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APPENDIX C Glossary Administrators Persons who provide academic or operational leadership beyond the class- room in any educational institution from kindergarten to grade 12 and at colleges and universities. Curriculum A set of experiences designed to help students to learn a body of concepts and supporting skills and knowledge; usually includes consideration of learners' experiences and understanding, current level of awareness, and factors likely to enhance their learning. Emphasis depends on context. In the context of a school district or set of districts, such as a state, curricu- lum can be the body of learning that the schools provide for students. The conceptual framework and program themes are identified using suggestions for connecting the curriculum at various grade levels and in various subject contexts. In the context of a teacher in an individual classroom, curriculum refers to specific concepts to be taught. In addition to concepts to be learned, the class- room curriculum will offer specific experiences to illustrate these concepts, op- portunities for data collection to verify them, student-assessment materials and activities, and suggested experiences to augment conceptual understanding. A complete curriculum guide includes resource lists of laboratory and instructional technology, materials, and local field trips. 185
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186 Educator PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS A person involved in assisting others to learn at any level of the educational system. Science educators are persons whose educational endeavors are concen- trated on the teaching of the natural sciences. Teacher educators are persons who assist college and university students in academic or pedagogic preparation for a career in teaching. Individual-Based Programs Professional-development programs whose first goal is to enhance the abili- ties of individual teachers. In contrast, the goal of systemic programs (defined in Chapter 6) is to extend exemplary teaching and learning to larger groups, such as a department, a school, a school system, a district, a state, or an entire educational system. Pedagogy Includes the complexities of educational theories and teaching strategies that facilitate the process of communicating subject matter, concepts, and skills from teacher to student through learning experiences. Professional Development Term chosen by the committee to encompass the commonly used terms inservice, staff development, and teacher enhancement. Refers to the broad range of teacher involvement in out-of-school activities that are designed for profes- sional growth. Includes the continuing process of professional development of teachers and long-term commitment on the part of scientists and teachers. Science Supervisor An employee of a school district or regional or state education agency who coordinates professional development or curriculum development and imple- mentation activities for science teachers. Scientist A scientist is anyone whose higher education was concentrated in the natural sciences, usually including preparation and experience in research. A research scientist is one who is specifically actively engaged in research.
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GLOSSARY Systemwide or Systemic Reform 187 Reform activities that involve all stakeholders in improving education sys- tems (students, teachers, administrators, community members, and parent). The goal of systemwide reform is to target the entire system, rather than individual aspects of schooling. Issues can include teaching and learning; the culture of schools; professional development, curricular structure, assessments, and articu- lation between K-12 schools and universities; partnerships with other institu- tions; boards of education; and reward structures for faculty. Teacher-Education Professor (Science) University faculty members whose graduate work focused on the study of teaching and learning to prepare upper-division undergraduates or graduate stu- dents for teaching positions. Courses on such topics as curriculum and instruc- tion (also known as science methods) are usually taught by a professor who holds a baccalaureate or master's degree in science and has public-school science- teaching experience. A science-teacher educator might also supervise science student teachers. Teacher Preparation Prospective teachers' formal course work and teaching practice before certi- fication or employment in teaching at the undergraduate or graduate level. (Also called preservice.) Teachers In this document, the term teacher refers specifically to persons who teach students in K-12. K-6 Teachers of Science teach all subjects to about 20-40 students in a self- contained classroom. K-6 Science Specialists are elementary teachers with extra background in science who teach science to elementary students. They might work in regular classrooms or have specially equipped laboratories. Middle- and ,Iunior-High-School Science Teachers usually teach science only to 12- to 14-year-olds in a departmentalized school setting. High-School Science Teachers might teach classes in one or more of the sciences such as biology, chemistry and physics and possibly in general sci ence.
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188 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS Two- to Four-Year College/University Science Instructors/Professors Persons who teach science, usually in courses defined by a specialty, such as biology, botany, or zoology. Might also teach science to students in general education and conscience majors, including prospective elementary teachers. Depending on the state and college/university systems, can work as professors at colleges or universities who teach science to prospective elementary and second- ary teachers, as community-college instructors who teach science to conscience majors and core courses for science majors, or as science professors at colleges or universities who teach graduate or upper-division undergraduate courses for sci- ence mayors.