Science and Mathematics Education for Minorities and Women (Madison, WI: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, 1987); Edward A. Silver, Margaret S. Smith, and Barbara S. Nelson, "The QUASAR Project: Equity Concerns Meet Mathematics Education Reform in the Middle School," to appear in Walter G. Secada, Elizabeth Fennema, and Lisa Byrd, eds., New Directions in Equity for Mathematics Education, (Draft version, April 1993); Deborah A. Carey et al., "Cognitively Guided Instruction: Towards Equitable Classrooms" to appear in New Directions in Equity for Mathematics Education.


Cynthia M. Silva and Robert P. Moses, "The Algebra Project: Making Middle School Mathematics Count," Journal of Negro Education 59:3 (1990), 388; P. Uri Treisman, "Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College," College Mathematics Journal 23:5 (1992), 362-372.


Alexis Jetter, "Mississippi Learning," The New York Times Magazine, 21 Feb 1993, 35.


This case is made most extensively by Harold W. Stevenson and James W. Stigler in The Learning Gap: Why Our Schools are Failing and What We Can Learn from Japanese and Chinese Education.


The Mathematical Association of America, A Call for Change: Recommendations for the Mathematical Preparation of Teachers of Mathematics, (Washington, D.C.: Author, 1991); The National Research Council, Mathematical Sciences Education Board, Counting on You (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1991). See endnotes 1, 4, and 11 for additional citations.


Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, 15-19, 38-40; Everybody Counts, 46-48, 61.


See Lee J. Cronbach, "Five Perspectives on Validity Argument," in Howard Warner and Henry I. Baum, Test Validity (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988), 3-17; Robert L Linn, Eva L Baker, and Stephen B. Dunbar, "Complex, Performance-Based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria," Educational Researcher 20:8 (1991), 15-21; John R. Frederiksen and Allan Collins, "A Systems Approach to Educational Testing," Educational Researcher 18:9 (1989), 27-32; Samuel Messick, "Validity," in R. L Linn, ed., Educational Measurement (New York, NY: American Council on Education/ Macmillan, 1989), 13; Pamela Moss, "Shifting Conceptions of Validity in Educational Measurement" (Paper presented at the annual meeting of AERA, San Francisco, April 1992.); Lorrie Shepard, "Psychometricians' Beliefs about Learning," Educational Researcher 20:6 (1991), 33-42; Eva L. Baker and Robert L. Linn, "The Technical Merit of Performance Assessments," The CRESST Line, Newsletter of the UCLA Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Spring 1993, 1); Stephen B. Dunbar, Daniel Koretz, and H. D. Hoover, "Quality Control in Development and Use of Performance Assess­ments,'' Applied Measurement in Education 4:4 (1991), 289-304; Eva L. Baker, Harold F. O'Neil, and Robert L. Linn, What Works in Alternative Assessment? (Draft version, September 1992); Stephen B. Dunbar and Elizabeth A. Witt, "Design Innovations in Measuring Mathematics Achievement" (Paper commissioned by the Mathematical Sciences Education Board, September 1993, appended to this report).

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