. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Issue):595-600. CIarkson, I. 1989. Review of terminology, classifications, and inclices of developmental defects of enamel . Adv. Dent. Res. 3: ~ 04- ~ 09. CIarkson, I., ant! D. O'MulIane. 1989. A modified DDE index for use in epidemiological studies of enamel defects. I. Dent. Res. 68: 445- 450. Cleaton-Iones, P., and I.A. Hargreaves. 1990. Comparison of three fluorosis indices in a Namibian community with twice optimum fluo- ride in the drinking water. I. Dent. Assoc. S. Afr. 45:173-175. Clovis, I., ant! I.A. Hargreaves. 1988. Fluoride intake from beverage consumption. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 16: ~ I-15. Cohn, P.D. 1992. A Brief Report on the Association of Drinking Water Fluoridation and the Incidence of Osteosarcoma Among Young Males. A report prepared for the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy and the New Jersey Department of Health, Trenton, N.~. Cole, I., Wet. Muriel, and B.A. Bridges. 1986. The mutagenicity of sodium fluoride to L5178Y Iwild-type and TK+'- (3.7.2c)] mouse lymphoma cells. Mutagenesis I: 157-167. Cooper, C., C.A.C. Wickham, D.~.R. Barker, ant] S.~. Jacobsen. 1991. Water fluoridation and hip fracture tIetter]. JAMA 266:513-514.

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140 Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride Cowell, D.C., and W.H. Taylor. 1981. ionic fluoride: A study of its physiological variation in man. Ann. Clin. Biochem. ~ 8(Pt. 2~:76-83. Crespi, C.~., G.M. Seixas, T. Turner, and B.W. Penman. 1990. Sodium fluoride is a less efficient human cell mutagen at low con- centrations. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 15:71-77. Cutress~ T.W., and G.W. Suckling. 1990. Differential diagnosis of 7 ~ dental fluorosis. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Issue):714-720. Dabeka, R.W., A.D. McKenzie, H.B. Conacher, and D.C. Kirkpatrick. 19X2. Determination of fluoride in Canadian infant foods and calcula- tion of fluoride intakes by infants. Can. I. Public Health 73: 18X-191. Dambacher, M.A., J. Ittner, and P. Ruegsegger. 1986. Long-term fluoride therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 7: 199-205. Danielson, C., I.~. Lyon, M. Egger, and G.K. Goodenough. 1992. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. JAMA 268:746-748. Daston, G.P., B.F. Rehnberg, B. Carver, and R.~. Kaviock. 1985. Toxicity of sodium fluoride to the postnatally developing rat kidney. Environ. Res. 37:461-474. Dawes, C. 1989. Fluorides: Mechanisms of action and recommenda- tions for use. I. Can. Dent. Assoc. 55:721-723. Dean, H.T. 1934. CIassificationof mottled enamel diagnosis. I. Am. Dent. Assoc. 2 i: ~ 42 ~ - ~ 426. Dean, H.T. 1942. The investigation of physiological effects by the epidemiological method. Pp. 23-31 in Fluorine and Dental Health, AAAS Publ. No. 19, F.R. Moulton, ed. Washington, D.C.: Ameri- can Association for the Advancement of Science. Dean, H.T., P. Jay, F.A. Arnold, Ir., and E. EIvove. 1941. Domestic water and dental caries. Il. A study of 2,832 white children aged 12-14 years, of ~ suburban Chicago communities, including Lactoba- (il~u? ~OD~ s~dies of 1,761 chddren. ~blic He~ Rep. 56:761-792. 1986. Effects of fluoride on protein secretion and removal during enamel development in the rat. I. Dent. Res. 65: 1272- 1277. Den Besten, P.K., and M.A. Crenshaw. 1987. Studies on the changes in developing enamel caused by ingestion of high levels of fluoride in the rat. Adv. Dent. Res. 1: 176- l XO. Den Besten. P.K

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References 141 Desai, V.K., B.S. Bhavsar, N.R. Mehta, D.K. Saxena, and S.~. Kan- ~aria. 1986. Symptomatology of workers in the fluoride industry and fluorspar processing plants. Stud. Environ. Sci. 27: 193-200. Dooland, M.B., and A. Wylie. 1989. A photographic study of enamel defects among South Australian school children. Aust. Dent. I. 34:470-473. Dowell, T.B. 1981. The use of toothpaste in infancy. Br. Dent. I. 150:247-249. Driscoll, W.S., H.S. Horowitz R.J. Meyers, S.B. Heifetz, A. Kingman, and E.R. Zimmerman. 1986. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with negligible, optimal, and above-optimal fluoride concentrations in drinking water. I. Am. Dent. Assoc. ~ 13:29-33. Dummer, P.M.H., A. Kingdon, and R. Kingdon. 1990. Prevalence and distribution by tooth type and surface of developmental defects of dental enamel in a group of 15- to 16-year-old children in South Wales. Community Dent. Health 7:369-377. Dunipace, A.~., W. Zhang, T.W. Noblitt, Y. Li, and G.K. Stookey. 1989. Genotoxic evaluation of chronic fluoride exposure: Micronu- cleusandspermmorphologystudies. I.Dent.Res.68:1525-1528. Easmann, R.P., D.E. Steflik, D.H. Pashley, R.V. McKinney, Ir., and G.M. Whitford. 1984. Surface changes in rat gastric mucosa induced by sodium fluoride: A scanning electron microscopic study. I. Oral Pathol. 13:255-264. Easmann, R.P., D.H. PashIey, N.~. Birdsong, R.V. McKinney, Ir., and G.M. Whitford. 1985. Recovery of rat gastric mucosa following single fluoride dosing. I. Oral Pathol. 14:779-792. Eckerlin, R.H., G.A. Maylin, and L. Krook. 1986a. Milk production of cows fed fluoride contaminated commerical feed. Cornell Vet. 76:403-414. Eckerlin, R.H., L. Krook, G.A. Maylin, and D. Carmichael. 1986b. Toxic effects of food-borne fluoride in silver foxes. Cornell Vet. 76:395-402. Eckerlin, R.H., G.A. Maylin, L. Krook, and D.T. Carmichael. 1988. Ameliorative effects of reduced food-borne fluoricle on reproduction in silver foxes. Cornell Vet. 78:385-391. Edwards, M.~., and I.M. Parry. 1986. Sodium fluoride mediated DNA damage and DNA replication in mammalian cells. Mutagenesis ~ :77-78.

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142 Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride Einhorn, T.A., G.K. Wakley, S. Linkhart, E.B. Rush, S. Maloney, E. Faierman, and D.~. Baylink. 1992. Incorporation of sodium fluoride into cortical bone does not impair the mechanical properties of the appendicular skeleton in rats. Calcif. Tissue Int. 51: 127-131. Eklund, S.A., B.A. Burt, A.~. Ismail, and I.~. Calderone. 1987. High-fluoride drinking water, fluorosis, and dental caries in aclults. I. Am. Dent. Assoc. Il4:324-32X. Ekstrand, I., C.~. Spak, and M. Ehrnebo. 1982. Renal clearance of fluoride in a steady state condition in man: Influence of urinary flow and pH changes by diet. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 50:321-325. Ekstrand, I., L.~. Hardell, and C.~. Spak. 1984. Fluoricle balance studies on infants in a I-ppm-water-fluoricle area. Caries Res. i8:87- 92. Englander, H.R., and P.F. DePaola. 1979. Enhancec] anticaries action from drinking water containing 5 ppm fluoride. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 98:35-39. Ericsson, S.Y. 1977. Cariostatic mechanisms of fluorides: Clinical observations. Caries Res. ~ I (Suppt I):2-41. Ericsson, Y. and B. Forsman. 1969. Fluoride retained from mouth- rinses and dentifrices in preschool children. Caries Res. 3:290-299. Evans, R.W. 1989. Changes in dental fluorosis following an acijustment to the fluoride concentration of Hong Kong's water supplies. Adv. Dent.Res.3:154-160. Evans, R.W., and I.W. Stamm. 1991a. An epiclemiologic estimate of the critical period during which human maxilIary central incisors are most susceptible to fluorosis. J. Public Health Dent. 51:251-259. Evans, R.W., and I.W. Stamm. 199lb. Dental fluorosis following downward adjustment of fluoride in drinking water. I. Public Health Dent.51:91-98. Faccini, I.M. 1969. Fluoride and bone freview]. Calcif. Tissue Res. 3: {-16. Farkas, C.S., and E.~. Farkas. 1974. Potential effect of fooc! processing on the fluoricle content of infant foocis. Sci. Total Environ. 2:399-405. FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale) Commission on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology. 1982. An epidemiological index of developmental defects of cIental ename] (DDE index). Int. Dent. I. 32: 159- 167.

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References 143 Featherstone, I.D.B., and C.P. Shields. 1988. A Study of Fluoride Intake in New York State Residents. Final Report. Albany, N.Y.: New York State Health Department. Fejerskov, O., F. Manji, V. Barium, and Id. Moller. 1988. Pp. 51-63 in Dental Fluorosis: A Handbook for Health Workers. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. Fejerskov, O., F. Manji, and V. Barium. chanisms of dental fluorosis in man. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Issue): 692-700. Fejerskov' O., T. Yanagisawa, H. Tohda, M.J. Larsen, K. Josephsen, and H.J. Mosha. 1991. Posteruptive changes in human dental fluorosis Ahistologicalanc!ultrastructural study. Proc. Finn. Dent. Soc. 87:607-619. Forrest, J.R., and P.M.C. James. 1965. A blind study of enamel opacities and dental caries prevalence after eight years of fluoridation of water. Br. Dent. J . ~ ~ 9:3 l 9-322. Foreman, B. 1977. Early supply of fluoride ant] enamel fluorosis. Scand. J. Dent. Res. 85:22-30. Freni, S.C., and D.W. Gaylor. 1992. International trencis in the in- cidence of bone cancer are not relater! to drinking water fluoridation. Cancer 70:611-618. Galagan, D.J. 1953. Climateanc3 controllecIfluoriciation. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 47: 159- 170. Galagan, D.J., and G.G. Lamson, Jr. 1953. Climate and endemic dental fluorosis. Public Health Rep. 68:497-508. Galagan, D.J., and J.R. Vermillion. 1957. Determining optimum fluoride concentrations. Public Health Rep. 72:491 -493. Galagan, Do., J.R. Vermillion, G.A. Nevitt, Z.M. Stacit, and R.E. Dart. 1957. Climate and fluid} intake. Public Health Rep. 72:484- 490. Gebhart, E., H. Wagner, and H. Behnsen. 1984. The action of an- ticlastogens in human lymphocyte cultures ant! its mollification by rat liver S9 mix. I. Studies with AET and so`3iu~n fluoride. Mutat. Res. 129: 195-206. Gecialia, I., and L. Shapira. 1989. Effect of prenatal ant! postnatal fluoride on the human decicluous dentition. A literature review. Aciv. Dent. Res. 3: 168- 176. 1990. The nature and me

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144 Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride Gedalia, I., A. Frumkin, and H. Zukerman. 1964. Effects of estrogen on bone composition in rats at low and high fluoride intake. Endo- crinology 75:201-205. Geever, E.F., N.C. Leone, P. Guser, and I. Lieberman. 1958. Patho- logic studies in man after prolonged ingestion of fluoride in drinking water. T. Necropsy findings in a community with a water level of 2.5 ppm. I. Am. Dent. Assoc. 56:499-507. Gerdes, R.A. 1971. The influence of atmospheric hydrogen fluoride on the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals and sterility in Drosophila melanogaster. Fluoride 4:25-29. Gocke, E., M.-T. King, K. Eckhardt, and D. Wild. 1981. Mutagenicity of cosmetics ingredients licensed by the European communities . Mutat. Res . 90:91 - 109. Goggin, I.E., W. Haddon, Ir., G.S. Hambly, and I.R. Hoveland. 1965. Incidence of femoral fractures in postmenopausal women. Public Health Rep. 80: 1005- 1012. Goldman,S.M., M.~. Sievers, and D.W. Templin. 1971. Radiculomyo- pathy in a southwestern Indian due to skeletal fluorosis. Ariz. Med. 28:675-677. Gordon, S.~., and S.B. Corbin. 1992. Summary of workshop on drinking water fluoride influence on hip fracture and bone health (National Institutes of Health, April, 10, 1991) [guest editorial!. Osteoporosis Int. 2: 109-117. Grainger, R.M., and C.~. Coburn. 1955. Dental caries of the first molars and the age of children when first consuming naturally fluori- dated water. Can. I. Public Health 46:347-354. Granath, L., I. Widenheim, and D. Birkhed. 1985. Diagnosis of mild enamel fluorosis in permanent maxillary incisors using two scoring systems. Community Dent. Oral Epidemio}. ~ 3 :273-276. Greenberg, S.R. 1986. Response of the renal supporting tissues to chronic fluoride exposure as revealed by a special technique. Urol. Int.41:91-94. Griffiths, A.~.F. 1981. Neurospora and environmentally induced aneuploidy. Pp. ~X7-199 in Short-Term Tests for Chemical Carcino- gens, H.F. Stich and R.H.C. San, eds. New York: Springer-Veriag. Grobler, S.R., C.W. van Wyk, and D. Kotze. 1986. Relationship between ename! fluoride levels, degree of fluorosis and caries ex

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References 14S perience in communities with a nearly optimal and a high fluoride level in the drinking water. Caries Res. 20:284-288. Groeneveld, A., A.A.M.~. van Eck, and O. Backer Dirks. 1990. Fluoride in caries prevention: Is the effect pro- or post-eruptive? I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Issue):751-755. Guenter, W. 1979. Fluorine toxicity and laying hen performance [abstract]. Poultry Sci. 58: 1063. Guy, W.S. 1979. Inorganic and organic fluorine in human blood. Pp. 124-147 in Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides, AAAS Selected Symposium Il. E. Johansen, D.R. Taves, and T.O. Olsen, eds. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Haimanot, R.T., A. Fekad~u, and B. Bushra. 1987. Endemic fluorosis in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Trop. Geogr. Med. 39:209-217. Hamdan, M., and W.P. Rock. 1991. The prevalence of enamel mot- tling on incisor teeth in optimal fluoride and low fluoride communities in England. Community Dent. Health 8: ~ ~ I-! 19. Hamilton, [.R. 1990. Biochemical effects of fluoride on oral bacteria. I. Dent. Res. 69(Spec. Tssue):660-667. Hanhijarvi, H. 1975. Inorganic plasma fluoride concentrations and renal excretion in certain physiological and pathological conditions in man. Fluoride 8: 198-207. - Cal ~r ~- on- - ~-- ~ - ---I- - -- Hardwick, I.~., I. Teasdale, and G. Bloodworth. 1982. Caries incre- ments over 4 years in children aged 12 at the start of water fluorida- tion. Br. Dent. I. 153:217-222. Hargreaves, I.A., G.S. Ingram, and B.~. Wagg. 1972. A gravimetric study of the ingestion of toothpaste by children. Caries Res. 6:237- 243. Harper, R.A., B.A. Flaxman, and D.P. Chopra. 1974. Mitotic re- sponse of normal and psoriatic keratinocytes in vitro to compounds known to affect intracellular cyclic AMP. I. Invest. Dermatol. 62: 384-387. Haworth, S., T. Law~or, K. Mortelmans, W. Speck, and E. Zeiger. 1983. Salmonella mutagenicity test results for 250 chemicals. Environ. Mutagen. 5(Suppl. D:~-142. Hayashi, M., M. Kishi, T. Sofuni, and M. Ishidate, Ir. 1988. Micronucleus tests in mice on 39 food additives and eight miscellaneous chemicals. Food Chem. Toxicol. 26:487-500.

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156 Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride O'MulIane, D.M., and I. CIarkson. 1990. The risk of fluorosis in a fluoridated community: A critique of the Toronto study [abstract]. Community Dent. Health 7:316. Ophaug, R.H., L. Singer, andB.F. HarIand. 19SOa. Estimated fluoride intake of average two-year - ~d children in four dietary regions of the United States. I. Dent. Res. 59:777-781. Ophaug, R.H., L. Singer, and B.F. HarIand. 19SOb. Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States. Am. I. Clin. Nutr. 33:324-327. Ophaug, R.H., L. Singer, and B.F. Hariand. 1985. Dietary fluoride intake of 6-month and 2-year-old children in four dietary regions of the United States. Am. I. Clin. Nutr. 42:701-707. O,Shea, I.~., K.B. UrdahI, H.T. Luong, T.M. Chused, L.E. Samelson, and R.D. Klausner. 1987. Aluminum fluoride induces phosphatidyI- inosito! turnover, elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium, and phosphor- ylation of the T cell antigen receptor in murine T cells. I. Immunol. 139:3463-3469. Osuji, O.O., J.L. Leake, M.L. Chipman, G. Nikiforuk, D. Locker, and N. Levine. 1988. Risk factors for dental fluorosis in a fluoridated community. I. Dent. Res. 67:14SX-1492. Pang, D.T.Y., C.L. Phillips, and I.W. Bawden. 1992. Fluoride intake from beverage consumption in a sample of North Carolina children. I. Dent. Res. 71:1382-1388. Parkins, F.M. 1972. Retention of fluoride with chewable tablets and mouth rinses. I. Dent. Res. 51: 1346-1349. Pashiey, D.H., N.B. Allison, R.P. Easmann, R.V. McKinney, Ir., ].A. Homer, and G.M. Whitford. 1984. The effects of fluoride on the gastric mucosa of the rat. I. Oral Pathol. 13:535-545. Pati, P.C., and S.P. Bhunya. 1987. Genotoxic effect of an environmen- tal pollutant, sodium fluoride, in mammalian in vivo test system. Caryologia 40:79-87. Pattee, O.H., S.N. Wiemeyer, and D.M. Swineford. 1988. Effects of dietary fluoride on reproduction in Eastern screech owIs. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17:213-218. Pendrys, D.G. 1990. The fluorosis risk index: A method for investi- gating risk factors. I. Public Health Dent. 50:291-298.

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