ENDNOTES

1  

Edmund Gordon, "Assessment Challenges: Changing Views of Learning, Instruction and Assessment" (Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA, 10 Sept. 1992).

2  

2. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (Reston, VA: Author, March 1991), 4.

3  

See D. A. Archbald and F. M. Newmann, The Nature of Authentic Academic Achievement in the Secondary School (Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1988); Joseph P. McDonald, "Three Pictures of an Exhibition: Warm, Cool, and Hard" (Substantially revised version of a paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, Chicago, IL, April 1991); Grant Wiggins, "Teaching to the (Authentic Test)," Educational Leadership 46:7 (1989), 41-47; Grant Wiggins, "Creating Tests Worth Taking," Educational Leadership 49:8 (1992), 26-33; Dennie P. Wolf et al., "To Use their Minds Well: Investigating New Forms of Student Assessment," in Gerald Grand, ed., Review of Research in Education (Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association, 1991), 31-74.

4  

Dennie P. Wolf and Sean F. Reardon, "Equity in the Design Performance Assessments: A Handle to Wind Up the Tongue With?" (Paper presented at the Ford Foundation Symposium on Equity and Educational Testing and Assessment, Washington, D.C., 11-12 March 1993).

5  

This exercise was created by the Balanced Assessment Project at the University of California, Berkeley, which is funded by the National Science Foundation.

6  

William L. Leap, "Assumptions and Strategies Guiding Mathematics Problem Solving by Ute Indian Students," in Rodney R. Cocking and José P. Mestre, eds., Linguistic and Cultural Influences on Learning Mathematics (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1988), 176-177.

7  

Eva L Baker and Harold F. O'Neil, Jr., "Diversity, Assessment, and Equity in Educational Reform" (Paper presented at the Ford Foundation Symposium on Equity and Educational Testing and Assessment, Washington, D.C., 11-12 March 1993); Related papers presented at the same symposium were George F. Madaus, "A Technological and Historical Consideration of Equity Issues Associated with Proposals to Change Our Nation's Testing Policy"; Warren Simmons and Daniel P. Resnick, "National Standards, Assessment and Equity."

8  

Warren Simmons and Lauren Resnick, "Assessment as the Catalyst of School Reform," Educational Leadership 50:5 (1993), 11-15.

9  

"Authentic Assessments—The Challenge of Diversity and Equity," The CRESST Line, Newsletter of the UCLA Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Spring 1992, 6.

10  

Robert L. Linn, Eva L. Baker, and Stephen B. Dunbar, "Complex, Performance-Based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria" Educational Researcher 20:8 (1991), 15-21; Stephen B. Dunbar, Daniel M. Koretz, and H. D. Hoover, "Quality Control in the Development and Use of Performance Assessments," Applied Measurement in Education 4:4 (1991), 289-303; R. J. Shavelson, G. P. Baxter, and J. Pine, "Performance Assessments: Political



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