Index

A

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 27, 68, 84

Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), 43

Adhesives, 65, 66, 73, 75, 82-83, 102

Aerosols, 38

Agarose, 38

Agriculture, 23, 34, 114

Aircraft and aviation applications, 5, 9, 16, 17, 23, 27, 29, 65, 68, 75, 87, 88, 105, 153

military, 28, 29-30, 31, 88, 101

Albumin, 35

Aliphatic polyamides, 51, 93

Alloys, see Blends and alloys

Amino acids, 32, 42-43, 44, 132

Amorphous polymers, 106, 155

Amphibious vehicles, 30, 31

Amplifiers, 58, 59

Antibodies, 38, 43, 53

Anticancer drugs, 38, 39

Antigens, 38, 43

Antioxidants, 67, 107

Antistatic agents, 67

Aqueous dispersion, 110, 111

Aramids, 90

Aryl-phosphine-oxide materials, 76

Atomic force microscope (AFM), 150

Automated clinical analyzer (ACA) systems, 37

Automobiles, 5, 9, 23, 26-27, 28, 65, 68, 85, 86, 105

recycling, 25, 27

B

Barrier polymers, 92-94

Basic and long-term research, 3, 4, 12, 13, 16

Batteries, 28, 52, 63, 102

Benzocyclobutene (BCB), 49, 75

Biocatalysis, 131-132, 138

Biocompatibility, 33-34, 39, 102

Biocomposites, 44-45

Biodegradation, 25, 39, 83, 114, 132

Bioelastomers, 44

Biological polymers, 1-2, 6, 42-45, 159

characterization of, 140, 141, 150-152

collaborative and interdisciplinary research, 4, 7, 45-46

Biological systems and processes, 2, 6, 32-33, 43, 136-137

see also Biological polymers

Biomimetic materials, 35

Biopolymers, see Biological polymers

Biotechnology, 2, 32, 34, 37, 43, 53, 96, 98, 153

Bismaleimides, 75, 82

Blends and alloys, 67, 68, 72, 83-87, 105, 114, 157-158



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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers Index A Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 27, 68, 84 Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), 43 Adhesives, 65, 66, 73, 75, 82-83, 102 Aerosols, 38 Agarose, 38 Agriculture, 23, 34, 114 Aircraft and aviation applications, 5, 9, 16, 17, 23, 27, 29, 65, 68, 75, 87, 88, 105, 153 military, 28, 29-30, 31, 88, 101 Albumin, 35 Aliphatic polyamides, 51, 93 Alloys, see Blends and alloys Amino acids, 32, 42-43, 44, 132 Amorphous polymers, 106, 155 Amphibious vehicles, 30, 31 Amplifiers, 58, 59 Antibodies, 38, 43, 53 Anticancer drugs, 38, 39 Antigens, 38, 43 Antioxidants, 67, 107 Antistatic agents, 67 Aqueous dispersion, 110, 111 Aramids, 90 Aryl-phosphine-oxide materials, 76 Atomic force microscope (AFM), 150 Automated clinical analyzer (ACA) systems, 37 Automobiles, 5, 9, 23, 26-27, 28, 65, 68, 85, 86, 105 recycling, 25, 27 B Barrier polymers, 92-94 Basic and long-term research, 3, 4, 12, 13, 16 Batteries, 28, 52, 63, 102 Benzocyclobutene (BCB), 49, 75 Biocatalysis, 131-132, 138 Biocompatibility, 33-34, 39, 102 Biocomposites, 44-45 Biodegradation, 25, 39, 83, 114, 132 Bioelastomers, 44 Biological polymers, 1-2, 6, 42-45, 159 characterization of, 140, 141, 150-152 collaborative and interdisciplinary research, 4, 7, 45-46 Biological systems and processes, 2, 6, 32-33, 43, 136-137 see also Biological polymers Biomimetic materials, 35 Biopolymers, see Biological polymers Biotechnology, 2, 32, 34, 37, 43, 53, 96, 98, 153 Bismaleimides, 75, 82 Blends and alloys, 67, 68, 72, 83-87, 105, 114, 157-158

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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers Block copolymers, 38, 42, 76, 120, 123-125, 158 Blood, 33, 34, 35, 53, 63 Blow molding, 72, 105, 107 Bottles, 23, 25, 67, 72, 93-94, 114 C Capillary zone electrophoresis, 150 Carbon-based polymers, see Organic polymers Carbon fibers, 17, 30 Catalysts and catalysis, 2, 6, 72, 104, 123 biological, 131-132, 138 Cellulose, 2, 79, 96, 108 CERAMERS, 103 Ceramics, 7, 36, 54, 65, 103, 104 Chain architecture, 2, 9, 42, 43, 44, 117-123, 138 isomerism, 120-123 length, 119-121 sequence control, 120 topology, 117 Characterization of polymers, 6, 72, 73, 139, 152-153 biopolymers, 140, 141, 150-152 microscopy, 2, 6, 43, 143, 146-148 molecular, 139-144 solid-state structure and properties, 140, 141, 146-148 solutions, melts, and elastomers, 140, 141, 144-146 surfaces and interfaces, 140, 141, 148-150 CHEMFETS, 53 Chemical structures and processes, 2, 32, 66, 67, 114, 115 adhesives, 82-83 biopolymers, 42, 44, 45 sensor devices, 52-54 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 24, 28 Chromatography, 141-142, 150 Chromophores, 59 Clothing, 2, 9, 23, 65, 114 protective, 29, 90, 109 Coatings, 53, 65, 73, 92, 98-100, 102, 104, 105, 110, 111 Collaborative research, 3-4, 5-6, 7 see also Interdisciplinary studies and research Collagen, 32-33, 42, 78 Commodity polymers, 3, 5, 46, 65, 68, 79, 113 Communications technologies, 2, 5, 32, 46-47, 61, 63, 107 see also terms listed under Electronics Compact disk (CD) technology, 57-58, 63, 106 Composites, 17, 27, 28, 30, 36, 48, 54, 65, 67, 75, 90, 104 structural, 87-89, 94 Computation and simulation, 2, 6, 142, 152, 153-155, 162-168 Concrete-plastic, 27 Conducting polymers and synthetic metals, 50-52, 63, 91 Conjugated polymers, 127 Connective tissues, 32-33, 34 Construction, see Housing and construction materials Contact lenses, 33, 37, 73, 102 Containers, see Packaging and containers Contraceptive implants, 38 Controlled-release materials, 53, 92 drugs, 38-41, 95, 104, 109 Coordination catalysis, 121 Corrosion-resistance, 30-31 Cross-linking, 37, 44, 67, 127 Crystallinity, 44, 67, 80, 156 see also Liquid crystalline polymers Crystallography, 43, 151 Cuprophan, 35 Curriculum development and guidelines, 19, 21 Cyanates, 75 D Defense, see Military and defense applications Degradation of waste materials, 23, 24, 25 research needs, 7, 25-26 Dental applications, 33, 35-36 Depth profiling, 148-149 Desalinization of water, 95, 96 Dextrans, 38 Dextrin, 82-83 Diagnostic applications, 37-38 Dielectrics, 46, 47-50, 62 printed circuit boards, 46, 47, 48 Diffusion-controlled systems, 38 Dimethacrylates, 36 Diodes, see Light-emitting diodes Dispersion processing, 110-111 Disposable diagnostic kits, 37-38 Disposal of materials 3, 6-7, 10, 23, 24, 25, 139 see also Recycling Distribution and movement of materials, 3, 10 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 2, 32, 42, 43, 150

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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers Drugs, 43, 102 controlled-release, 38-41, 95, 104, 109 Dyes, 53, 104 E Education in polymer science, 4, 18-22, 83 see also Universities Elastin, 33, 78 Elastomers, 28, 67, 73, 76-78, 82, 85, 102 see also Bioelastomers; Fluoroelastomers Electronics, 2, 4, 5, 7, 32, 52 see also Compact disk technology; Conducting polymers and synthetic metals; Dielectrics; Electrophotography; Integrated circuits; Light-emitting diodes; Multichip modules; Photonics; Printed circuit boards; Resist materials; Semiconductors; Sensors; Silicon chips Electron spin resonance, 43 Electron tomography, 146-147 Electrophotography, 59-61, 63 Electrotransport systems, 39 Emulsion polymerization, 111 End-group structure, 123-125 Energy consumption and savings, 2, 5, 10, 23, 24, 26-29, 63, 114 Energy devices and equipment, 29 Engineering plastics, 3, 5, 32, 65, 68-69, 114 Environmental applications and issues, 3, 7, 10, 22-26, 95, 109,111, 113 government policies, 6, 7, 99-100 research needs, 6-7, 114, 115 synthesis control, 6, 138-139 see also Incineration; Recycling Enzymes, 32, 34, 53, 131 Epoxies, 10, 47, 48, 73, 82 Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubbers, 78 Exports, see Trade and trade balances Extrusion processes, 67, 72, 105, 107, 112 F Fabrics, see Clothing; Textiles and fabrics Factory-built structures, see Prefabricated structures Federal research funding, 3, 4, 10 see also National laboratories Ferroelectric polymers, 54, 104 Fiberglass, 45, 48 Fiber optics, 53, 58, 63, 107 Fibers, 5, 48, 65, 66, 67, 72, 78-81, 90, 105 environmental issues, 23, 79 international competitiveness, 17 reinforcement, 88-89, 105 see also Textiles and fabrics Fillers, 67, 78, 107 Films, 6, 17, 51, 53, 54, 59, 65, 67, 72, 78, 92, 103, 105, 107,159 see also Barrier polymers Flammability resistance, 75-76, 107 Flocculants, 111 Fluorescent imaging, 144 Fluoroelastomers, 17, 78 Fluoropolymers, 33, 46, 47, 54, 102, 130 "Folding problem," 152 Force-field simulation, 163-165 Foreign corporations, 16-17 Foreign expenditures for research, 3, 12 Fracture mechanics, 114 Free radical polymerization, 121, 122 Fuel cells, 28 Funding for research and development, 1, 2, 3-4, 5, 6, 11-16 academic, 10, 12, 14 government sources, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11 industry sources, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12-16, 57 and international competitiveness, 3, 10, 12, 16, 17 G Gas separation, 95, 96 Gel electrophoresis, 150 Gel spinning, 72 Gelation, 73 Genetic engineering, 34, 120, 132 Geometrical isomers, 120-121 Glass and glass fibers, 17, 23, 37, 47, 48, 67, 75, 89, 104 see also Fiber optics Global competition, see International competitiveness Glucose sensors, 53, 54, 63 Government policies and legislation, 3, 5, 10 environmental, 6, 7, 99-100 Government research support, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11 see also National laboratories

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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers H Health applications, see Medical applications High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 70, 72, 108 Holography, 61-62, 63 Homopolymers, 42 Household furnishings, 26, 27, 65, 105 Housing and construction materials, 5, 10, 26, 27, 88-89 see also Household furnishings Hydrocarbons, 10, 82, 121 Hydrogel, 37 Hydrophilic coatings, 35, 102 Hydrophones, 54 Hyperbranched macromolecules, 117 I Implants and prostheses, 3, 9, 33, 34-37, 102 for controlled drug delivery, 38, 39, 63 Imports, see Trade and trade balances Incineration, 7, 25, 94, 114 Industry collaboration with universities, 4, 5, 12, 14, 22 infrastructure, 3, 10 research facilities and groups, 3, 5, 10, 12, 16 research support and priorities, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12-16, 57 revenues and sales, 5, 15, 16 see also Manufacturing and production technologies; Processing methods Informational polymers, 33, 42-43 Information technology applications, 5, 32, 46-47, 63, 153 see also Compact disk technology; Conducting polymers and synthetic metals; Dielectrics; Electronics; Electrophotography; Holography; Light-emitting diodes; Photonics; Resist materials; Sensors Injection molding, 105-107, 137 Inorganic polymers, 2, 9, 100-104, 133-137 network-forming, 135-136 Insulators, 29, 46, 48, 49-50, 65, 102 Insulin pumps, 54, 63 Integrated circuits, 46, 63 Interdisciplinary studies and research, 6, 32, 138, 152-153 see also Collaborative research International competitiveness, 1, 2-3, 10, 16-17, 63, 65, 153 and research funding, 3, 10, 12, 16, 17 Intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs), 50-51 K Kevlar, 10, 29, 89, 108, 109, 161 L Laboratories, see National laboratories Landfills, 7, 23, 114 Lasers, 57, 61, 104, 111, 146 Lateral force microscope (LFM), 150 Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 3, 59, 61, 63 Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), 72, 117 Liquid crystalline polymers, 27, 45, 63, 67, 77, 79, 80, 89-92, 104 processing, 105, 106, 110 theory, 156-157 Lithography, 49, 59, 63 see also Pattern formation; Photolithography; Resist materials Long-term research, see Basic and long-term research Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 70, 71, 72 Lubricants, 28, 67, 107 Lyotropic polymers, 89-90 M Manufacturing and production technologies, 3, 5, 6, 10, 65-66, 115 environmental and health issues, 3, 7, 10, 23, 24 inorganic polymers, 100-104 minimization of waste, 7, 114 structural polymers, 66-92 see also Processing methods Mechanical properties and processes, 6, 46, 51, 66, 114, 147, 161-162 biopolymers, 42, 44 blends and alloys, 84-86 elastomers, 77-78 failure modes, 6, 28, 161 Medical applications, 2, 4, 5, 6, 33-34, 35, 37, 39, 54, 63, 102, 104, 114 see also Dental applications; Diagnostic

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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers applications; Drugs; Implants and prostheses Melt processing, 67, 81, 105 extrusion, 67, 72, 105, 107, 112 molding, 105-107 solid-state forming, 108 Membranes, 38, 92, 94-98, 102, 104 international competitiveness, 95 Merrifield-type synthesis, 43 Metallocenes, 72 Metals, 7, 23, 36, 65 see also Conducting polymers and synthetic metals Microbial synthesis, 131-132 Microelectronics and micromachinery, 54, 55, 63 Microporous materials, 35, 40, 95, 104 Microspheres, 38 Military and defense applications, 2, 5, 10, 29-31, 105 aircraft, 29-30, 31, 88, 101 vehicles, 30, 88 Modeling, 6, 73, 153-155, 162-168 processing methods, 6, 105, 110, 112-113, 115, 153 Molding and molding materials, 17, 67, 72, 105-107, 112, 137 Molecular recognition, 6, 43 Molecular structures and processes, 1, 6, 9-10, 33, 42, 43, 65, 66, 72 and processing, 106, 107, 109, 112-113 characterization of, 139-144 elastomers, 78 weight control, 119, 120 see also Chain architecture; End-group structures Monomers, 2, 9, 39, 42, 49, 62, 137 Monte Carlo statistical methods, 165-166 Multichip modules (MCMs), 47, 49 N National defense, see Military and defense applications National laboratories, 3, 5, 10, 152 Natural polymers, see Biological polymers Naval structures, 29, 30-31 Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), 146 Nematogenic polymers, 90-91 Neuronal tissue, 34 Neutron scattering, 144 NICALON, 103 Nitrile, 82 Nitrosoureas, 39 NOMEX, 108 Nonaqueous dispersion (NAD), 110, 111 Nondestructive testing, 61, 83 Nonlinear polymers, 58-59, 104 Nonprofit organizations research support, 12, 14 Novolac, 47 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, 73, 142-143, 150 Nucleating agents, 67 Nylon, 2, 10, 68, 79, 93, 100 Nylon acrylamide, 38 O Ocular materials and implants, 33, 34, 37, 38 Oligomers, 68, 69, 114, 119 Optical technologies, 46, 58-59, 91, 104 see also Compact disk technology; Electrophotography; Fiber optics; Holography; Photonics ''Optical tweezers," 43 Organic polymers, 2, 9, 23, 47, 50-51, 100 Organometallic macromolecules, 133, 134, 136 ORMOCERS, 103 P Packaging and containers, 5, 24, 27, 33, 46, 65, 67-68, 72, 84, 92-94, 114, 132 Paint, see Coatings Pattern formation, 55-56 Pervaporation, 95, 96-97 Petroleum derivatives, 9, 23, 65, 114 Phosphorylcholines, 35 Photocuring, 35, 36 Photodegradation, 25 Photoduplication, 59-61 Photolithography, 46, 47, 53 Photonics, 58-59, 63 Photoreceptors, 60, 61 Piezoelectric materials, 46, 54, 121 Plasticizers, 35, 67, 107 Plastics, 10, 16, 66, 67-76 environmental issues, 23, 24 Plexiglas, 10, 36, 55

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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers Poled polymeric systems, 59 Pollution, see Disposal of materials; Environmental applications and issues Polyacetals, 50, 51, 68, 75, 127 Polyacrylamide, 30, 111 Polyacrylonitrile, 93, 108 Polyamides, 33, 51, 69, 82, 85, 100 Polyanhydrides, 38 Polyaniline, 51-52, 59, 127 Polyaryl sulfones, 106 Polybenzimidazoles, 108 Polyborazines, 136 Polybutadiene, 121, 122 Poly(butylene terephthalate), 27, 85 Polycarbonate, 27, 33, 57-58, 67, 68, 69, 84, 85, 96, 106 Polycarbosilanes, 136 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 96, 102 Polyesters, 25, 33, 47, 67-68, 73, 75, 79, 82, 84, 89, 94, 100, 109 Polyetherimides, 68, 106 Polyetherketones, 69, 75, 130 Poly(ether urethanes), 38 Polyethylene, 2, 10, 46, 51, 67, 69-70, 82, 84, 93, 100, 125, 130 medical applications, 33, 35, 37 Poly(ethylene oxide), 100 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 27, 35, 59, 67, 68, 94, 107,114 Polyfuran, 51 Polyglycols, 123, 125 Poly-HEMA hydrogel, 37 Polyheteroaromatic vinylenes, 51 Polyimides, 49, 75, 82, 96, 130 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 150 Polymerization, development of new methods for, 132 Polymer Recycling Consortium, 25 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 35, 37, 55, 57, 86, 100, 103 Polynucleic acids, 43 Polyolefins, 70, 72, 79, 125 Polyols, 123-125 Polyoxymethylene, 100 Polyparaphenylene, 51, 127 Poly(paraphenylene terephthalamide), 109 Polypeptides, 32, 38, 43, 100, 120 Poly(phenylene oxide), 27, 84, 85 Poly(phenylene sulfide), 69, 75 Poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV), 51, 52, 59, 127 Polyphosphazenes, 78, 102, 104, 133, 134 Polypropylene, 35, 67, 68, 82, 86, 93, 125, 130 Polypyrrole, 51, 52 Polysaccharides, 33, 42 Polysilanes, 102-103, 133, 134-135 Polysilazanes, 136 Polysiloxanes, 78, 100, 102, 104, 133, 135 Polystyrene, 38, 67, 76-77, 84, 85, 86, 100 Polysulfide elastomers, 35 Polysulfones, 68, 69, 130 Poly(tetrafluoroethylene), 35, 54, 110 Polythiophene, 51, 52, 127 Poly(trimethylsilyl propyne), 92 Polyurethanes, 33, 34, 35, 73, 124 Poly(vinyl acetate), 83, 121 Poly(vinyl alcohol), 92, 93 Poly(vinyl chloride), 25, 35, 67, 86, 93, 100, 121 Poly(vinylidene fluoride), 54, 121 Powder dispersion, 110-111 Precollege education, 21 Prefabricated structures, 26, 27 Pressure-sensitive adhesives, 82 Primary education, 21 Printed circuits boards (PCBs), 46, 47, 48 Processing methods, 18, 66, 91, 104-105 computer-assisted design, 6, 112 dispersion, 110-111 environmental issues, 7, 23, 109, 110 equipment, 3, 10, 17, 105 fibers, 80-81 films, membranes, and coatings, 92-100, 110 and international competition, 17 melt, 105-108 modeling, 6, 105, 110, 112-113, 115, 153 reactive, 137 research needs, 6, 72, 73, 75, 105-106, 110 solution, 108-110 Prostheses, see Implants and prostheses Pumps, for controlled drug delivery, 38 R Raman spectroscopy, 143-144 Rayon, 108 Reaction injection molding (RIM), 137 Recreational applications, 9, 31, 65 Recycling, 23, 24, 25, 67, 68, 94, 105, 113-114 research needs, 7, 113-114

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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers Regioisomerism, 120, 121 Resist materials, 54-57, 63, 121 Reverse osmosis, 95, 96 Rheology, 100, 106, 107, 112, 113, 115, 144 liquids, 160-161 Ribosome assemblies, 43 Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), 69, 119, 125 RNA (ribonucleic acid), 33, 42, 43, 150 Robotics, 54, 55 Rotational molding, 72 Rotaxanes, 117 Rubber products, 5, 35, 65, 66, 75, 78, 82, 90, 111 see also Elastomers S Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), 146, 147, 151 Semiconductors, 49, 50, 53-55, 56, 57 Sensors, 52-54, 63, 88, 104 Silane, 36 Silicate cement, 36 Silicon chips, 46, 47, 54-55 Silicones, 2, 9, 17, 34, 57, 82, 100, 101, 133 medical applications, 33, 34, 35 rubbers, 35 Simulation, see Computation and simulation; Modeling Skin grafts and replacement, 34, 102 Smart materials, 63, 88, 92 Sol-gel processing, 135-136 Solution processing, 108-110, 155 Spandex, 73 Specialty polymers, 2, 3, 5, 46-47, 57, 108 international competitiveness, 17, 65 Spectra, 29 Stabilizers, 67 Starch-based polymers, 2, 25-26, 83 Stealth design, 31, 88 Steel substitutes, 27, 28, 30, 88, 104, 109 Structural polymers, 5, 42, 66, 66-67, 114 composites, 87-89, 94 see also Adhesives; Blends and alloys; Elastomers; Fibers; Liquid crystalline polymers; Plastics Styrofoam, 10, 24 Surface forces apparatus (SFA), 149 Surfaces and interfaces, 60, 114, 158, 159 and biological processes, 34, 38 blends and alloys, 84-85 treatments, 35, 83 Surlyn, 37 Switches, 58, 59, 78, 105 Synthesis control and development, 6, 18, 116-117, 132-133, 138-139 biocatalysis, 131-132, 138 chain architecture, 117-123, 138 conjugated polymers, 127 end-group structure, 123-125 polymerization, 132 inorganic polymers, 133-137 reactive processing, 137 supramolecular chemistry, 137-138 surface modification, 129-131 thermal stability, 125, 127, 128 Synthetic rubber, see Elastomers T Tactile sensors, 54 TCNQ, 50 Teflon, 2, 10, 110 Telechelic polymers, 123-125 Textbook development, 19 Textiles and fabrics, 5, 10, 23, 67, 105 see also Clothing Theory, 2, 6, 18, 153-155, 167-168 dynamics and properties, 159-162 elastomer properties, 77, 78 states of matter, 155-159 Thermal properties, 6, 47, 49, 51, 54, 108 of blends, 84, 86-87 stability, 125, 127, 128 Thermoplastics, 60, 65, 67-73, 105 Thermosets, 67, 73-76, 105 Thermotropic polymers, 89, 90, 106 Tires, 28, 65, 76, 109 Tissue engineering, 34, 104 Titansiloxane, 103 Top surface imaging, 56-57 Trade and trade balances, 2, 3, 5, 9, 16, 113 see also International competitiveness Transdermal drug delivery, 38, 39, 40 Transmission electron microscope (TEM), 146 Transportation and transportation equipment, 2, 5, 10, 26-29 energy consumption, 23, 26-27 Transport kinetics, 53, 95, 96, 98

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Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers U Ultrasonic transducers, 54 Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and imaging, 46, 56, 60, 143 Undergraduate education, 18 Universities, 3, 4, 8, 10, 18-19 collaboration with industry, 4, 5, 12, 14, 22 faculty, 18-19, 21, 22 research budgets and funding, 10, 12, 14 V Vascular grafts and prostheses, 33, 34, 35 Vinyl pyrrolidone, 37 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 98 Vulcanizates, 73 W Water purification and desalinization, 95, 96, 111, 115 X X-ray radiation and imaging, 56, 144-146, 147, 148, 150 Xanthum gum, 30 Z Ziegler catalysts, 78