Index

A

A-Horizon, 105

Adaptation, ecosystem

elements of, 7

vs. succession, 90-91

Area sampling, 147

Assessment methodology

classification of rangeland condition, 75-81

climax community concept, 58-59, 60-61, 62, 63, 66-67, 75-76, 77, 80-81, 86, 88, 89, 127

current practices for rangelands, 2-3, 27-28, 62-63, 123

defining ecosystem health, 4-5, 34-35

developments in, 51-58, 145

elements of, 6-11

evaluation process, 8, 29, 97-98, 126-127

field evaluation, 129-132

implementing standardized program, 14-16, 132-133, 153-156

multiple ecological indicators, 8, 15-16, 92-93, 154

national inventorying and monitoring system, 12-14, 151-152

National Resources Inventor, 147-148

need for consistency in, 4, 13, 34, 85

problems in current practice, 3, 4, 11, 12, 26-27, 30-34, 82-91, 119-120

site classification, 13, 66-75, 84-85

site comparisons, 88-89

social values implicit in, 3-4, 29

soil-vegetation inventory, 143-144

successional stage model, 59-62, 75-76, 86-92

three-phase matrix, 129

trend and apparent trend, 26, 81-82, 96

At-risk rangeland

definition, 6, 36

early warning of transition to, 43-46, 48

identifying boundaries of, 7-8, 36-38, 123

nutrient distribution in, 125

recovery mechanisms in, 126

soil stability in, 124

B

Black grama grassland, 32-33

BLM. See Bureau of Land Management

Boundaries of healthy/unhealthy ecosystems

defining, 7-8, 36-38, 132

health criteria in identifying, 123

nutrient distribution in assessment of, 119-120, 125-126

soil conditions in assessment of, 123-124

   

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)



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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands Index A A-Horizon, 105 Adaptation, ecosystem elements of, 7 vs. succession, 90-91 Area sampling, 147 Assessment methodology classification of rangeland condition, 75-81 climax community concept, 58-59, 60-61, 62, 63, 66-67, 75-76, 77, 80-81, 86, 88, 89, 127 current practices for rangelands, 2-3, 27-28, 62-63, 123 defining ecosystem health, 4-5, 34-35 developments in, 51-58, 145 elements of, 6-11 evaluation process, 8, 29, 97-98, 126-127 field evaluation, 129-132 implementing standardized program, 14-16, 132-133, 153-156 multiple ecological indicators, 8, 15-16, 92-93, 154 national inventorying and monitoring system, 12-14, 151-152 National Resources Inventor, 147-148 need for consistency in, 4, 13, 34, 85 problems in current practice, 3, 4, 11, 12, 26-27, 30-34, 82-91, 119-120 site classification, 13, 66-75, 84-85 site comparisons, 88-89 social values implicit in, 3-4, 29 soil-vegetation inventory, 143-144 successional stage model, 59-62, 75-76, 86-92 three-phase matrix, 129 trend and apparent trend, 26, 81-82, 96 At-risk rangeland definition, 6, 36 early warning of transition to, 43-46, 48 identifying boundaries of, 7-8, 36-38, 123 nutrient distribution in, 125 recovery mechanisms in, 126 soil stability in, 124 B Black grama grassland, 32-33 BLM. See Bureau of Land Management Boundaries of healthy/unhealthy ecosystems defining, 7-8, 36-38, 132 health criteria in identifying, 123 nutrient distribution in assessment of, 119-120, 125-126 soil conditions in assessment of, 123-124     Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands See also Threshold of rangeland health Bureau of the Census, 135 Bureau of Land Management, 58, 138, 156 assessment practices, 13, 15, 31, 61-62, 63, 66, 74-75, 80-81, 85, 87, 104, 143-144, 154 current rangeland assessments, 24-25 inventorying and monitoring activities of, 36, 43, 146 National Environmental Policy Act compliance, 139 role of, 6, 14, 18, 23, 30, 63, 109, 110, 136, 140, 143, 148-149 in transition to standardized assessment, 16, 156 C Change processes black grama grassland to desert shrubland, 32-33 boundary identification, 7-8, 36-37 climax community concept, 58-59, 60-61, 62, 63, 66-67, 75-76, 77, 80-81, 86, 88, 89 ecological status evaluation, 80-81 episodic events, 42 initial conditions in determining, 91 irreversibility, 8, 37, 38, 39, 42-43, 47 models of, 46-47, 127-128 monitoring system for, 14, 153 multifactorial model 92-93 perennial grassland to woody vegetation, 39, 44-45 perennial to annual grassland, 40-41 range condition evaluation, 75-80 recovery mechanism activities, 42, 120-121 recovery mechanism indicators, 11 soil degradation, 93, 97, 98-99 succession-retrogression model, 61-62, 75-76, 89-92 succession stages model, 38-39, 42, 59-61, 86-88 trend identification, 26, 81-82, 96 See also Threshold of rangeland health Clean Water Act, 139 Climatic conditions in climax community development, 59, 60 in defining range sites, 67 in ecosystem change, 38, 42 extreme environments, 49-50 extreme events, 42 in grazing effects, 38 monitoring of, 48 Climax community in current assessment practices, 63, 75-76, 77, 80-81 as management goal, 94 objections to, in assessment, 83-84, 86, 88, 127 in rangeland assessment, 59-62 in site classification, 66-67 site comparisons, 89 theoretical development, 58-59 D Data collection area sampling technique, 147 Bureau of Land Management, 148-149, 150 development of, for rangeland assessment, 58-63 General Accounting Office, 150 independent review of, 15-16, 154-155 legislatively-mandated efforts, 138-146 National Resources Inventory, 147-148 needs, 3, 26, 27-28 nutrient cycling indicators, 118-119 sampling system, 13-14, 153 social values in decisions regarding, 3-4, 29 soil condition surveys, 110 in transition to standardized assessment, 14-16

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands USFS, 149-150 See also Inventorying/monitoring Department of Agriculture, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 119, 123, 127, 128, 134, 135-136, 142, 152, 153 Department of the Interior, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 119, 123, 127, 128, 152, 153 Desert shrubland, grassland transition to, 32-33 Diversity, 1, 18 E Early warning line, 8, 37, 43-46 Ecological integrity, 35 Ecological site, 74, 84 See also Site classification Ecological status assessment, 2, 13, 16, 26, 31, 63, 80-81 See also Assessment methodology Endangered species, 19 Endangered Species Act, 139 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), 13, 30, 142 , 152 Environmental Protection Agency, 13, 26, 30, 142, 152, 153 Erosion current trends, 24-25 data collection, 15-16, 154 deposition processes, 108 pedestaling, 104, 108 as rangeland health criterion, 97-98, 132 rills and gullies in assessing, 24, 104, 105 sheet and scour, 24, 104, 105-108 in soil degradation process, 8-9, 39, 98-99, 102-103 as soil stability indicator, 9, 104-105 in transition from perennial to annual grassland, 40, 41 F Federal Land Policy and Management Act, 23, 143 Field evaluation, 129-132 Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act, 140-141 Forest Service, U.S., 22, 143, 156 assessment practices, 13, 15, 31, 61-62, 63, 66, 74, 80-81, 85, 87 , 154 current rangeland assessments, 24-25 in development of assessment theory, 51, 135-136 inventorying and monitoring activities of, 36, 43, 144-145, 146 role of, 6, 14, 18, 30, 63, 109, 110, 140, 144, 149-150 in transition to standardized assessment, 16, 156 G General Accounting Office, 25, 150 Grasslands transition from perennial to annual, 40-41 transition to woody vegetation, 39, 44-45 Grazing, 12 climatic factors in effects of, 38 controversy, 30-31 extent of, on rangelands, 19-20 historic development, 20-22, 51 legislation, 136, 139, 145-146 in range condition assessment, 76 in soil degradation, 100-101 in transition from grassland to woody vegetation, 39, 44-45 in transition from perennial to annual grassland, 40-41 I Idaho, 88-89, 90-91 Inventorying / monitoring current practice, 146-151 development of, 51-58, 134-138 early warning line in, 43-46 role of, 5-6, 36, 48-49 See also National inventorying and monitoring system

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands J Jornada Experimental Range, 32-33 L Legislation environmental, 23, 138-139 inventorying/monitoring, 146 national resource management, 140-146 rangeland management 22-23, 136, 139, 145-146 M Mesquite, 32-33, 44-45 Minimum data set, 12, 13 Minimum ecological standard, 5, 95, 96 Models erosion, 9, 104-105 research needs, 9, 11, 127-128 succession-retrogression, 90-92 Multifactorial assessment, 8, 15-16, 92-93, 154 Multiple use, 94 Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act, 23 N National Environmental Policy Act, 138-139 National Forest Management Act, 144-145 National inventorying and monitoring system implementation of, 14, 152 minimum data set, 12, 13 role of, 12, 146, 151-152 sampling system, 13-14, 153 standards for, 12-13, 151, 152 transition to, 14-16, 153-156 See also Inventorying/monitoring National Range Handbook,63, 66, 94 National Resources Inventory, 13, 15, 24, 26, 142, 147 National Wildlife Federation, 150 Natural Resources Defense Council, 150 Nevada, 87-88 Non-native species, 74, 84 Nutrient cycling in assessing rangeland health boundaries, 125-126 effectiveness in, 112-115 energy flow and, 9-10, 115-117 plant community structure in measurement of, 118-119 as rangeland health criterion, 8, 9-10, 98, 117-119 research needs, 11, 119-120 soil degradation and, 100 O Ownership of rangelands, 1, 18 federal lands, 18-19, 22-23, 148-149 historical development, 135 nonfederal lands, 18, 21, 147-148 recreational use fees, 21 P Perennial grassland transition to annual grassland, 40-41 transition to woody shrubland, 44-45 Plant biology age-class distribution, 11, 120-121 in assessment of range condition, 75-77, 83-84, 87-88 climax community concept, 7, 58-59, 60-61, 62, 66-67, 75-76, 80-81, 89 community structure, 118-119 distribution as health indicator, 119 in early assessment methodology, 57-58, 59-61 in ecosystem sustainability, 34 energy flow, 9-10, 115-117 in multifactorial approach to assessment, 15, 92-93, 154 non-successional model, 90-91 nutrient cycling, 9-10, 112-115

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands plant vigor, 11, 96, 121-122 rainfall in threshold changes of, 42 in rangeland change states, 36-37, 38-39, 46-47 rangeland diversity, 18-19 in rangeland management goals, 94-95 recovery mechanism assessments, 11, 120-121 seed development, 11, 42, 96, 122 in site classification, 66-69, 74-75, 84-85 soil degradation effects on, 100, 129 succession-retrogression model, 61-62, 75-76, 89-92 successional stage model, 59-61, 86-89 topography as factor in, 69-74 transition from grassland to woody vegetation, 39, 44-45 transition from perennial to annual grassland, 40-41 Potential natural community, 66, 74-75, 80-81, 83-84, 86, 88 See also Climax community Primary succession, 38 Productivity of rangelands, 1, 19-21, 28, 29-30, 48-49, 95-96 Public Land Law Review Commission, 138 Public Rangelands Improvement Act, 145-146 R Rainfall pathways, 101-102 in threshold change, 42 in transition from grassland to woody shrubland, 44-45 Range condition assessment, 2, 13, 16, 26, 31, 63, 75-80 See also Assessment methodology, Range site, 66, 84 See also Site classification Rangeland diversity, 18-19 Rangeland health boundaries of, 7-8, 36-38, 123-127 categories of, 6, 35-36 concern for, historical development of, 21-23, 27, 30-31 criteria, 8-11, 97-98, 132 current conditions, 24-26, 28 definition, 4-5, 34-35, 48 in extreme environments, 49-50 human interactions and, 20-22 nutrient cycling in, 8, 9-10, 97-98, 115, 117-119 nutrient distribution in, 119-120, 125-126 plant community characteristics, 121-122 plant distribution as indicator of, 119, 120, 121 in rangeland management, 5, 16-17, 47-50, 95-96 recent legislation, 138-146 recovery mechanisms, 8, 10-11, 42, 98, 120-121, 123 resource value rating, 94-96 responsibility for assessment of, 4, 63 role of assessment, 3-4, 5-6, 12, 16-17, 27-28, 29-30, 35, 47-49 role of watersheds in, 20 sampling system, 13-14, 153 soil properties and, 11-12, 128-129 soil surface indicators in, 9, 14-15, 99, 104-108, 153-154 stage of succession in, 86-88, 90-92 standards for, 4-5, 30-34 terminology, 1, 63-66, 75, 87 threats to, 1, 28, 30 trends, 24, 26, 81-82, 96 see also Assessment methodology Rangeland management federal, 22-23 goals, 16-17, 94-95 legislation, 145-146 minimum standard for, 5, 47-48, 95-96 public concern over, 27, 30-31 rangeland health in, 5, 16-17, 47-50, 95-96

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands responsibility for, 18, 31, 63 uses of rangeland, 19-21 watershed management, 20 Recovery mechanisms assessment criteria, 120-121, 123 as criteria of rangeland health, 8, 97-98 research needs, 11, 123, 133 role of, 10-11, 120 seeding, 42 Recreational value of rangelands, 19, 21 Research needs data collection, 3, 26, 27-28 models of rangeland change, 11, 127-128 nutrient cycling, 11, 119-120, 133 recovery mechanism indicators, 11, 123, 133 sampling system, 13 soil properties in rangeland health, 11-12, 128-129 soil surface assessment, 14-15, 108-109, 132-133 soil surveys, 110 Resource value rating, 94-96 Resources Conservation Act, 15, 23, 154 Resources Planning Act, 15, 23, 140, 149, 154 Rio Grande Plains, 44-45 Riparian areas current status, 25-26 definition, 18-19 S Sampling systems, 13-14, 147, 153 SCS. See Soil Conservation Service Secondary succession, 38-39 Site classification alternatives to, 84-85 methodology, 13, 66-75 problems in current practices, 82-84 sampling systems, 13-14, 147, 153 Site comparison, 88-89 Social values, 3-4, 29 Society for Range Management, 24, 26, 48, 62, 84, 94-95, 99, 150 Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act, 23, 141-142, 147 Soil conditions A-horizon, 105 in assessing rangeland health boundaries, 37, 123-124 as criteria of rangeland health, 4-5, 6, 8-9, 34-35, 97-98, 132 current assessment of, 24-25 in identifying trends, 81-82 linked to stage of succession, 86-87 in multifactorial approach to assessment, 15-16, 92-93, 154-155 in rangeland health, research needed in, 11-12, 128-129 in site classification, 66, 67-69, 85 soil stability, 8-9, 82, 97-98, 103-105, 123-124, 132 soil surface assessment, 9, 14-15, 99, 104-105, 108-109, 132-133, 153-154 survey needs, 110 topography, 69-74 See also Erosion; Soil degradation Soil Conservation Service, 156 assessment practices, 13, 15, 31, 61-62, 63, 66, 74, 75-80, 85, 154 current rangeland assessments, 24-25 inventorying and monitoring activities of, 36, 43, 141, 146, 147 role of, 6, 14, 18, 23, 30, 63, 109, 110, 136-137, 140 in transition to standardized assessment, 16, 156 Soil degradation cause of, 30 effects of, 8-9, 39, 99-100 environmental factors in, 100-101 processes, 93, 98-99 watershed function and, 101-103 Soil tolerance level, 24 Soil-vegetation inventory method, 143-144

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands South African grassveld, 40-41 Succession-retrogression model, 61-62, 75-76 limitations of, 89-91 modifications needed, 91-92 Succession stages of rangelands, 38-39, 59-62 alternative models, need for, 127-128 environmental determinants, 42 objections to model, 83-84, 86-89 Sustainability in definition of rangeland health, 4-5, 34-35 determinants of, 29-30 T Taylor Grazing Act, 22, 23, 136 Threshold of rangeland health assessing nutrient distribution in, 125-126 assessing recovery mechanisms in, 126 climatic conditions in, 42 definition, 8, 37-38, 42 destructive change processes, 39 difficulty of crossing, 42-43 grass to woody vegetation, 39 modeling of, 11, 127-128 monitoring of, 43-46 soil conditions as indicators of, 99 stable to degraded soil, 39 in succession-retrogression models, 91-92 See also Boundaries of healthy/unhealthy ecosystems Topography, in site classification, 69-74 U Unhealthy rangeland definition, 6, 36 identifying boundaries of, 7-8, 36-38, 123 naturally-occurring, 49-50 nutrient distribution in, 125-126 recovery mechanisms in, 126 soil stability/watershed function in, 124, 132 USFS. See Forest Service, U.S. Utah, 50, 67, 77-80 W Watershed function in assessing rangeland health boundaries, 123-124 indicators of, 9, 103-104 as rangeland health criterion, 8-9, 97-98, 132 in rangelands, 20 soil degradation and, 101-103 Wilderness Act of 1964, 138 Wildlife management, 18, 19, 20

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands Recent Publications of The Board On Agriculture Policy and Resources Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture (1993), 510 pp., ISBN 0-309-04933-4 Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies (1993), 450 pp., ISBN 0-309-04430-8 Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993), 408 pp., ISBN 0-309-04875-3 Managing Global Genetic Resources: Livestock (1993), 294 pp., ISBN 0-309-04394-8 Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics (1993), 720 pp., ISBN 0-309-04749-8 Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992), 296 pp., ISBN 0-309-04682-3 Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992), 320 pp., ISBN 0-309-04528-2 Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991), 244 pp., ISBN 0-309-04034-5 Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 198 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991), 448 pp., ISBN 0-309-04578-9 Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991), 164 pp., ISBN 0-309-04540-1 Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9 Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03985-1 Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3 Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk) Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8 Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5 Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3 Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9; Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5 New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2 Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5

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Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Nutrient Requirements of Fish (1993), 108 pp., ISBN 0-309-04891-5 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4 Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8 Further information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, 202/334-3313 (information only); 800/624-6242 (orders only); 202/334-2451 (fax).