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Page 515 Author Biographies JONATHAN ALLEN received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1968, after six years at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Human Factors Engineering. He then joined the faculty of MIT, where he is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. His interests include speech synthesis and recognition, as well as computer-aided design for integrated circuit synthesis. Since 1981 he has been Director of the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, and past President of the Association for Computational Linguistics. BISHNU S. ATAL is Head of the Speech Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey. He has been with Bell Laboratories since 1961, and his research there has covered a wide range of topics in acoustics and speech. He has made major contributions in the field of speech analysis, synthesis, and coding. His research in linear predictive coding of speech has established linear predictive analysis as one of the most powerful speech analysis techniques for applications in speech coding, recognition, and synthesis. His current research interests include low bit rate speech coding, and new robust and accurate methods for automatic speech recognition. Dr. Atal is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and of the IEEE. He received the IEEE ASSP Soci-
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Page 516 ety Award in 1993 for contributions to linear prediction of speech, multipulse, and code-excited source coding. MADELEINE BATES is the Assistant Department Manager for Speech and Natural Language Processing at BBN Systems and Technologies. She is responsible for the technical and administrative direction of research and development efforts, including spoken language understanding, human-machine interfaces incorporating natural language processing, and the development of evaluation methodologies for those areas. She has more than 20 years of experience in research, development, and application in many aspects of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics, including syntactic processing of English by computer, speech understanding, knowledge acquisition for NL systems, computer assisted language instruction, interfaces to data bases, and human factors studies. She is a past president of the Association for Computational Linguistics. ROLF CARLSON joined the Department of Speech Communication and Music Acoustics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in 1969. He has been active in the department since that time, with the exception of two years of employment at MIT in 1978-1979 and 1990-1991. He also has academic merits in general linguistics and phonetics. His first studies concerned perception of speech, e.g., models of vowel perception. In 1977 he received his Doctor of Science degree on the subject ''Perception and Synthesis of Speech." His main activity has been to create possibilities for converting text to speech. This research formed a base of the company Infovox, which was created in 1983. Since 1970, he has published extensively on speech synthesis, speech perception, and general phonetics. His recent activity includes the development of a dialog system based on speech technology. He is currently Advisory Editor of the Journal of Phonetics. PHILIP R. COHEN is a Senior Computer Scientist in the Artificial Intelligence Center at SRI International. He is also a Principal Researcher at the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University, and a Consulting Associate Professor with the Symbolic Systems Program at Stanford. After receiving his Ph.D. in Computer Science in 1978 from the University of Toronto, he worked at Bolt Beranek and Newman, Oregon State University, and the Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation before joining SRI in 1984. His research interests include multimodal human-computer interaction, natural language processing, spoken dialogue, and intelligent com-
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Page 517 puter agents. Dr. Cohen is a Fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. JAMES FLANAGAN is Vice President for Research and Board of Governors Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rutgers University. Flanagan joined Rutgers after extended service in research and research management positions at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Flanagan holds the S.M. and Sc.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from MIT. He specializes in voice communications, computer techniques, and electroacoustic systems, and has authored papers, books, and patents in these fields. Flanagan is a Fellow of the IEEE, the Acoustical Society of America, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and of the National Academy of Sciences. SADAOKI FURUI received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mathematical engineering and instrumentation physics from Tokyo University in 1968, 1970, and 1978, respectively. Since joining the Electrical Communications Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation in 1970, he has been working on speech analysis, speech recognition, speaker recognition, and speech perception. From 1978 to 1979 he was with AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey. He is currently the Research Fellow and the Director of Furui Research Laboratory at NTT Human Interface Laboratories. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. He has received awards from several institutions, including the IEEE. LYNETTE HIRSCHMAN heads the Speech and Natural Language group at MITRE Corporation in Bedford, Massachusetts, where she is also responsible for the corporate Human-Computer Interaction initiative. She received her Ph.D. in formal linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1972 and has been involved in the field of natural language processing and, more recently, in spoken language understanding. She has been active in both the speech and natural language evaluation efforts, and chaired the original Multisite ATISData Collection Working group (MADCOW) that coordinated the spoken language data collection and evaluation methods for the Air Travel Information System (ATIS) task. FREDERICK JELINEK received the S.B., S.M., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from MIT in 1956, 1958, and 1962 respectively. From 1972 to 1993, he was with the Computer Sciences Department, IBM
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Page 518 Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, where he managed research on automatic recognition (transcription) of speech. Since November 1993, he has been the Director of the Center for Speech Processing and Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, with joint appointments in Cognitive Science and Computer Science at Johns Hopkins University. His principal interests are in speech recognition, language processing, and information theory. He is the author of "Probabilistic Information Theory" (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968). Dr. Jelinek was the recipient of the 1971 Information Theory Group Prize Paper Award and was recognized in 1981 as one of the top 100 innovators by TECHNOLOGY magazine. CANDACE KAMM received her Ph.D. in Cognitive Psychology from UCLA, where she was a research associate at UCLA School of Medicine, studying speech recognition and loudness perception of normal and hearing-impaired listeners. She joined AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1982, evaluating automatic speech recognition technology, and she has been at Bellcore since 1984. At Bellcore, her work has focused on user-interface design for voice applications, telephone speech database collection, and the application of artificial neural networks to speech recognition problems. She currently directs the Speech Recognition Applications Research Group at Bellcore. YASUO KATO received the B.E. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1958. After graduation, he joined NEC Corporation and has been working for NEC's Central Research Laboratories. He was involved in the research and development of digital signal processing, speechband-compression, speech synthesis, and speech recognition. He was a visiting researcher in speech communications at MIT during 1964 and 1965. From 1980 to 1986, he was General Manager of NEC's C&C Systems Research Laboratories and became Vice President and Director in 1986. He is now Executive Vice President for Research and Development at NEC Corporation. STEPHEN E. LEVINSON received the B.A. degree in Engineering Sciences from Harvard in 1966, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Rhode Island in 1972 and 1974, respectively. From 1966 to 1969 he was a design engineer at Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics in Groton, Connecticut. From 1974 to 1976 he held a J. Willard Gibbs Instructorship in Computer Science at Yale University. In 1976, he joined the technical staff of AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, where he conducted research in the areas of speech recognition and cybernetics. Dr. Levinson
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Page 519 is Head of the Linguistics Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories where he directs research in speech synthesis, speech recognition, and spoken language translation. Dr. Levinson is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery, a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and a fellow of the Acoustical Society of America. He is a member of the editorial board of Speech Technology, a founding editor of the journal Computer Speech and Language and a member of the IEEE Signal Processing Society Technical Directions Committee. HARRY LEVITT obtained his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England, in 1964. He then crossed the Atlantic to become a member of the AT&T Bell Laboratories technical staff where he did research on binaural hearing, computer-assisted adaptive testing, speech synthesis, and telephone aids for people with hearing loss. In 1969, he joined the faculty of The City University of New York, where he is now Distinguished Professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences. His current research interests include digital hearing aids, video signal processing for deaf people, and other applications of assistive technology. MARK LIBERMAN received his Ph.D. in 1975 from MIT. He is currently Trustee Professor of Phonetics at the University of Pennsylvania, where he also holds an appointment in the Department of Computer and Information Science. He came to Penn in 1990 after fifteen years at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he served as Head of the Linguistics Research Department. Liberman is a member of the editorial advisory boards of the journals Cognition, Computer Speech and Language, and Speech Communication. He is the chair of the Data Collection Initiative of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the director of the Linguistic Data Consortium. JOHN MAKHOUL is a Chief Scientist at Bolt Beranek Newman Inc. (BBN), Cambridge, Massachusetts. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Northeastern University and a Research Affiliate at the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics. An alumnus of the American University of Beirut and the Ohio State University, he received a Ph.D. from MIT in 1970 in electrical engineering, with specialization in speech recognition. Since that time, he has been with BBN directing various projects in speech recognition, spoken language systems, speech coding, speech synthesis, speech enhancement, signal processing, and neural networks. Dr. Makhoul is a Fellow of the IEEE and of the Acoustical Society of America.
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Page 520 MITCHELL MARCUS has been RCA Professor in Artificial Intelligence at the University of Pennsylvania since 1987. Prior to that, he was in the Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. from the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, in 1978. His research in natural language deterministic parsing (A Theory of Syntax for Natural Language Understanding, MIT Press, 1980) is discussed in a number of textbooks in artificial intelligence and natural language understanding. His current research interests include statistical and corpus-based natural language processing, the processing of grammatical processing in humans, and cognitive science in general. ROBERT C. MOORE received his Ph.D. in Artificial Intelligence from MIT in 1979. He is currently a Principal Scientist in the Artificial Intelligence Center of SRI International, Menlo Park, California, having held previous positions as Director of SRI's Natural Language Research Program and Director of SRI's Computer Science Research Centre in Cambridge, England. Dr. Moore's current research interests lie in the area of integration of speech recognition and natural language processing, particularly how to use natural language processing to improve the accuracy of speech recognition. RYOHEI NAKATSU received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electronic engineering from Kyoto University in 1969, 1971, and 1982, respectively. After joining NTT in 1971, he worked on speech recognition technology. Particular interests at that time included isolated and connected word recognition. He moved to NTT Yokosuka Laboratories in 1980. There he took part in a project to develop a voice response and recognition system to be used for banking services. Since 1990, he has been with NTT Basic Research Laboratories in Musashino, where he is currently Director of the Information Science Research Laboratory. His current research interests include auditory perception, speech production, visual perception and discourse understanding. He is also a member of the IEEE and the Acoustical Society of Japan. JOHN A. OBERTEUFFER is Vice President for New Business Development at Voice Processing Corporation in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Voice Processing Corporation is a developer and vendor of continuous speech recognition technology for over-the-telephone and personal computer applications. Prior to joining VPC, Oberteuffer was editor of ASR News, a monthly newsletter that reports on market and technical developments in the advanced speech technology industry. Before
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Page 521 founding Voice Information Associates (publisher of ASR News) in 1989, Oberteuffer held senior marketing, technical, and management positions in several emerging technology-based companies, including Iris Graphics, which he cofounded, and which is now a subsidiary of Scitex Corporation. Oberteuffer received his doctorate in physics from Northwestern University and his bachelor's and master's degrees from Williams College. SHARON L. OVIATT is a Senior Cognitive Scientist in the Artificial Intelligence Center at SRI International. After receiving her Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the University of Toronto in 1979, she taught at the University of Illinois, Oregon State University, and the University of California before joining SRI International in 1987. Her research interests include next generation human language technology, design of spoken language and multimodal systems, modality effects in communication (speech, pen, keyboard, etc.), and research design and evaluation for emerging technologies. LAWRENCE R. RABINER has worked for AT&T Bell Laboratories since 1962 and has been involved in research in the area of digital signal processing with applications to speech processing. Currently, as Director of the Information Principles Research Laboratory, he directs research in speech coding, speech synthesis, speech recognition, speaker recognition, language translation, acoustics, communications, image processing, interactive systems, and systems using digital signal processor chips. He is a member of both the National Academy of Engineering and National Academy of Sciences. DAVID B. ROE is Head of the Applied Speech Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey. He has been with AT&T since 1986. He is active both in long-range speech research, such as spoken language identification and a Voice English/Spanish Translator, and in business applications of speech recognition. In the latter capacity, he has consulted with several AT&T organizations that have developed speech recognition products and services. David received a Ph.D. in experimental low-temperature physics in 1976 from Duke University and joined Bell Laboratories in 1977 after a year of teaching at Duke. RONALD W. SCHAFER received the B.S.E.E. and M.S.E.E. degrees from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, in 1961 and 1962, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from MIT in 1968. From 1968 to 1974 he was a member of the Acoustics Research Department, AT&T Bell Laborato-
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Page 522 ries, Murray Hill, New Jersey. In 1974 he joined the faculty of the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he is Institute Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and holder of the John 0. McCarty Chair. His current research interests include speech processing, video processing, and nonlinear signal processing systems. He is coauthor of three widely used textbooks on digital signal processing. Dr. Schafer is a Fellow of the IEEE and the Acoustical Society of America, and he is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. In 1992 he received the IEEE Education Medal. RICHARD SCHWARTZ is a Principal Scientist at Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (BBN), Cambridge, Massachusetts. He joined BBN in 1972 after receiving an S.B. in electrical engineering from MIT. Since then, he has worked on phonetic recognition and synthesis, narrowband speech coding, speech enhancement in noise, speaker identification and verification, speech recognition and understanding, neural networks, and statistical message processing. He is currently the lead scientist on the ARPA project on spoken language systems. CHRIS SEELBACH has provided management direction and consulting for the development of voice processing systems, services, and markets since 1982. He was President of Verbex and founded Voice Systems to commercialize voice processing systems. He has provided consulting and research services on international voice processing market and product development. Mr. Seelbach is currently Executive Vice President and COO of Viatel, the leading international value-added telephone light carrier. At Viatel, Mr. Seelbach is leading the introduction of the latest voice processing services to Viatel's global customers. He has a B.S. from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.B.A. from Columbia University. YOSHITAKE SUZUKI received the B.E. and M.E. degrees in electrical engineering from Waseda University, Japan, in 1979 and 1981, respectively. After joining NTT Electrical Communication Laboratories in 1981, he worked on designing speech recognition systems. He was a visiting scholar at the University of Washington in 1988, where his study included designing digital architectures for artificial neural networks. Mr. Suzuki is currently a senior research engineer at NTT Human Interface Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan. He is also a member of the IEEE and the Acoustical Society of Japan. CLIFFORD WEINSTEIN is Group Leader of the Speech Systems Technology Group at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. He received the S.B., S.M.,
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Page 523 and Ph.D. degrees from MIT and has been with Lincoln Laboratory since 1967. He has made technical contributions and has been responsible for initiation and leadership of research programs in speech recognition, speech coding, speech enhancement, packet speech communications, integrated voice/data communication networks, finite-word-length effects in digital signal processing, and radar signal processing. Since 1986, Dr. Weinstein has been the U.S. Technical Specialist on the NATO RSG10 Speech Research Group. Since 1989, he has been Chairman of the Coordinating Committee for the ARPA Spoken Language Systems Program, which is the major U.S. research program in speech recognition and understanding. Dr. Weinstein was elected a Fellow of the IEEE in 1993. Also in 1993, he was elected to the Board of Governors of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. From 1991 to 1993, he was Chairman of the Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Speech Processing, and from 1976 to 1978 he was Chairman of that society's Technical Committee on Digital Signal Processing. JAY G. WILPON is a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff in the Speech Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Since joining AT&T in June 1977, Mr. Wilpon has concentrated on problems in automatic speech recognition. He has published extensively in this field and has been awarded several patents. His current interests lie in keyword spotting techniques, speech recognition training procedures, and determining the viability of implementing speech recognition systems for general usage over the telephone network. Mr. Wilpon holds the B.S. in Mathematics, the A.B. degree in Economics, both from Lafayette College, and the M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering/Computer Science from Stevens Institute of Technology. In 1987 Mr. Wilpon received the IEEE Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing Society's Paper Award for his work on clustering algorithms for use in training automatic speech recognition systems. Mr. Wilpon is Chairman of the IEEE Digital Signal Processing Society's Speech Committee.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: