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Appendix A List of Principal Briefings November 20-22, 1992: Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) Meeting, Irvine, California Department of Energy (DOE) Plutonium Disposition Studies and Activities; Plutonium Storage Plans; Reactor Options; Vitrification Options; Nunn-Lugar Cooperation Programs. Briefers: Sol Rosen (DOE, Office of Nuclear Energy); John Herczeg (DOE, Office of Nuclear Energy); Andrew Bieniawski (DOE, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); William Sprecher (DOE, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management); others. January 11-13, 1993: CISAC and Reactor Panel Meeting, Washington D.C. Vitrification Options; Plutonium Storage Approaches; Plutonium Storage Forms; Nunn-Lugar Cooperation Programs; International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards; International Plutonium Storage Concepts; DOE Pluto- nium Disposition Studies; Advanced Light-Water Reactors; Accelerator-Based Conversion; Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactors. Briefers: George Wicks (Westinghouse Savannah River); Ed Moore (Westinghouse Savannah River); Paul Cunningham (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Victor Alessi (Director, DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); James Lovett, International Atomic Energy Agency (retired); Lawrence Scheinman (Cornell University); Sol Rosen (DOE, Office of Nuclear Energy); Melvin Buckner (Westinghouse Savannah River); Rulon Linford (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Edward Arthur (Los Alamos National Labora 231

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232 APPENDIX A tory); Chris Hamilton (General Atomics); William Hannum (Argonne National Laboratory); Marion Thompson (General Electric); others. January 25, 1993: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL3 Utility of Reactor-Grade Plutonium in Nuclear Explosives; Separating Plu- tonium from Spent Fuel; Radiation Exposure from Plutonium Handling; De- tection of Nuclear Weapons; Reports of Illicit Sales of Fissile Material. Briefers: William Sutcliffe; Lou Eccles; Carl Walter; Harry Vantine; Leonard Gray; Melvin Coops; Guy Armantrout; Bill Nelson; Jack Robbins; Tom Smith; John Sherohman; others. All briefers LLNL. February 17, 1993: CISAC Meeting, Victor Mikhailov Current Russian Policy on Weapons Dismantlement, Plutonium Storage, and Plutonium Disposition. Discussant: Victor Mikhailov, Minister of Atomic Energy, Russian Federation. March 17, 1993: DOE Headquarters, Washington D.C. Plutonium Storage Forms; Potential Transparency Measures for Warhead Dismantlement, Fissile Material Production, and the HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Purchase; Intelligence Collection for Detecting Fissile Materials Production; Estimates of Russian Fissile Materials Production. Briefers: John Wacker (Pacific Northwest Laboratories); Andrew Bieniawski (DOE, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); Max Koontz (DOE, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); James Dewar (DOE, Office of Foreign Intelligence); David Dye (LLNL); others. March 31-April 1, 1993: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Storage Forms; Pit Disassembly and Processing; Russian Fissile Material Storage Facility; Accelerator-Based Conversion; Tour of Plutonium Processing Facilities. Briefers: Paul Cunningham (LANL); Kirk Ellard (LANL); Rulon Linford (LANL); Steve Guidice (Manager for Operations and Weapons, DOE Albuquerque Operations Office); Delbert Harbur (LANL); others. April 1,1993: Savannah River Site Plutonium Processing and Storage; Vitrification Options; Tour of Pluto- nium Storage, Processing, and Reprocessing Facilities; Tour of Defense Waste Processing Facility. Briefers: James Angelos; Malvyn McKibben; Vern Fernandez; Hank Elder; others. All briefers Westinghouse Savannah River.

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APPENDIX A 233 April 5, 1993: Pantex Plant Weapons Disassembly; Plutonium Storage; Future Plans; Tours of Disas- sembly and Storage Areas Briefers: Gerald W. Johnson (Acting Area Manager, DOE, Amarillo); Steve Guidice (DOE, Albuquerque Operations Officer; Richard Loghry (General Manager, Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason). April 22, 1993: CISAC Meeting, Washington, D.C. Criteria for Plutonium Disposition; Option of Substituting Weapons Plutonium in Planned Civilian Plutonium Programs. Briefers: Thomas Cochran; Christopher Paine. Both briefers Natural Resources Defense Council. May 17-21,1993: Moscow (Listed by organization, not topic; a variety of topics was discussed at each meeting.) Ministry of Atomic Energy: Deputy Minister Nikolai Yegorov; Mikhail Ryzhov (Chairman, Committee on External Relations); Boris Gorobets (Director, Chief Administration of Nuclear Warhead Production (includes as- sembly and disassembly; Georgi Tsyrkov (Director, Chief Administration of Nuclear Warhead Design and Testing); Victor M. Murogov (Director, Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power Engineering); Evgeniy G. Kudriavtsev (Research and Production Nuclear-Chemical Administration (enrichment and reprocess- ing)~; Fedor G. Reshetnikov (Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials); others. Ministry of Defense: General Sergei Zelentsov (retired, former commander, 12th Main Directorate (in charge of nuclear weapons)~; Colonel- General Vitali Yakovlev (Deputy Commander, 12th Main Directorate). Ministry of Foreign Afirairs: Deputy Minister Grigoriy Berdennikov; Victor Slipchenko (Deputy Director, Disarmament and Military Technologies Control); Sergei Kisliak; Victor Mizin. GOSATOMNADZOR: Chairman Yuri Vishnevsky; First Deputy Alexander Gutzalov; Deputy Chairman Yuri Zoubkov; Alexander Dmitriev (Director, Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Fuel Cycle Installations); Nikolai Bisovka (Director, Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Defense Installations); Vadim Petrov (Director, Scientific Committee); Vladimir Formichev (Director, Nuclear Weapons Department); Yuri Rogozhin (Director, International Relations); others. Russian Academy of Sciences: President Yuri Osipov; Vice President Nikolay P. Laverov; Vice President Rem V. Petrov; Academician Yuri Ossipian; others.

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234 APPENDIX A Supreme Soviet: Lieutenant-General (retired) Alexander I. Voronin (member, Committee on State Defense and Security); Anatoli D. Novikov (committee staff); Vadim G. Osinin (committee staff). Kurchatov Institute: Director Evgeniy P. Velikhov; Deputy Director Nikolai N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi; Vladimir N. Sukhoruchkin; Vladimir Shmelev; Alexander Kalugin; others. Nuclear Safety Institute: Director Leonid A. Bolshov; Deputy Director (International Relations) Vjatcheslav N. Lyssakov; others. Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET>: Deputy Director Victor V. Orlov; others. others. Institute of USA and Canada Studies: Deputy Director Sergei Rogov; Association for Nonproliferation: Director Andrei V. Zagorski; Deputy Director Vladimir Shmelev. U.S. Embassy: Science Counselor Robert Clarke; Karen Malzahn. International Science and Technology Center: Director Glenn Schweitzer; Vladimir Kryuchenkov (Department Leader, Experimental Physics, Chelyabinsk-70~; others. June 8, 1993: Meeting with Intelligence Community, Washington D.C. Russian Plutonium Production, Stockpiles, and Processing; Status of Accounting and Security for Weapons and Fissile Materials Briefers: Lawrence Gershwin (National Intelligence Officer for Strategic Programs); others. July 2, 1993: DOE Headquarters, Washington D.C. DOE Plutonium Storage Plans. Briefers: Howard Canter (DOE Deputy Assistant Secretary for Weapons Complex Reconfiguration); others. 'July 15,1993: DOE Headquarters, Washington D.C. DOE Plutonium Stockpile, Quantities and Forms. Briefer: Louis R. Willett (DOE, Deputy Director, Office of Weapons and Materials Planning). Committee and panel meetings that did not include briefings, briefings for the Panel on Reactor-Related Options, and additional briefings for individual CISAC members and staff are not included.